• Title, Summary, Keyword: NDF

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Effect of Levels of Total Neutral Detergent Fiber and Forage-derived Neutral Detergent Fiber on Feed Intake and Milk production in Holstein Dairy Cows (홀스타인 착유우에서 중성세제불용섬유소의 수준과 조사료유래 중성세제불용섬유소의 수준이 사료섭취량 및 유생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Do Hyung;Kwon, Chan Ho;Kim, Eun Joong;Kim, Hyun-Jin;Kim, Gyeom-Heon;Kim, Soo-Ki
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.304-312
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of total neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and forage-derived NDF (fNDF) on nutrient intake and milk production in Holstein dairy cows. Thirty-six Holstein dairy cows at weeks 4 to 20 of lactation were included in this study. The cows were arranged in a randomized complete block design and assigned to one of six diets: 1) 38% NDF with 18% fNDF (HN-HF); 2) 38% NDF with 15% fNDF (HN-MF); 3) 38% with 12% fNDF (HN-LF); 4) 34% NDF with 18% fNDF (LN-HF); 5) 34% NDF with 15% fNDF (LN-MF); and 6) 34% with 12% fNDF (LN-LF). The cows were fed a total mixed ration twice daily (07:00 and 18:00 h) and given ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the experiment. Data on the intake of nutrients (DM, NEl, CP, NDF, fNDF, NFC), milk yield, composition, fat-corrected milk (FCM), fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM), and energy corrected milk (ECM) were analyzed. Lower dietary concentrations of total NDF or fNDF resulted in an increase in DM, NEl, and NFC intake (p<0.01), milk yield (p<0.05) and a lower milk fat concentration (p<0.01). The LN treatment showed no significant differences in milk fat concentration compared to the HN however, further reduction in fNDF decreased milk fat content (p<0.01). The lowest level of milk fat was observed in the LN-LF diet group. Changes in the dietary concentrations of NDF or fNDF did not affect the concentrations of milk protein or SNF (solid not fat), although the yield of milk protein and SNF increased with higher milk yield (p<0.01). The level of fNDF influenced the level of FCM (p=0.07), as well as FPCM and ECM yield (p<0.05). A highly positive correlation between fNDF intake and milk fat concentration was observed in animals with low NDF compared to those offered high NDF. A strong correlation was also observed between milk yield and low NDF intake compared to high NDF intake.

Effects of Neutral Detergent Fiber Concentration and Particle Size of the Diet on Chewing Activities of Dairy Cows

  • Moon, Y.H.;Lee, S.C.;Lee, Sung S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.1535-1540
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    • 2004
  • Six dry Holstein cows were used to evaluate the effect of dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration and particle size (PS) on chewing activity. Treatments were arranged in a 3$\times$3 factorial design; total mixed rations contained three NDF concentrations (26, 32, 38%) and three PS (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 cm). NDF levels and particle sizes of diets were adjusted by formulating rate and cutting length of alfalfa hay and rice straw. Cows were fed twice daily at 90% of ad libitum feed intake throughout the experiment. Chewing activity was positively associated with NDF concentration, but not significantly affected by PS of diet. Eating time per unit of NDF intake was affected by PS rather than NDF concentration of diet. Time spent ruminating per unit DM or NDF intake increased with increasing NDF concentration of diet, but was not affected by PS. As the PS of diet increased, the eating time per day increased, but the rumination time decreased. In addition, as the number of rumination bolues decreased the rumination duration increased as well as the chews per bolus. The regression equation induced from relationships of NDF concentrations (NDF, %) and particle sizes (PS, cm) of diet on roughage value index (RVI, min of chewing time/kg DMI) was as follows. RVI=-19.672+1.44$\times$NDF+5.196$\times$PS, ($R^{2}$=0.81).

Binding of Iron and Zinc by Vegetable Fiber (식이섬유의 무기질 결합력에 관한 연구)

  • 계수경
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.230-238
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    • 1995
  • Iron and zinc were bound by neutral detergent fiber (NDF) obtained from 15 kinds of vegetables being consumed commonly in Korea. Binding capacity of Fe and Zn of NDF ranged from 37.8% to 85.5% and from 81% to 25.5%, respectively showing higher binding capacity of Fe to NDF than of Zn. Both Fe and Zn binding capacity of NDF increased as pH increased and reached to a maximum at pH 7 In all vegetables. The amount of mineral (Fe and Zn) bound to NDF increased as mineral concentration Increased.

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The Improvement of NDF(No Defect Found) on Mobile Device Using Datamining (데이터 마이닝 기법을 활용한 Mobile Device NDF(No Defect Found) 개선)

  • Lee, Jewang;Han, Chang Hee
    • Journal of the Society of Korea Industrial and Systems Engineering
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.60-70
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    • 2021
  • Recently, with the development of technologies for the fourth industrial revolution, convergence and complex technology are being applied to aircraft, electronic home appliances and mobile devices, and the number of parts used is increasing. Increasing the number of parts and the application of convergence technologies such as HW (hardware) and SW (software) are increasing the No Defect Found (NDF) phenomenon in which the defect is not reproduced or the cause of the defect cannot be identified in the subsequent investigation systems after the discovery of the defect in the product. The NDF phenomenon is a major problem when dealing with complex technical systems, and its consequences may be manifested in decreased safety and dependability and increased life cycle costs. Until now, NDF-related prior studies have been mainly focused on the NDF cost estimation, the cause and impact analysis of NDF in qualitative terms. And there have been no specific methodologies or examples of a working-level perspective to reduce NDF. The purpose of this study is to present a practical methodology for reducing NDF phenomena through data mining methods using quantitative data accumulated in the enterprise. In this study, we performed a cluster analysis using market defects and design-related variables of mobile devices. And then, by analyzing the characteristics of groups with high NDF ratios, we presented improvement directions in terms of design and after service policies. This is significant in solving NDF problems from a practical perspective in the company.

Effects on Chemical Compositions and Digestibilities of the Bulking Agents as a Moisture Control and fermentation Methods of food Waste (음식찌꺼기의 발효사료화시 수분조절제와 발효방법이 화학적 조성분 및 소화율에 미치는 영향)

  • Bae, Dong-Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.100-110
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    • 2000
  • Studies were conducted to know effects of the bulking agents (saw dusts, mushroom waste, wheat bran coconut meal, rice hulls) adding o moisture control, fermentation methods (aerobic and anaerobic) and periods (1 to 20 days) of food waste fermentation for animal feeds on chemical compositions and in vitro DDM (digestibility of dry matter). Experiment designs were focussed basically to obtain extension service data. The NDF (neutral detergent fiber) composition in the oak and pine saw dust were 93.5% and 95.4% (DM basis) in respectively. Thus, the fermented food waste feeds using saw dust (50%) increased NDF(12%), and decreased in vitro DDM(48%) compared to those of raw materials before aerobic fermentation. The oak saw dust showed higher DDM compared to pine. Mushroom wastes which is a residues of mushroom culture mixed originally willow saw dust (80%) and wheat bran (20%) showed quite higher feed value compared to both saw dusts. It was found that an in vitro DDM and NDF composition in fermented feeds appeared highly dependent or the NDF composition in bulking agents. With an increase wheat bran ratio substitute mushroom waste showed linearly decreased NDF, and increased in vitro DDM in the fermented food waste feeds. The fermented feeds added bottling agents composed higher NDF resulted in higher NDF and lower in vitro DDM with prolonged fermentation time. The feeds from anaerobic fermentation appeared lower NDF and higher in vitro DDM compared to those of aerobic fermentation.

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Effects of Roughage Neutral Detergent Fiber on Dairy Performance under Tropical Conditions

  • Kanjanapruthipong, J.;Buatong, N.;Buaphan, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.1400-1404
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    • 2001
  • $Holstein\;{\times}\;indigenous$ multiparous dairy cows were offered diets with increasing roughage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents to determine the effects on intake, milk yield and compositions. Roughage NDF contents were 15, 18, 21 and 24% dry matter (DM), and concentrate NDF content was 10% DM. Experimental treatments were isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. Maximum and minimum temperature humidity index during the experimental period were 85.9 and 76, respectively. Intakes of DM, crude protein and net energy, 4% fat corrected milk, milk protein and average daily gain decreased with increasing roughage NDF contents (p<0.05). Intakes of ether extract (p<0.01) and dietary NDF (p>0.05) and milk fat (p<0.01) increased with increasing roughage NDF contents. The results support the conclusion that higher DM intake, optimal milk yield and compositions can be maintained with lower roughage NDF diets for dairy cows under tropical conditions.

A Study on the Development of a Quantitative Analytical Method of Chicken Dietary Fiber (닭사료의 섬유소 정량분석방법 개발에 관한 연구)

  • 남기홍;성창환
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.73-82
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    • 1994
  • A study was conducted to develop a new analytical method to quantitate chicken dietary fiber (CDF). Four types of grain diets and 2 types of forages were used. Three broiler chicks at eight weeks of age were used in the Latin square design to estirnate the in vivo digestibility. Six quantitative analytical methods (Southgate method, total dietary fiber or TDF, acid detergent fiber or ADF, neutral detergent fiber or NDF, crude fiber or CF) including CDF were compared in this study. ADF, NDF and CF contained the lowest amount of the unavailable carbohydrate(UC). The value of TDF was higher than the values of ADF, NDF and CF and lower than CDF and the Southgate method. The value of NDF showed the lower values than the CDF, Southgate fiber and TDF. The recovery rate of the fiber in the feces was high in the TDF, ADF, NDF and CF, while CDF and Southgate fiber showed lower recovery rates. TDF, NDF, ADF, or CF can replace chromium in the digestibility test, while the CDF and Southgate fiber can not replace chrorniurn. The digestibility of TDF, NDF, ADF and CF in the chicken showed negative values or values close to zero depending on the types of feed but the digestibility of CDF and Southgate fiber showed relatively high positive values.

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Effects of Feeding System and NDF Level on Blood Metabolism of Growing Cows (사양체계 및 NDF 급여 수준이 번식용 육성우의 혈중 대사물질 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Byung Ki;Ahn, Jun Sang;Woo, Jong Min;Kim, Min Ji;Son, Gi Hwal;Cho, Sang Rae;Kim, Byong Wan;Kwon, Eung Gi;Shin, Jong Suh
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.291-297
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding system and NDF levels of TMR on blood metabolites in Holstein heifers. Fifty heifers were assigned to one of five treatments according to feed type and level of NDF: TMR (total mixed ration), CON (concentration + mixed forage), T1 (${\geq}53%$ NDF), T2 (50~53% NDF), and T3 (${\leq}50%$ NDF). Although GLU concentrate was not effected by feed type, increased significantly as the level of NDF decreased. There was no effect on concentrate of blood metabolite related with protein. As the level of NDF decreased, the blood ALB concentration was increased (p<0.05). The concentration of blood CHOL was higher in CON than those of TMR (p<0.05), and increased as the level of NDF decreased. The concentration of blood lipid was higher in CON than those of TMR and increased at lower level of NDF. The concentration of blood ALT were significantly lower in T3 than T1 and T2 (p<0.05). Thus, the results of this study suggest that the feeding system and NDF level may affect the blood metabolite concentration; however, the feed intake and other nutrient levels should also be considered.

Altering undigested neutral detergent fiber through additives applied in corn, whole barley crop, and alfalfa silages, and its effect on performance of lactating Holstein dairy cows

  • Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen;Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh;Vakili, Ali Reza;Naserian, Abbas Ali;Khafipour, Ehsan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.375-386
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    • 2019
  • Objective: We hypothesized that silage additives may alter the undigested neutral detergent fiber (uNDF) content through ensiling. Therefore, urea and formic acid were applied to corn, whole barley crop (WBC) and alfalfa to change uNDF content of the ensiled forages. Methods: Six experimental diets at two groups of high uNDF (untreated corn and alfalfa silages [CSAS] and untreated whole barley and alfalfa silages [BSAS]) and low uNDF (urea-treated corn silage+untreated alfalfa silage [$CS_UAS$], urea-treated whole barley silage+untreated alfalfa silage [$BS_UAS$], untreated corn silage+formic acid-treated alfalfa silage [$CSAS_F$], and untreated whole barley silage+formic acid-treated alfalfa silage [$BSAS_F$]), were allocated to thirty-six multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows. Results: The untreated silages were higher in uNDF than additive treated silages, but the uNDF concentrations among silages were variable (corn silage0.05). Milk yield tended to increase in the cows fed high uNDF diets than those fed low uNDF (p = 0.10). The cows fed diet based on urea-treated corn silage had higher milk yield than those fed other silages (p = 0.05). The substitution of corn silage with the WBC silage tended to decrease milk production (p = 0.07). Changing the physical source of NDF supply and the uNDF content from the corn silage to the WBC silage caused a significant increase in ruminal $NH_3-N$ concentration, milk urea-N and fat yield (p<0.05). The cows fed diets based on WBC silage experienced greater rumination time than the cows fed corn silage (p<0.05). Conclusion: Administering additives to silages to reduce uNDF may improve the performance of Holstein dairy cows.

Distributed Space-Time Coded Non-Orthogonal DF Protocols with Source Antenna Switching

  • Jin, Xianglan;Yang, Jae-Dong;No, Jong-Seon;Shin, Dong-Joon
    • Journal of Communications and Networks
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.492-498
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    • 2010
  • In this paper, a new distributed space-time coded (DS-TCed) non-orthogonal decode-and-forward (NDF) protocol with source antenna switching (SAS) is proposed, where two antennas associated with each radio frequency chain can be alternatively used in the first and second phases. Several DSTC schemes for the NDF with SAS (NDF-SAS) protocol are proposed and their average pairwise error probability for the error-free source-relay (SR) channel is also derived. The simulation results show that the NDF-SAS protocol achieves larger diversity order than the NDF protocol under the error-free and erroneous SR channels.