• Title, Summary, Keyword: Multispectral sensors

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Radiometric Cross Validation of KOMPSAT-3 AEISS (다목적실용위성 3호 AEISS센서의 방사 특성 교차 검증)

  • Shin, Dong-yoon;Choi, Chul-uong;Lee, Sun-gu;Ahn, Ho-yong
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.529-538
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    • 2016
  • This study, multispectral and hyperspectral sensors were utilized to use radiometric cross validation for the purpose of radiometric quality evaluation of a 'KOMPSAT-3'. Images of EO-1 Hyperion and Landsat-8 OLI sensors taken in PICS site were used. 2 sections that have 2 different types of ground coverage respectively were selected as the site of cross validation based on aerial hyperspectral sensor and TOA Reflectance. As a result of comparison between the TOA reflectance figures of KOMPSAT-3, EO-1 Hyperion and CASI-1500, the difference was roughly 4%. It is considered that it satisfies the radiological quality standard when the difference of figure of reflectance in a comparison to the other satellites is found within 5%. The difference in Blue, Green, Red band was approximately 3% as a comparison result of TOA reflectance. However the figure was relatively low in NIR band in a comparison to Landsat-8. It is thought that the relatively low reflectance is because there is a difference of band passes in NIR band of 2 sensors and in a case of KOMPSAT-3 sensor, a section of 940nm, which shows the strong absorption through water vapor, is included in band pass resulting in comparatively low reflectance. To overcome these conditions, more detailed analysis with the application of rescale method as Spectral Bandwidth Adjustment Factor (SBAF) is required.

Application of Multispectral Remotely Sensed Imagery for the Characterization of Complex Coastal Wetland Ecosystems of southern India: A Special Emphasis on Comparing Soft and Hard Classification Methods

  • Shanmugam, Palanisamy;Ahn, Yu-Hwan;Sanjeevi , Shanmugam
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.189-211
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    • 2005
  • This paper makes an effort to compare the recently evolved soft classification method based on Linear Spectral Mixture Modeling (LSMM) with the traditional hard classification methods based on Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis (ISODATA) and Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC) algorithms in order to achieve appropriate results for mapping, monitoring and preserving valuable coastal wetland ecosystems of southern India using Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) 1C/1D LISS-III and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper image data. ISODATA and MLC methods were attempted on these satellite image data to produce maps of 5, 10, 15 and 20 wetland classes for each of three contrast coastal wetland sites, Pitchavaram, Vedaranniyam and Rameswaram. The accuracy of the derived classes was assessed with the simplest descriptive statistic technique called overall accuracy and a discrete multivariate technique called KAPPA accuracy. ISODATA classification resulted in maps with poor accuracy compared to MLC classification that produced maps with improved accuracy. However, there was a systematic decrease in overall accuracy and KAPPA accuracy, when more number of classes was derived from IRS-1C/1D and Landsat-5 TM imagery by ISODATA and MLC. There were two principal factors for the decreased classification accuracy, namely spectral overlapping/confusion and inadequate spatial resolution of the sensors. Compared to the former, the limited instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of these sensors caused occurrence of number of mixture pixels (mixels) in the image and its effect on the classification process was a major problem to deriving accurate wetland cover types, in spite of the increasing spatial resolution of new generation Earth Observation Sensors (EOS). In order to improve the classification accuracy, a soft classification method based on Linear Spectral Mixture Modeling (LSMM) was described to calculate the spectral mixture and classify IRS-1C/1D LISS-III and Landsat-5 TM Imagery. This method considered number of reflectance end-members that form the scene spectra, followed by the determination of their nature and finally the decomposition of the spectra into their endmembers. To evaluate the LSMM areal estimates, resulted fractional end-members were compared with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), ground truth data, as well as those estimates derived from the traditional hard classifier (MLC). The findings revealed that NDVI values and vegetation fractions were positively correlated ($r^2$= 0.96, 0.95 and 0.92 for Rameswaram, Vedaranniyam and Pitchavaram respectively) and NDVI and soil fraction values were negatively correlated ($r^2$ =0.53, 0.39 and 0.13), indicating the reliability of the sub-pixel classification. Comparing with ground truth data, the precision of LSMM for deriving moisture fraction was 92% and 96% for soil fraction. The LSMM in general would seem well suited to locating small wetland habitats which occurred as sub-pixel inclusions, and to representing continuous gradations between different habitat types.

Correlation Analysis on the Water Depth and Peak Data Value of Hyperspectral Imagery (초분광 영상의 최대 강도값과 하천 수심의 상관성 분석)

  • Kang, Joongu;Lee, Changhun;Yeo, Hongkoo;Kim, Jongtae
    • Ecology and Resilient Infrastructure
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.171-177
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    • 2019
  • The hyperspectral images can be analyzed in more detail compared to the conventional multispectral images so they can be used for analyzing surface properties which are difficult to detect. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to obtain information on river environment by using actual depth data and drone-based images. For this purpose, this study acquired the image values for 100 points of 1 survey line using drone-based hyperspectral sensors and analyzed the correlation in comparison with the actual depth information obtained through ADCP. The ADCP measurements showed that the depth tended to get deeper toward the center and that the average water depth was 0.81 m. As a result of analyzing the hyperspectral images, the value of maximum intensity was 645 and the value of minimum intensity was 278, and the correlation between the actual depth and the results of analyzing the hyperspectral images showed that the depth increased as the value of maximum intensity decreased.

STANDARIZING THE EXTRATERRESTRIAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE SPECTRUM FOR CAL/VAL OF GEOSTATIONARY OCEAN COLOR IMAGER (GOCI)

  • Shanmugam, Palanisamy;Ahn, Yu-Hwan
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • v.1
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    • pp.86-89
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    • 2006
  • Ocean color remote sensing community currently uses the different solar irradiance spectra covering the visible and near-infrared in the calibration/validation and deriving products of ocean color instruments. These spectra derived from single and / or multiple measurements sets or models have significant discrepancies, primarily due to variation of the solar activity and uncertainties in the measurements from various instruments and their different calibration standards. Thus, it is prudent to examine model-to-model differences and select a standard reference spectrum that can be adopted in the future calibration and validation processes, particularly of the first Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) onboard its Communication Ocean and Meterological Satellite (COMS) planned to be launched in 2008. From an exhaustive survey that reveals a variety of solar spectra in the literature, only eight spectra are considered here seeing as reference in many remote sensing applications. Several criteria are designed to define the reference spectrum: i.e., minimum spectral range of 350-1200nm, based completely or mostly on direct measurements, possible update of data and less errors. A careful analysis of these spectra reveals that the Thuillier 2004 spectrum seems to be very identical compared to other spectra, primarily because it represents very high spectral resolution and the current state of the art in solar irradiance spectra of exceptionally low uncertainty ${\sim}0.1%.$ This study also suggests use of the Gueymard 2004 spectrum as an alternative for applications of multispectral/multipurpose satellite sensors covering the terrestrial regions of interest, where it provides spectral converge beyond 2400nm of the Thuillier 2004 spectrum. Since the solar-activity induced spectral variation is about less than 0.1% and a large portion of this variability occurs particularly in the ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is the region of less interest for the ocean color community, we disregard considering this variability in the analysis of solar irradiance spectra, although determine the solar constant 1366.1 $Wm^{-2}$ to be proposed for an improved approximation of the extraterrestrial solar spectrum in the visible and NIR region.

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Current Status of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing: Principle, Data Processing Techniques, and Applications (초분광 원격탐사의 특성, 처리기법 및 활용 현용)

  • Kim Sun-Hwa;Ma Jung-Rim;Kook Min-Jung;Lee Kyu-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.341-369
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    • 2005
  • Hyperspectral images have emerged as a new and promising remote sensing data that can overcome the limitations of existing optical image data. This study was designed to provide a comprehensive review on definition, data processing methods, and applications of hyperspectral data. Various types of airborne, spaceborne, and field hyperspectral image sensors were surveyed from the available literatures and internet search. To understand the current status of hyperspectral remote sensing technology and research development, we collected several hundreds research papers from international journals (IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, International Journal of Remote Sensing, Remote Sensing of Environment and AVIRIS Workshop Proceedings), and categorized them by sensor types, data processing techniques, and applications. Although several hyperspectral sensors have been developing, AVIRIS has been a primary data source that the most hyperspectral remote sensing researches were relied on. Since hyperspectral data have very large data volume with many spectral bands, several data processing techniques that are particularly oriented to hyperspectral data have been developed. Although atmospheric correction, spectral mixture analysis, and spectral feature extraction are among those processing techniques, they are still in experimental stage and need further refinement until the fully operational adaptation. Geology and mineral exploration were major application in early stage of hyperspectral sensing because of the distinct spectral features of rock and minerals that could be easily observed with hyperspectral data. The applications of hyperspectral sensing have been expanding to vegetation, water resources, and military areas where the multispectral sensing was not very effective to extract necessary information.

Spectral Band Selection for Detecting Fire Blight Disease in Pear Trees by Narrowband Hyperspectral Imagery (초분광 이미지를 이용한 배나무 화상병에 대한 최적 분광 밴드 선정)

  • Kang, Ye-Seong;Park, Jun-Woo;Jang, Si-Hyeong;Song, Hye-Young;Kang, Kyung-Suk;Ryu, Chan-Seok;Kim, Seong-Heon;Jun, Sae-Rom;Kang, Tae-Hwan;Kim, Gul-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.15-33
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    • 2021
  • In this study, the possibility of discriminating Fire blight (FB) infection tested using the hyperspectral imagery. The reflectance of healthy and infected leaves and branches was acquired with 5 nm of full width at high maximum (FWHM) and then it was standardized to 10 nm, 25 nm, 50 nm, and 80 nm of FWHM. The standardized samples were divided into training and test sets at ratios of 7:3, 5:5 and 3:7 to find the optimal bands of FWHM by the decision tree analysis. Classification accuracy was evaluated using overall accuracy (OA) and kappa coefficient (KC). The hyperspectral reflectance of infected leaves and branches was significantly lower than those of healthy green, red-edge (RE) and near infrared (NIR) regions. The bands selected for the first node were generally 750 and 800 nm; these were used to identify the infection of leaves and branches, respectively. The accuracy of the classifier was higher in the 7:3 ratio. Four bands with 50 nm of FWHM (450, 650, 750, and 950 nm) might be reasonable because the difference in the recalculated accuracy between 8 bands with 10 nm of FWHM (440, 580, 640, 660, 680, 710, 730, and 740 nm) and 4 bands was only 1.8% for OA and 4.1% for KC, respectively. Finally, adding two bands (550 nm and 800 nm with 25 nm of FWHM) in four bands with 50 nm of FWHM have been proposed to improve the usability of multispectral image sensors with performing various roles in agriculture as well as detecting FB with other combinations of spectral bands.

Atmospheric Correction Effectiveness Analysis of Reflectance and NDVI Using Multispectral Satellite Image (다중분광위성자료의 대기보정에 따른 반사도 및 식생지수 분석)

  • Ahn, Ho-yong;Na, Sang-il;Park, Chan-won;So, Kyu-ho;Lee, Kyung-do
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.34 no.6_1
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    • pp.981-996
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    • 2018
  • In agriculture, remote sensing data using earth observation satellites have many advantages over other methods in terms of time, space, and efficiency. This study analyzed the changes of reflectance and vegetation index according to atmospheric correction of images before using satellite images in agriculture. Top OF Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance and surface reflectance through atmospheric correction were calculated to compare the reflectance of each band and Normalized Vegetation difference Index (NDVI). As a result, the NDVI observed from field measurement sensors and satellites showed a higher agreement and correlation than the TOA reflectance calculated from surface reflectance using atmospheric correction. Comparing NDVI before and after atmospheric correction for multi-temporal images, NDVI increased after atmospheric corrected in all images. garlic and onion cultivation area and forest where the vegetation health was high area NDVI increased more 0.1. Because the NIR images are included in the water vapor band, atmospheric correction is greatly affected. Therefore, atmospheric correction is a very important process for NDVI time-series analysis in applying image to agricultural field.

Characteristics of Remote Sensors on KOMPSAT-I (다목적 실용위성 1호 탑재 센서의 특성)

  • 조영민;백홍렬
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.1-16
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    • 1996
  • Korea Aerospace Research Institute(KARI) is developing a Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite I(KOMPSAT-I) which accommodates Electro-Optical Camera(EOC), Ocean Color Imager(OCI), Space Physics Sensor(SPS) for cartography, ocean color monitoring, and space environment monitoring respectively. The satellite has the weight of about 500 kg and is operated on the sun synchronized orbit with the altitude of 685km, the orbit period of 98 minutes, and the orbit revisit time of 28days. The satellite will be launched in the third quarter of 1999 and its lifetime is more than 3 years. EOC has cartography mission to provide images for the production of scale maps, including digital elevation models, of Korea from a remote earth view in the KOMPSAT orbit. EOC collects panchromatic imagery with the ground sample distance(GSD) of 6.6m and the swath width of 15km at nadir through the visible spectral band of 510-730 nm. EOC scans the ground track of 800km per orbit by push-broom and body pointed method. OCI mission is worldwide ocean color monitoring for the study of biological oceanography. OCI is a multispectral imager generating 6 color ocean images with and <1km GSD by whisk-broom scanning method. OCI is designed to provide on-orbit spectral band selectability in the spectral range from 400nm to 900nm. The color images are collected through 6 primary spectral bands centered at 443, 490, 510, 555, 670, 865nm or 6 spectral bands selected in the spectral range via ground commands after launch. SPS consists of High Energy Particle Detector(HEPD) and Ionosphere Measurement Sensor(IMS). HEPD has mission to characterize the low altitude high energy particle environment and to study the effects of radiation environment on microelectronics. IMS measures densities and temperature of electrons in the ionosphere and monitors the ionospheric irregularities in KOMPSAT orbit.

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