Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
The poem 'Kyungjusipiyung(慶州十二詠)' written by Seo, Geo-jeong(徐居正) describes sentiments felt for the ruined historical and cultural landscape of Silla's capital city, Kyungju. It differs from the existing 'Eight Sceneries(八景)' as it conveys the strong metaphorical aesthetics of ruins as the episodes and figures are sung, as well as the myths and stories related to the representative holy places of the Silla culture: Gyelim(鷄林), Banwolseong(半月城), Najeong(蘿井), Oneung(五陵), Geumosan(金鰲山), the scenic beauty of deep placeness, Poseokjeong(鮑石亭), Mooncheon(蚊川), Cheomseongdae(瞻星臺), Boonhwangsa(芬皇寺), Youngmyosa(靈妙寺) and Grave of the General Kim Yu-Sin(金庾信墓). Compared with the former "Eight Sceneries" Poems, including Seo Geojeong's 'Kyungjusipiyung', there is a difference in the content of theme recitation, as well as in structure and form, especially with the deep impression of the classical features of the meanings and acts. The sequence of theme recitation seems to be composed of more than two visual corridors visited during trips that last longer than two days. The dominant emotions expresses in this poem, through written in the spring, are regret and sadness such as 'worn', 'broken and ruined', 'old and sad', without touching on the beauty of nature and the taste for life that is found in most of the Eight Sceneries Poems. Thus, the feelings of the reciter himself, Seo, Geo-jeong, about the described sceneries and their symbolism are more greatly emphasized than the beauty of form. The characteristic aspect of his experiences of ruins expressed from 'Kyungjusipiyung' is that the experiences were, first of all, qualitative of the aura conveyed; that is, the quality omnipresent throughout the culture of Silla as reflected in the twelve historical and cultural landscapes. In this poem, the cultural ruins of the invisible dimension such as the myths and legends are described by repetition, parallelism, juxtaposition, reflection and admiration from the antiphrases, as well as the civilized ruins of the visible dimension such as the various sceneries and features of Kyungju. This seems to be characteristic of the methods by which Seo, Geo-jeong appreciates 'Silla' in the poem 'Kyungjusipiyung'. Ruins as an Aesthetic Object imply the noble pride of Seo, Geo-jeong in identifying himself with the great nature of ruins. In 'Kyungjusipiyung', the images of the ruins of Silla and Kyungju are interspersed in spite of his positive recognition of 'the village of Kyungju' based on his records. However, though the concept of ruins has a pessimistic tone connoting the road of extinction and downfall, the aspect here seems to ambivalently contain the desire to recover and revive Kyungju through the Chosun Dynasty as adominant influence on the earlier Chosun's literary tide. The aesthetics of the scenery found in Seo, Geo-jeong's 'Kyungjusipiyung' contain the strongest of metaphor and symbolism by converting the experiences of the paradoxical ruins into the value of reflective experiences.
This study observed what roles and identity the Taoist Hermits have when they appear in Korean Verse, SiJo, which was preoccupied by the illustrious-officials in Choseon Dynasty. This study has found that languages of Taoist Hermit frequently appear in SiJo, through the historical study documents focusing on only the mountain wizards in terma of the genre, SiJo. Of those terms used by Taoist Hermit, most prominent was 'JeokSongJa', which was expressed as that sought by the illustrious-officials-they were using the sentence, 'I will follow JeokSongJa' to the extent that it is an idiom. This suggests that the illustrious officials in ChoSeon Dynasty meant if one was going to be entitled to become a Taoist Hermit, he should seek 'JeokSongJa' first. We can see those illustrious officials were using the words with a ideological tone, affected by then 'JangRyang' or 'BeomRyo' who were devoting themselves to finding 'JeokSongJa' with a belief that they could become a Taoist Hermit and live forever, which had been handed down as a legend or a myth. Meanwhile, Li Po is a profile who can not considered, separately in the history of Korean Literature. Li Po recited poems, as a great poet and a hard drinker, who were incited in SiJo of those illustrious officials as a intimate person. In contrast, among those who were accepted as a negative profile, were a Chinese Emperor JinSi and HanMuje. These two emperors, who were looking for a herb of eternal youth and Mt. BongRae, figures who had lost their positions in the real political circle. In addition, they couldn't make their dreams to get perennial youth and long life come true, which stimulated the illustrious officials of that time to recite those poems indicating there is no ideal Utopia so it's better be satisfied with the reality living up to the realistic idea of Confucianism. In this sense, those two emperors are negative. There are also women Taoist Hermits present in SiJo, including MaGo nymphs, SeoWangMo, MuSanShinNyo, and Hang-A. MaGo nymphs were grandmothers who superintend the longevity, often incited as a beautiful woman; SeoWangMo was a Toast Hermit who had an elixir of life; MuSanShinNyo is a beautiful woman who was representing the attachment of cloud friendship; and Hang-A is expressed as a goddess who betrayed her husband and as a result staying lonely in the moon palace. These women goddesses were characterized by their beautiful appearances, generous and delicate personalities. widely incited in romantic poems.
This study is the text discourse of agenda setting through media policy on the three communities. The materials of subjects are the 71 text discourses that appeared in the columns, the special manuscripts, and the comments on the contemporary topics in 33 media. The subjects focuses on the metaphor, metonymy, and binary transposition. This kind of connotation tends to be imploded into people through media, so that it produces hyperreality. This process produces the regulation and strengthens the reality through the circuit of culture. Thus this research tries to develop the theoretical foundation for analysing the text discourse produced by the media. Also it focuses on widening the research scope to study the effects that the circuit of culture provides on the politics, society, and economics. Therefore The first, the objective meanings(denotation)which the referents of the community as T'PALACE, I'PARK, and STARCITY are 'larger scale', 'high and skyscraper', 'the rich people and the plutocrats who have very high academic career' and ' the residence place for the famous stars and successful CEOs', etc. and the subjective meanings, connotations which the referents of the community are 'The first street' transposes '1%' 'their own space' into the characteristics of the wealth of Gangnam district or Korean wealth', the additional significations which the metaphors such as 'the noble community', 'the sample for the high -level residential space', and 'the greed of 1%'. Conclusion, The significations of the symbols became imploded into the population and circulated along with the cultural streams through the media. The referents are recreated and consumed among the other communities such as the named 'PALACE', 'I'PARK', 'STARCITY' in the other areas. This kind of ideology tends to create the myths such as 'the 1% rich people of Gangnam', 'the first street of Korean wealth', and create the regulation such as 'the compound taxes for the real-estates', 'the policy of reducing the taxes for the rich', 'the policy of reducing the taxes for the 1% of the rich'. Also these regulations make the politicians operate new policies and are being utilized as 'slogan' for the politicians.
The various representations are receiving attention in modern society that has so many contents. Among them, the fantasy shows that you can not see in reality. But the intention of these fantasies is not giving a visual fun. The fantasy show the reality through stories that are not in reality. The fantasy that allows readers to continue to make the suspect between the real and the imagination and that suspect arises from the desire of real life. If the desire break the community, the social ideology will collapses. Conversely, if the desire is overturned by community, the social will be maintained. The goal of the fantasy which has the relationships of society is revealed through the various expressions of existence. They are divided into the subject and the other show the inner side of the main character. The subject shows the inner side of the main character by the transformation, alter ego and the other exists. The other shows the desire of the subject by the transformation, alter ego and the strangers. Disney animation studios select the target audience and the message in relation with the society. They choose the original like the fairy tale, myth and change them to satisfy the middle class. The characters of Disney animation says that messages by the expression of fantasy. The subject go through the transformation by twice. The first transformation is antisocial and the second transformation is social. The second shows a complete transformation. The other characters personified show the many kinds of the main character. The other as the alter ego of the main character represents the desire of the subject. They are described as an object of fear and exclusion. They expresses as a dark and menacing looks and hinders the complete transformation of the subject. But they were overthrown by the subject at the end of the story and it strengthen the social ideology. As a result, Disney highlights the value and the moral message of the society by using the representation of fantasy.
Various opinions have been suggested to explain the slump in equipment investment, such as increased government regulations, shareholder-oriented management by expanded foreign equity investment, response against M&A threats, conservative investment trends seen after a series of bankruptcy of large conglomerates (amidst crumbling myth of "Too Big to Fail"), and financial restructuring. Some also argued that the increased uncertainty in business environment is mainly responsible for conservative management, though there are few domestic studies made regarding the situation. But, in other countries, including the U.S., studies have shown that more volatility is seen now surrounding stock prices, profitability, and sales growth rate reflecting business performance. Also, there are other studies showing such expanded volatility have led to conservative management by businesses. In this regard, this study reviews the volatility conditions of business performance of Korean companies based on profitability, and then attempts to analyze the impact on investment brought on by increased volatility. Each company's profitability volatility used here is from the standard deviation of companies for the past five years. As a profitability indicator, the ROA (= operating profit/total asset) is used. According to the analysis, profitability volatility has remarkably increased from the mid 3% in 1994 to low 5% in 2005. Profitability volatility of the Korean companies has expanded to a great extent since the financial crisis. The crisis might have served to raise the volatility in the macroeconomic conditions. If increased volatility observed during the economic crisis had gradually declined after the crisis, the situation could be interpreted as a temporary phenomenon, not to be too concerned over. But, this was not the case for Korea. The volatility level, after the crisis, has not dropped back to its pre-crisis level. Hence, in the Korea's case, high volatility cannot be explained by the impact of financial crisis. Not only that, the fact that such expansion is seen in every industrial sector indicates that this phenomenon cannot be explained by the composition change of industries alone. An undergoing study shows that with a rapid spread of globalization, industries fiercely competing with China experience more volatility. Such increased volatility tends to contract investment, and since the crisis the impact of volatility on investment has slightly increased. It is noteworthy that this study only includes a part of 'uncertainty' that could be measured statistically. For instance, the profitability volatility indicator used in this study is unable to reflect all the effects that the tacit reduction of protection by the government or regulations might have made. So, the result here also indicates that other 'uncertain' factors not mentioned in this study may have served to contract investment sentiment. It would be impossible for policies to completely remove uncertainties measured by profitability volatility, but at least it is necessary to put effort to reduce the macroeconomic volatility in the future economic management. Stabilized macroeconomic management may not be enough to diminish all volatility that occurs within each company, but it would make a meaningful contribution in encouraging investment.
This study interprets Cheong-gye-cheon restoration as a process of space production during expansion of capitalism, and performs discourse analysis in order to find out that how media discourse has been related to the production of Cheong-gye-cheon space in each period of historical changes. This paper is particularly concentrating on discovering regulation in discourse which connects people's experiences and perception towards certain ways in the relationship between newly producted space and media discourse. This paper construes the period of 1960s as a process which pre-modern bodies and facilities were changed into modern and urban 'daily life' by practicing a space which splitted in a concept of time efficiency. In 1980s, media represented the facilities which had been constructed at the Cheong-gye-cheon space as a 'disqualified facilities for a center of the city'. This is because, tertiary industries were emerged at the 'Gang-nam' in this period which widen the gap of finance between 'Gang-nam' and 'Gang-Buk'. The government wanted to redevelop this space in order to function accumulating capital efficiently. Therefore shop owners nearby Cheong-gye-cheon were forced to move out. The discourse, 'disqualified facilities for a center of the city', implicates this process. The media discourse in the 2000s produced the 'myth' through the 'signifier' such as artificially flowing water, fine scenery, historical but artificial structure and etc.. However, people can experience symbols of the artificial structures which leads people to the luxurious restaurants, coffee shops, and etc.. Naturally, the spectacles produced by media direct people to the homogeneous pattern of consume. This phenomena can be explained as a process which people practice, intentionally or non-intentionally, the capitalistic mode of production which changed from a period of production to a period of consumption.
MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
The dragon is an imaginary animal that appears in the legends and myths of the Orient and the West. While dragons have mostly been portrayed as aggressive and as bad omens in the West, in the Orient, as they symbolize the emperor or have an auspicious meaning, dragons signify a positive meaning. In addition, as the dragon symbolizes the emperor and its type has been diversified considering it as a divine object that controls water, people have tried to express it as a figure. The records related to dragons in the Goryeo dynasty appeared with diverse topics in 'History of Goryeo' and are generally contents related to founding myths, rituals for rain, and Shinii (神異), etc. The founding myth emphasizes the legality of the Goryeo dynasty through the dragon, and this influenced the formation of the dragon's descendants. In addition, the ability to control water, which is a characteristic of the dragon, was symbolized as an earth dragon related to the rainmaking ritual, i.e., wishing for rain during times of drought. Since the dragon was the symbol of the royal family, the use of the dragon by common people was strictly restricted. Furthermore, the association of a bronze dragon mirror with the royal family is hard to be excluded. The type and quantity of bronze double dragon mirrors discovered to have existed during the Goryeo dynasty is great, and the production and the distribution of bronze mirrors with double dragons seem to have been more active compared to other bronze mirrors, as bronze mirrors with double dragons produced during Goryeo and bronze mirrors originating in China were mixed. Therefore, in this article, the characteristics of diverse bronze mirrors from the 10th century to the 14th century in China were examined. It seems that the master craftsmen who produced bronze mirrors with double dragons during the Goryeo dynasty were influenced by Chinese composition patterns when making the mirrors. Because there were many cases where a bronze mirror's country of origin could not easily be determined, in order to identify the differences between bronze double dragon mirrors produced during the Goryeo dynasty and bronze mirrors produced in China, meticulous analysis was required. Thus, to ascertain that Goryeo mirrors were not imitations of bronze mirrors with double dragons originating in China but produced independently, the mirrors were examined using the bronze double dragon mirror type classification system existing in our country. Bronze mirrors with double dragons are classified into three types: Type I, which has the style of the Yao dynasty, includes the greatest proportion; however, despite there being only a small quantity for comparison, Types II and III were selected for the analysis of the bronze mirrors with double dragons made in Goryeo because they have unique composition patterns. As mentioned above, distinguishing bronze mirrors made during Goryeo from bronze mirrors made in China is challenging because Goryeo bronze mirrors were made under the influence of China. Among them, since the manufacturing place of the bronze mirrors with double dragons found at the nine-story stone pagoda in Woljeongsa Temple in Pyeongchang is questionable and the composition pattern of the bronze mirror is hard to find on bronze mirrors with double dragons made in China, the manufacturing place of those bronze mirrors were examined. These bronze mirrors with double dragons were considered as bronze mirrors with double dragons made during the Goryeo dynasty adopting the Yao dynasty style composition pattern as aspects of the composition pattern belonged to Type I, and the detailed combination of patterns is hard to find in mirrors produced in China.
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