• Title/Summary/Keyword: Myanmar

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Making Anyatha (Upper Lander) and Auktha (Lower Lander): Crossing the Introduction of the Colonial Boundary System to British Burma (Myanmar)

  • Oo, Myo
    • SUVANNABHUMI
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.135-164
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    • 2021
  • In Myanmar studies, despite research on the categorization of ethnic nationalities are fairly much, research on the categorization of Myanmar people (ethnic Myanmar) is rarely exposed. People settled down in Central Myanmar had been categorized by regionalism into two groups as Anyatha (Upper Lander) and Auktha (Lower lander). It can be determined that the regionalism of Myanmar people existed and still exists. Previous scholarship in the colonial history of Myanmar has primarily referred to the documents recorded by the colonial officers and historical texts composed by the British authorities and scholars. The Catalogue of the Hluttaw Records is one of the rarest documents recorded in the Myanmar language on the affairs in the borderline drawn by the British after the Second Anglo-Myanmar War (1852-1853). Scrutinizing the Catalogue of the Hluttaw Records, it has been found that the text sheds light on the division of Central Myanmar into two regions in colonial Burma, later known as Lower Myanmar and Myanmar kingdom. These areas were known as Upper Myanmar between 1853 and 1885, and the categorization of the Myanmar king's subject, known as Anyatha (Upper Lander) and British colony citizen later known as Auktha (Lower Lander). This article traces back the relation of introducing the colonial boundary system and the division of Central Myanmar into two regions that allowed the emergence of regionalism among Myanmar people.

A Study on the Interrelationship of Trade, Investment and Economic Growth in Myanmar: Policy Implications from South Korea's Economic Growth

  • Oo, Thunt Htut;Lee, Keon-Hyeong
    • Journal of Korea Trade
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.146-170
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    • 2020
  • Purpose - This paper addresses the concepts of FDI-Trade-Growth nexus in Myanmar's economy and empirically investigates the interrelationships of trade, investment and economic growth to reveal the growth model of Myanmar's economy. Additionally, this paper also addresses the cooperative strategies between Myanmar and South Korea through a case study related to South Korea's economic growth. Design/methodology - Our empirical model considers the interrelationship among FDI, trade, growth, labor force and inflation in Myanmar. This study employs ARDL (Autoregressive Distributed Lag) to conduct an analysis of the FDI-Trade-Growth relationships using the time series data from 1970 to 2016 and a conducted case study of South Korea provided for practical implication on cooperative strategies between Myanmar and Korea. Findings - Export equation was chosen through the diagnostic tests. Our main findings can be summarized as follows: Export in Myanmar is positively influenced by labor force, FDI, capital formation and negatively impacted by import and instable inflation rate in the long run. In the short run, GDP and import positively influence export. The Granger causality test proves that Myanmar is an FDI/labor force-led Growth economy, where FDI and labor force are main drivers of export followed by GDP in Myanmar. The case study of South Korea provided that Korea's tax and credit system for promoting export-led FDI industries and cooperative units for joint ventures between Korea and Myanmar in export-led FDI industries are recommended. Originality/value - No study has yet to be conducted on the interrelationships of macroeconomic factors from the perspectives of FDI-Trade-Growth Nexus in Myanmar under the assumption of labor force and inflation rate as fundamental conditions. The current study also covered a relatively longer period of time series data from 1970 to 2016. This paper also conducts a case study of South Korea's experience in order to evaluate the findings and provide better policy implications.

An Analysis on the Factors Affecting Rice Production Efficiency in Myanmar

  • Tun, YuYu;Kang, Hye-Jung
    • East Asian Economic Review
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.167-188
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this study is to obtain a better understanding of the current rice production condition in Myanmar through efficiency analysis, especially, to examine the impact of farm mechanization on Myanmar rice production efficiency. For representation of efficiency and the determinants, this paper uses both the data envelopment analysis (DEA) and the stochastic frontier approach (SFA) with variable returns to scale on Myanmar rice production. The efficiency of the rice production was estimated and subsequently the determinants factors were investigated based on the estimated efficiency level of these sample farmers. The empirical evidence finds that farm mechanical tools significantly improve the Myanmar rice production efficiency.

Nation-Building in Independent Myanmar: A Comparative Study of a History Textbook and a Civic Textbook

  • Oo, Myo
    • SUVANNABHUMI
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.149-171
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    • 2017
  • This article examines the image of the nation of the Union of Myanmar (Burma) by comparing the history textbook and the civic textbook prescribed in state schools during the period of independence from 1948 to 1958. After the Second World War, the political conditions gave the way for the formation of the Union of Myanmar composed of ethnic nationals in Myanmar. To shape the national identity, the newly-founded independent nation in 1948, introduced textbooks in history and civics for the purpose of nation building. The paper concludes that the history textbook illustrated the golden ages of the Myanmar kingdom by way of national consolidation and portrayed ethnic nationals as homogenous; on the other hand, the civic textbook defined a citizen as one who is born and raised in Myanmar; it also included migrant Asians such as Chinese and South Asians in the fold. The history textbook aspired for the national consolidation of ethnic nationals for the strength and prosperity of the country while the civic textbook required cooperation from both ethnic nationals and migrant Asians for peace and development of the country and the world.

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A Study of Myanmar Seafarers' Impact on National Economy

  • D'agostini, Enrico
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.251-258
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    • 2017
  • Shortage of trained seafarers is an issue, which many ship-owners are facing and, according to recent studies, the shortfall of both officers and rating will worsen in the next few years. The key role of seafarers is of fundamental importance in international trade, as they are the ones responsible for safely manning and operating ships. In developing countries, they also perform a strategic aspect in terms of contribution to GDP, mainly by earning foreign currency and increasing national consumption of goods and services. Myanmar is still considered a developing country with an economy, which has only recently started growing steady. It is also one of the major seafarers supplying nations and the contribution, which seafarers have on the national GDP may be particularly significant in comparison to other countries. This study aims at investigating seafarers' impact towards the Myanmar national economy. The paper describes the status of Myanmar seafarers, and the seafarers' current and forecasted impact towards the Myanmar economy through a regression model. The study concludes with recommendations to make Myanmar seafarers more competitive internationally and increase their economic contribution nationally.

Interactive Spatial Augmented Reality Book on Cultural Heritage of Myanmar

  • Hta, Aye Chan Zay;Lee, Yunli
    • Journal of information and communication convergence engineering
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.69-74
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    • 2020
  • Myanmar, also known as Burma, has a rich cultural heritage, and its historical tourist attractions well known around the world. Therefore, we designed and developed an interactive spatial augmented reality (iSAR) book on the cultural heritage of Myanmar. This iSAR book has total of 18 pages with rich media content including videos, animations, audio, and images featuring the cultural heritage of Myanmar in a digital format. In addition to virtual content, navigational features such as virtual buttons and touch-based hand gestures were implemented using Leap Motion and VVVV. Therefore, the developed iSAR book allows virtual content and navigational features to merge seamlessly into a physical book. Five participants were recruited to evaluate the prototype iSAR book, and interviews were conducted to gather their feedback based on its immersive qualities. Thus, the developed iSAR book on Myanmar effectively shares the cultural heritage of Myanmar, and ultimately allows users to explore and gain more insight into the country.

Morphological and Molecular Characteristics of Clinostomid Metacercariae from Korea and Myanmar

  • Won, Eun Jeong;Lee, Yu Jeong;Kim, Moon-Ju;Chai, Jong-Yil;Na, Byoung-Kuk;Sohn, Woon-Mok
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.58 no.6
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    • pp.635-645
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    • 2020
  • Morphological and molecular characterization of clinostomid metacercariae (CMc) was performed with the specimens collected in fish from Korea and Myanmar. Total 6 batches of clinostomid specimens by the fish species and geographical localities, 5 Korean and 1 Myanmar isolates, were analyzed with morphological (light microscopy and SEM) and molecular methods (the cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene and internal transcribed spacer 1/5.8S rRNA sequence). There were some morphological variations among CMc specimens from Korea. However, some morphometrics, i.e., the size of worm body and each organ, ratio of body length to body width, and morphology of cecal lumens, were considerably different between the specimens from Korea and Myanmar. The surface ultrastructures were somewhat different between the specimens from Korea and Myanmar. The CO1 sequences of 5 Korean specimens ranging 728-736 bp showed 99.6-100% identity with Clinostomum complanatum (GenBank no. KM923964). They also showed 99.9-100% identity with C. complanatum (FJ609420) in the ITS1 sequences ranging 692-698 bp. Meanwhile, the ITS1 sequences of Myanmar specimen showed 99.9% identity with Euclinostomum heterostomum (KY312847). Five sequences from Korean specimens clustered with the C. complanatum genes, but not clustered with Myanmar specimens. Conclusively, it was confirmed that CMc from Korea were morphologically and molecularly identical with C. complanatum and those from Myanmar were E. heterostomum.

The pattern of trade between Myanmar and Korea, China and Japan (미얀마와 한·중·일의 무역패턴 분석)

  • Choi, Young Jun;Li, Jia En
    • International Area Studies Review
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.3-22
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    • 2016
  • This study analyzed the pattern of Myanmar's trade with east asia countries, Korea, China and Japan. By using RCA index and TSI index, the comparative advantage and trade specialization of Myanmar are analyzed. UN COMTRADE data from 2012 to 2014 is analyzed. After the economic sanction against Myanmar was lifted, the volume of trade of Myanmar was increased sharply as well as the trade structure is changed. The volume of trade in primary industry is decreased while the manufactured industry takes more share of trade volume. The comparative advantage of manufactured industries took more steps while those of primary industries lose. In the trade with Korea, China and Japan, Myanmar exports labor intensive products and primary goods. Trade relationship beteen Korea and Myanmar is analyzed to be primary step, while China's and Japan's are going to be advanced. China and Japan are entering to the stage of international value chain system by using abundant labor of Myanmar.

Long-Term Growth Model in Myanmar Based on the Growth Trajectory of Vietnam

  • JEON, Injae;CHO, Yooncheong
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.771-781
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    • 2021
  • The purpose of this study is to identify major drivers of Myanmar's long-term economic growth and draw implications to implement development policies. This study investigated Myanmar, as the country is the most recently opened economy in Southeast Asia. This study conducted simulation analysis based on scenarios by applying World Bank's Long-Term Growth Model, Penn World Table 9.1, and World Development Indicator data. This study makes extensive use of LTGM and the LTGM-TFP extension to improve the validity of models for data calibration. This study confirms the validity of the model with data calibration and specifies scenarios for simulation analyses by setting the growth trajectory of Vietnam due to common geographical, political, and economic conditions. Main findings include that Myanmar's economic growth rate will continue to fall below 3% in 2040 without proper improvement of growth drivers. The results of this study also provide that total factor productivity growth and female labor participation are key factors for Myanmar's long-term economic growth. This study advises policymakers in Myanmar to strengthen human capital, which is crucial for total factor productivity growth in Myanmar's context and directly affects economic growth. Further, labor market policies to promote female labor participation is important to sustain economic growth.

A Study on the Trade Intensity of Garments in Myanmar (미얀마 의류 무역결합도에 관한 연구)

  • Bae, Hong-Kyun;Kang, Shin-Won
    • International Area Studies Review
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.137-161
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    • 2017
  • This paper examines Myanmar's garment industry comparative's competitiveness by selecting Korea and Japan-Myanmar's main target exporting countries for their garment industry-and China and Thailand, the neighboring countries it has continued to have business relationships with since the economic sanctions in selecting the target countries, this study presents a competitive outlook at the Myanmar garment industry's potential for the future by analyzing trade intensity per main garment product. Therefore, Korea should recognize the advantages of Myanmar, compared to other countries with similar competitiveness in the textile industry, and should develop Myanmar textile industry into a future-oriented garment industry through measures such as labor force training, scaling up both industrial relations and safety facilities, and establishing sound labor-management relations.