• Title/Summary/Keyword: Milk Replacer

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PLASMA ALLANTOIN CONCENTRATION IN RESPONSE TO CHANGES IN NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CALVES

  • Kagiyama, K.;Funaba, M.;Iriki, T.;Abe, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.165-170
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    • 1996
  • Two experiments were conducted to search factor(s) affecting the plasma allantoin concentration in infant calves. In experiment 1, five male Holstein calves aged 1 week were given only milk replacer free from nucleic acids for 28 days Plasma allantoin concentration varied in a reverse proportion to daily amounts of milk replacer, and the concentration when calves received 750 g/d of milk replacer was significantly lower than that when they received 250 g/d. Contrary to plasma allantoin concentration, glomerular filtration rate(GFR) was directly proportional to daily amounts of milk replacer, leading to a constant filtration of allantoin across the glomeruli. Renal handling of allantion was also unaffected by the amount of milk replacer, resulting in the constant urinary excretion of allantoin. These results suggested that GFR, which was affected by the nutritional status, could affect plasma allantoin concentration. In experiment 2, the effect of age-related changes in nutritional status after weaning on GFR was examined in eight calves weaned at 5 weeks of age. The GFR expressed as body weight basis was lower immediately after weaning, but linearly increased up to the 19th week post-weaning. The present results suggested that the changes in GFR in response to nutritional status would be one of the possible causes of atypical plasma allantoin concentration immediately after weaning. We conclude that plasma allantoin concentration would not be a proper estimator of intestinal flow of microbial protein in cattle.

METABOLIZABLE ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR MAINTENANCE AND GROWTH OF SUCKLING CALVES GIVEN MILK REPLACER

  • Sekine, J.;Oura, R.;Morita, Z.;Morooka, T.;Asahida, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.61-63
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    • 1988
  • A total of 38 energy balance trials were done for calves fed a liquid milk replacer, calf starter and second cut mixed hay. Milk replacer supplied 81% of the total dietary energy. Live weight of calves averaged 54.1 (S.D 6.2) kg and daily gain 0.37 (${\pm}0.23$)kg. The metabolizability of gross energy averaged 0.822. A regression was calculated relating energy retention (ER, $kJ/kg^{0.75}$) to the intake of metabolizable energy (IME, $kJ/kg^{0.75}$): ER = 0.72 (${\pm}0.12$) IME - 330, r = 0.702, P < 0.01, $S.E.{\pm}18.0$. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was calculated to be $458kJ/kg^{0.75}$ when ER = 0. The amount of IME over MEm for an individual animal (Meg, $kJ/kg^{0.75}$) was regressed on averaged daily gain (ADG, kg): Meg = 413 (${\pm}91$) ADG + 0.2, r = 0.650, P < 0.01, $S.E.{\pm}21$. The amount of ME requirement for suckling calves was estimated using values obtained above.

ENDOCRINE CHANGES AND CIRCULATING INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTORS IN NEWBORN CALVES FED COLOSTRUM, MILK OR MILK REPLACER

  • Lee, C.-Y.;Head, H.H.;Feinstein, C.R.;Hayen, J.;Simmen, F.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.51-58
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    • 1995
  • To examine whether colostral growth factors are transferred to the general circulation, concentrations of plasma cortisol, insulin, prolactin, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors(IGFs) -I and -II, IGF-binding proteins(IGFBPs) and total protein were measured in newborn calves fed colostrums, milk of milk replacer before and after feeding at 12 h intervals during the first two days after birth. Plasma protein concentrations increased with time after than in milk- or milk replacer-fed calves. The mean protein concentration was greater in colostrum-fed than in milk- or milk replacer-fed calves. Plasma cortisol levels transiently declined after each feeding regardless of the type of diet, while insulin levels tended to increase. Mean concentrations of these hormones did not differ between dietary groups, nor did they change with time after birth. Plasma concentrations of prolactin and growth hormone did not differ between dietary groups and also did not change with time after birth or after feeding. Concentrations of IGF-I and IGF-II transiently increased at the second feeding period, but these, as well as plasma IGFBP profiles, were not different between groups or before and after feeding. Results did not indicate significant transfer of colostral growth factors across the newborn ruminant small intestine.

The Effect of Complementary Access to Milk Replacer to Piglets on the Activity of Brush Border Enzymes in the Piglet Small Intestine

  • Wang, J.F.;Lundh, T.;Westrom, B.;Lindberg, J.E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.11
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    • pp.1617-1622
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    • 2005
  • The activity of brush border enzymes (sucrase, lactase and maltase) in the piglet small intestine was evaluated as well as piglet performance during the weaning period in the present study. There were two treatment groups: Piglets of six litters were fed dry feed plus milk replacer (Group M) and of six litters fed dry pelleted feed (Group C). One piglet from each litter was sacrificed on day 3 before weaning, and day 3, 10 and 17 postweaning, respectively. Providing milk replacer caused an increased piglet live weight at weaning (p<0.001) and until termination of the experiment (p<0.001). A slightly higher (p<0.16) level of protein was measured in the jejunum of group M piglets as compared with group C piglets. Before weaning the activity of lactase was high in the jejunum of group C piglets. The activity of lactase in the jejunum was lowered in the jejunum of group C piglets and in distal jejunum of group M piglets during the postweaning period as compared with pre-weaning period (p<0.05). Lowered activity of lactase in the distal jejunum of piglets was found at day 10 and 17 postweaning, respectively. No treatment differences were found in the activity of lactase in the piglet jejunum. No treatment differences were seen in the activity of maltase and sucrase in the piglet jejunum also. However, weaning caused a higher activity of sucrase in the distal jejunum of group M piglets as compared with pre-weaning period. In conclusion, providing milk replacer to piglets caused an improved growth performance. Feeding milk replacer did not influence the activity of lactase, maltase and sucrase in the jejunum of piglets. Weaning resulted in a markedly lowered activity of lactase, while no dramatic changes in the activity of maltase took place during the period around weaning.

Effects of Milk Replacer and Ambient Temperature on Growth Performance of 14-Day-Old Early-Weaned Pigs

  • Heo, K.N.;Odle, J.;Oliver, W.;Kim, J.H.;Han, In K.;Jones, E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.908-913
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    • 1999
  • This experiment was conducted in three trials to evaluate optimal ambient temperature for a novel milk replacer feeding system designed for early-weaned pigs, compared to commercial dry diets fed within a conventional hot nursery. A total of 165 PIC genotype pigs were weaned at $13.89{\pm}0.7$ days of age and allotted to one of two dietary treatments in three trials based on weight and litter origin. Each trial consisted of pigs fed dry diets (DD) and pigs fed milk replacer (MR) which was offered in one of 3 different ambient temperatures. Pigs fed milk replacer were housed in a specialized nursery building in which one half of each pen contained an enclosed hover that was thermostatically maintained at $32^{\circ}C$ while the exterior ambient temperature (where milk was fed) was set at either 17 (trial 1), 24 (trial 2) or $32^{\circ}C$ (trial 3). Pigs fed dry diets with the conventional nursery were maintained at $30^{\circ}C$ for each trial. From d 21 to d 49, all pigs were fed DD within a standardized hot nursery environment. During the first week (d 14-21), pigs fed MR showed increased ADG from 214% to 228% over control pigs fed DD (p<0.001), regardless of ambient temperature. As ambient temperature was increased from 17 to 24 to $32^{\circ}C$, ADG of MR-fed pigs was increased by 214%, 220% and 228% over those of pigs fed DD, respectively. ADFIs of MR-fed pigs at $17^{\circ}C$, $24^{\circ}C$, and $32^{\circ}C$ compared with pigs fed DD were increased by 108%, 139% and 164% from d 14 to d 21, respectively. Fed efficiency (G/F) of MR-fed pigs at $17^{\circ}C$, $24^{\circ}C$, and $32^{\circ}C$ compared with pigs fed DD were 199%, 162% and 139% of those of pigs fed DD, respectively. As ambient temperature increased, diarrhea scores showed a slight tendency to increase. The advantage of MR feeding was greater when the ambient temperature was higher, but G/F was impaired with increased ambient temperature. We conclude that ambient temperature within the specialized nursery influenced behavior, MR feed intake, and probably piglet energy expenditure. There were no differences between MR-fed and DD-fed pigs for ADG, ADFI and G/F in the subsequent growth period (d 21 to d 49, p>0.05). Maximal advantage of MR feeding was obtained at the intermediate ($24^{\circ}C$) ambient temperature during the overall period (p<0.05). Results from this experiment indicate that a milk replacer feeding system utilized in the early postweaning period can maximize pig growth performance, and that ADG, ADFI and G/F were affected by different ambient temperatures within MR-fed pigs. The high or low temperatures could not support the maximal growth of pigs fed MR.

THE EFFICIENCY OF UTILIZATION OF METABOLIZABLE ENERGY OF MILK-REPLACER-FED CALVES AT WEANING PERIOD

  • Sekine, J.;Morita, Z.;Oura, R.;Morooka, T.;Asahida, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.185-187
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    • 1988
  • A total of 22 energy balance trials were done for calves fed a liquid milk replacer, calf starter and second cut mixed hay during weaning period. Milk replacer supplied 50% of the total dietary energy, calf starter 42% and hay 8% Live weight of calves averaged 64.6 ($S.D.{\pm}7.8$) kg and daily gain 0.54 (${\pm}0.22$) kg. The metabolizability of gross energy averaged 0.751. A regression was calculated relating energy retention (ER, $kJ/kg^{0.75}$) to the intake of metabolizable energy (IME, $kJ/kg^{0.75}$): $$ER=0.69({\pm}0.09)IME-395,\;r=0.888,\;P<0.01,\;S.E.{\pm}7.1$$. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was calculated to be $572kJ/kg^{0.75}$ when ER = 0. The amount of IME over MEm for an individual animal (MEg, $kJ/kg^{0.75}$) was regressed on average daily gain (ADG, kg) by the method of regression through the origin: $$MEg=364({\pm}55)ADG,\;r=0.634,\;P<0.01,\;S.E.{\pm}12$$. The amount of ME required for maintenance and growth was estimated to be $936kJ/kg^{0.75}$.

Growth, Nutrient Utilization and Amino Acid Digestibility of Dairy Calves Fed Milk Replacers Containing Different Amounts of Protein in the Preruminant Period

  • Li, H.;Diao, Q.Y.;Zhang, N.F.;Fan, Z.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.1151-1158
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    • 2008
  • This study was designed to examine the effects of different dietary protein levels on growth performance, nutrient utilization, amino acid (AA) digestibility and serum biochemical parameters of preruminant dairy calves. Fifteen healthy new-born calves were randomly allotted to three experimental groups and fed with different milk replacer that contained 18% (LP), 22% (MP) or 26% (HP) of protein. The results showed that final BW, net gain and ADG were significantly higher in the MP group than in LP and HP groups (p<0.05). In addition, the apparent digestibility of CP in the MP group was significantly higher than in the other two groups (p<0.05). The values of N intake and fecal N excretion were significantly increased following the increase of dietary protein content (p<0.05). However, in all three groups of animals, dietary protein content had no significant effect on urinary N concentration (p>0.05). BUN concentration, on the other hand, decreased as calves grew but increased following the increase of dietary CP content. Furthermore, no significant differences in digestibility of amino acids were observed among these three groups of animals (p>0.05). We concluded that calves fed with milk replacer containing 22% of protein had better growth performance and nutrient utilization as compared to animals treated with milk replacer containing either 18% or 26% of protein.

Growth, Blood Metabolites, and Health of Holstein Calves Fed Milk Replacer Containing Different Amounts of Energy and Protein

  • Lee, H.J.;Khan, M.A.;Lee, W.S.;Kim, H.S.;Ki, K.S.;Jang, S.J.;Hur, T.Y.;Khan, M.S.;Choi, Y.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.198-203
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to compare the effects of feeding high protein and low energy milk replacer (HPR; CP 25%, ME 3.6 Mcal/kg DM) with low protein and high energy milk replacer (HPR; CP 21%, ME 4.2 Mcal/kg DM) on feed consumption, body weight (BW) gain, health and selected blood metabolites in Holstein calves during the pre-weaning period. At each feeding, each milk replacer (MR) was prepared by mixing 0.125 kg of dry MR in 1L of warm ($60^{\circ}C$) water. The calves were fed either HPR (n = 10) or HER (n = 10) using mobile plastic bottles fitted with soft rubber nipples. All calves received 1.8L diluted MR at each feeding 3 times daily during the first 4 weeks of age; feeding frequency was reduced to 2 times daily for the next 2 weeks of age and then to once daily during the last week of the experiment. Jugular blood was sampled in calves at day 7, 14, 21, 35 and 49 of age to enumerate selected metabolites. Daily MR, starter and hay intake during the pre-weaning period were similar in calves fed HPR and HER. Consumption of starter, MGH and total DM steadily increased with the age of calves. Final BW, daily BW gain and feed efficiency of calves were not affected by treatments. Serum glucose, cholesterol, creatinine were decreased (p<0.05) and blood urea N was increased (p<0.05) in calves fed HER or HPR as they grew older. Serum glucose, total protein and albumin concentrations in calves were not affected by treatments. Serum GPT and GOT concentrations were higher (p<0.05) in calves on HPR than on HER. Scouring score, days scoured, respiratory score, rectal temperature and general appearance were similar in calves fed HPR and HER. Poor general appearance (dullness and droopy ears) of calves fed either HPR or HER reflected nutritional insufficiency and stress. In conclusion, energy and protein concentrations in MR did not affect feed intake and BW gain in Holstein calves during the pre-weaning period. Poor general appearance and lower BW gain of calves compared to those reported in the literature for milk fed calves prompt a demand for further research to improve the daily nutrient supply to MR-fed calves.

Effects of Creep Feed and Milk Replacer and Nursery Phase-feeding Programs on Pre- and Post-weaning Growth of Pigs (돼지에서 입붙이 사료와 대용유 급여 및 이유자돈 사양프로그램이 이유 전과 이유 후의 성장에 미치는 영향)

  • Ha, Duck-Min;Jang, Kyoung-Soon;Won, Hye-Sook;Ha, Seung-Ho;Park, Man-Jong;Kim, Sung-Woo;Lee, C.-Young
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.333-339
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    • 2011
  • The present study was performed to investigate the effects of pre- and post-weaning feeding programs on growth of pigs. A total of 24 litters (avg. 10.6 piglets/litter) born from multiparous (Yorkshire ${\times}$ Landrace) dams ${\times}$ Duroc sires were provided with neither creep feed (CF) nor milk replacer ("CON"), 200 gm CF/litter/d from the 15th day of lactation ("MIN"), or CF and milk replacer ad libitum for 7 h during the daytime from the 7th day ("MAX") through weaning at d 21 of age. Sixty-eight weanling pigs selected randomly from each of CON and MIN were provided with phases 1, 2 and 3 nursery diets for 7, 14, and 13 days, respectively, in two pens; an equal number of piglets from MAX received the same diets for 6, 10, and 18 days, respectively. Subsequently, all pigs were fed grower 1 and 2 diets sequentially up to d 95 and 135, respectively. The entire pre- and post-weaning feeding trial was repeated three times under a split-plot design of experiment. Initial and final weights and ADG of the suckling pigs did not differ between MAX/MIN and CON. However, final wt of MAX adjusted for initial wt, which was 0.17-kg less in MAX than in CON, was greater than that of CON by 0.31kg, whereas the difference between MIN and CON in final wt barely changed after the adjustment. Growth of the animals during the nursery and growing phases was not affected by the feeding program, whereas d 55 and 135 BW, as well as d 6 BW, were highly correlated with weaning weight (r=0.81, 0.57, and 0.76; P<0.001, <0.05, and <0.001, respectively). In conclusion, results suggest that provision of creep feed and milk replacer from early lactation may be effective for increasing weight gain of light piglets, but that limited provision of creep feed during late lactation or extension of the duration of phases 1 and 2 vs. 3 nursery diets for several days is unlikely to influence the growth of pigs during the corresponding and subsequent periods.

Early weaning of calves after different dietary regimens affects later rumen development, growth, and carcass traits in Hanwoo cattle

  • Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar;Jeong, JinYoung;Baek, Youl-Chang;Oh, Young Kyun;Kim, Minseok;So, Kyung Min;Kim, Min Ji;Kim, Dong Woon;Park, Sung Kwon;Lee, Hyun-Jeong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.10
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    • pp.1425-1434
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of different diets for early-weaned (EW) calves on rumen development, and how this affects fat deposition in the longissimus dorsi of adult Korean Hanwoo beef cattle. Methods: Three EW groups were established (each n = 12) in which two- week-old Hanwoo calves were fed for ten weeks with milk replacer+concentrate (T1), milk replacer+concentrate+roughage (T2), or milk replacer+concentrate+30% starch (T3); a control group (n = 12) was weaned as normal. At six months, 5 calves of each group were slaughtered and their organs were assessed and rumen papillae growth rates were measured. The remaining calves (n = 7 in each group) were raised to 20 months for further analysis. Results: Twenty-month-old EW calves had a higher body weight (BW), backfat thickness (BF), longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA) and intramuscular fat (IMF) than the control (p<0.05). Organ growth, rumen histology, and gene expression patterns in the 6-month-old calves were positively related to the development of marbling in the loin, as assessed by ultrasound analysis (p<0.05). In the group fed the starch-enriched diet (T3), higher BW, BF, LMA, and IMF were present. The IMF beef quality score of 20-month-old cattle was 1+ for the T2 and T3 diets and 1 for the T1 diet (p<0.05). Conclusion: Papillae development was significantly greater in calves fed on high-concentrate diets and this may have resulted in the improved beef quality in the EW dietary groups compared to the control.