• Title/Summary/Keyword: Mixed Convection

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Heat Transfer Characteristics of CO2 at Supercritical Pressure in a Vertical Circular Tube (수직원형관에서 초임계압 CO2의 열전달 특성)

  • Yoo, Tae-Ho;Bae, Yoon-Yong;Kim, Hwan-Yeol
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.23-31
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    • 2011
  • At supercritical pressure, the physical properties of fluid change substantially and the heat transfer at a temperature similar to the critical or pseudo-critical temperature improves considerably; however, the heat transfer may deteriorate due to a sudden increase in the wall temperature at a certain condition of a mass and heat flux. In this study, the heat transfer rates in $CO_2$ flowing vertically upward and downward in a circular tube with a diameter of 4.57 mm under various conditions were calculated by measuring the temperature of the outer wall of the tube. The published heat transfer correlations were analyzed by comparing their prediction values with 7,250 experimental data. By introducing a buoyancy parameter, a heat transfer correlation, which could be applied only to a normal heat transfer regime, was extended such that it can be applied to regime of heat transfer deterioration. The published criteria for heat transfer deterioration were evaluated against the conditions obtained from the experiment in this study.

Prediction of Heat-treatment Time of Black Pine Log Damaged by Pine Wilt Disease (소나무재선충병 피해를 받은 곰솔 원목의 열처리 소요시간 예측)

  • Han, Yeonjung;Seo, Yeon-Ok;Jung, Sung-Cheol;Eom, Chang-Deuk
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.370-380
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    • 2016
  • The black pine logs damaged by pine wilt disease in Jeju-do were heat-treated to extend the utilization of domestic trees damaged by pine wilt disease. The heat-treatment of wood requires wood to be heated to $56^{\circ}C$ for 30 min at the core. The average moisture content and top-diameter of the black pine logs were ranged from 46% to 141% and from 180 mm to 500 mm, respectively. And the basic specific gravity and oven-dry specific gravity of the black pine logs were 0.47 and 0.52, respectively. The time required for heat-treatment at $105^{\circ}C$ temperature was ranged from 7.7 h to 44.2 h, depending on moisture content and top-diameter. The temperature distribution was used to predict the time required for heat-treatment of black pine log with various moisture contents and top-diameters using finite difference method. The thermal properties of wood including the thermal conductivity and specific heat in accordance with moisture content were calculated. Heat transfer coefficient for mixed convection in form of adding natural convection and forced convection was used for heat transfer analysis. The error between the measured and predicted values ranged from 3% to 45%. The predicted times required for heat-treatment of black pine log with 50% moisture content and 200 mm, 300 mm, and 400 mm top-diameter were 10.9 h, 18.3 h, and 27.0 h, respectively. If the initial moisture content of black pine log is 75%, heat treatment times of 13.6 h, 22.5 h, and 32.8 h were predicted in accordance with top-diameter. And if the initial moisture content of black pine log is 100%, heat treatment times of 16.2 h, 26.5 h, and 38.2 h were predicted in accordance with top-diameter. When the physical properties of logs damaged by pine wilt disease are presented, these results can be applicable to the heat-treatment of red pine and Korean pine logs as well.