• Title, Summary, Keyword: Migration velocity

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AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF HYDRAULIC PARAMETERS ON RADIONUCLIDE MIGRATION IN AN UNSATURATED ZONE

  • Kim, Gye-Nam;Moon, Jei-Kwon;Lee, Kune-Woo
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.562-567
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    • 2010
  • A One-Dimensional Water Flow and Contaminant Transport in Unsaturated Zone (FTUNS) code has been developed in order to interpret radionuclide migration in an unsaturated zone. The pore-size distribution index (n) and the inverse of the air-entry value ($\alpha$) for an unsaturated zone were measured by KS M ISO 11275 method. The hydraulic parameters of the unsaturated soil are investigated by using soil from around a nuclear facility in Korea. The effect of hydraulic parameters on radionuclide migration in an unsaturated zone has been analyzed. The higher the value of the n-factor, the more the cobalt concentration was condensed. The larger the value of $\alpha$-factor, the faster the migration of cobalt was and the more aggregative the cobalt concentration was. Also, it was found that an effect on contaminant migration due to the pore-size distribution index (n) and the inverse of the air-entry value ($\alpha$) was minute. Meanwhile, migrations of cobalt and cesium are in inverse proportion to the Freundich isotherm coefficient. That is to say, the migration velocity of cobalt was about 8.35 times that of cesium. It was conclusively demonstrated that the Freundich isotherm coefficient was the most important factor for contaminant migration.

Transport Parameters of 99Tc, 137Cs, 90Sr, and 239+240Pu for Soils in Korea

  • Keum, D.K.;Kim, B.H.;Jun, I.;Lim, K.M.;Choi, Y.H.
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.49-55
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    • 2013
  • To characterize quantitatively the transport of $^{99}Tc$ and the global fallout ($^{137}Cs$, $^{90}Sr$, and $^{239+240}Pu$) for soils in Korea, the transport parameters of a convective-dispersion model, apparent migration velocity, and apparent dispersion coefficient were estimated from the vertical depth profiles of the radionuclides in soils. The vertical profiles of $^{99}Tc$ were measured from a pot experiment for paddy soil that had been sampled from a rice-field around the Gyeongju radioactive waste repository in Korea, and the vertical depth distributions of the global fallout $^{137}Cs$, $^{90}Sr$, and $^{239+240}Pu$ were measured from the soil samples that were taken from local areas in Korea. The front edge of the $^{99}Tc$ profiles reached a depth of about 12 cm in 138 days, indicating a faster movement than the fallout radionuclides. A weak adsorption of $^{99}Tc$ on the soil particles by the formation of Tc(VII) and a high water infiltration velocity seemed to have controlled the migration of $^{99}Tc$. The apparent migration velocity and dispersion coefficient of $^{99}Tc$ for the disturbed paddy soil were 2.88 cm/y and 6.3 $cm^2/y$, respectively. The majority of the global fallout $^{137}Cs$, $^{90}Sr$, and $^{239+240}Pu$ were found in the top 20 cm of the soils even after a transport of about 30 years. The transport parameters for the global fallout radionuclides were 0.01-0.1cm/y ($^{137}Cs$), 0.09-0.13cm/y ($^{90}Sr$), and 0.09-0.18cm/y ($^{239+240}Pu$) for the apparent migration velocity: 0.21-1.09 $cm^2/y$ ($^{137}Cs$), 0.12-0.7$cm^2/y$ ($^{90}Sr$), and 0.09-0.36$cm^2/y$ ($^{239+240}Pu$) for the apparent dispersion coefficient.

Seismic interval velocity analysis on prestack depth domain for detecting the bottom simulating reflector of gas-hydrate (가스 하이드레이트 부존층의 하부 경계면을 규명하기 위한 심도영역 탄성파 구간속도 분석)

  • Ko Seung-Won;Chung Bu-Heung
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.638-642
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    • 2005
  • For gas hydrate exploration, long offset multichannel seismic data acquired using by the 4km streamer length in Ulleung basin of the East Sea. The dataset was processed to define the BSRs (Bottom Simulating Reflectors) and to estimate the amount of gas hydrates. Confirmation of the presence of Bottom Simulating reflectors (BSR) and investigation of its physical properties from seismic section are important for gas hydrate detection. Specially, faster interval velocity overlying slower interval velocity indicates the likely presences of gas hydrate above BSR and free gas underneath BSR. In consequence, estimation of correct interval velocities and analysis of their spatial variations are critical processes for gas hydrate detection using seismic reflection data. Using Dix's equation, Root Mean Square (RMS) velocities can be converted into interval velocities. However, it is not a proper way to investigate interval velocities above and below BSR considering the fact that RMS velocities have poor resolution and correctness and the assumption that interval velocities increase along the depth. Therefore, we incorporated Migration Velocity Analysis (MVA) software produced by Landmark CO. to estimate correct interval velocities in detail. MVA is a process to yield velocities of sediments between layers using Common Mid Point (CMP) gathered seismic data. The CMP gathered data for MVA should be produced after basic processing steps to enhance the signal to noise ratio of the first reflections. Prestack depth migrated section is produced using interval velocities and interval velocities are key parameters governing qualities of prestack depth migration section. Correctness of interval velocities can be examined by the presence of Residual Move Out (RMO) on CMP gathered data. If there is no RMO, peaks of primary reflection events are flat in horizontal direction for all offsets of Common Reflection Point (CRP) gathers and it proves that prestack depth migration is done with correct velocity field. Used method in this study, Tomographic inversion needs two initial input data. One is the dataset obtained from the results of preprocessing by removing multiples and noise and stacked partially. The other is the depth domain velocity model build by smoothing and editing the interval velocity converted from RMS velocity. After the three times iteration of tomography inversion, Optimum interval velocity field can be fixed. The conclusion of this study as follow, the final Interval velocity around the BSR decreased to 1400 m/s from 2500 m/s abruptly. BSR is showed about 200m depth under the seabottom

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2D Prestack Generalized-screen Migration (2차원 중합전 일반화된-막 구조보정)

  • Song, Ho-Cheol;Seol, Soon-Jee;Byun, Joong-Moo
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.315-322
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    • 2010
  • The phase-screen and the split-step Fourier migrations, which are implemented in both the frequency-wavenumber and frequency-space domains by using one-way scalar wave equation, allow imaging in laterally heterogeneous media with less computing time and efficiency. The generalized-screen migration employs the series expansion of the exponential, unlike the phase-screen and the split-step Fourier migrations which assume the vertical propagation in frequency-wavenumber domain. In addition, since the generalized-screen migration generalizes the series expansion of the vertical slowness, it can utilize higher-order terms of that series expansion. As a result, the generalized-screen migration has higher accuracy in computing the propagation with wide angles than the phase-screen and split-step Fourier migrations for media with large and rapid lateral velocity variations. In this study, we developed a 2D prestack generalized-screen migration module for imaging a complex subsurface efficiently, which includes various dips and large lateral variations. We compared the generalized-screen propagator with the phase-screen propagator for a constant perturbation model and the SEG/EAGE salt dome model. The generalized-screen propagator was more accurate than the phase-screen propagator in computing the propagation with wide angles. Furthermore, the more the higher-order terms were added for the generalized-screen propagator, the more the accuracy was increased. Finally, we compared the results of the generalizedscreen migration with those of the phase-screen migration for a model which included various dips and large lateral velocity variations and the synthetic data of the SEG/EAGE salt dome model. In the generalized-screen migration section, reflectors were positioned more accurately than in the phase-screen migration section.

EFFECTS OF UNIFORM SHEAR STRESS ON THE MIGRATION OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELL (균일한 전단응력에 의한 혈관내피세포의 운동성 변화)

  • Shin, Jennifer H.;Song, Suk-Hyun
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.1404-1408
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    • 2008
  • The migration and proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (VEC), which play an important role in vascular remodeling, are known to be regulated by hemodynamic forces in the blood vessels. When shear stresses of 2, 6, 15 dynes/$cm^2$ are applied on mouse micro-VEC in vitro, cells surprisingly migrate against the flow direction at all conditions. While higher flow rate imposes more resistance against the cells, reducing their migration speed, the horizontal component of the velocity parallel to the flow increases with the flow rate, indicating the higher alignment of cells in the direction parallel to the flow at a higher shear stress. In addition, cells exhibit substrate stiffness and calcium dependent migration behavior, which can be explained by polarized remodeling in the mechanosensitive pathway under shear stress.

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Migration characteristics with Forms of Channels and Bed Conditions (수로의 형상과 하상조건에 따른 이행특성)

  • 차영기;이종석
    • Water for future
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.103-114
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    • 1993
  • Migration characteristics with forms of channels and bed conditions are studied by constant-radius curve (CRC), sine-generated curve (SGC) and small-wave theory (SWT) method. For channels which are meandering and of which bed conditions are of coarse materials, transverse bed slope, depth and velocity distributions are predicted by CRC and SGC method, and the results are compared with measured field data, And for fine bed-materials of the sinuous channels, lateral and downvalley migration rates are computed by SWT method. It is confirmed from this investigation that transverse mass-flux factor plays significant roles in determining of magnitude and direction of meander migration.

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Hydraulic Characteristics and Upstream Migration of Fish by the Weir Type in a Pool-Weir Fishway (階段式魚道에서 隔壁 形狀에 따른 水理學的 特性 및 魚類의 上流移動)

  • 김진홍
    • Water for future
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.225-235
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    • 1996
  • This study deals with hydraulic characteristics and their effects on upstream migration of fish by the weir type in a pool-weir fishway, and presents an optimal type of weir for an easy upstream migration. Experiment was performed to estimate hydraulic conditions by the weir type and to determine which type was good. The results showed that a rectangular weir with a small rectangular notch installed by a zig-zag type was preferable to a simple weir with no notch or to a trapezoidal weir, since it makes possible for upstream migration even when a water level draws down and moreover, it makes falling flow through a notch which facilitates upstream migration. It was proposed that the notch must be designed that the flow situation may keep the streaming flow so long as the maximum flow velocity does not exceed the critical swiming velocity, i.e., the dimensionless flow rate may exist whthin the range of 0.27 and 0.41.

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The Critical Flux in Microfiltration: Comparison between Theoretical and Experimental Values (정밀여과에서 임계플럭스(Critical flux)에 관한 이론 및 실험적 고찰)

  • 윤성훈;이정학
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.150-156
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    • 1997
  • The particle back transport velocity from the membrane surface were evaluated to determine the critical flux. Four kinds of back transport mechanisms were considered, i.e. back diffusion, shear induced migration, lateral migration, and interaction enhanced migration. The interaction enhanced migration caused by electrostatic repulsion between particles and membrane surface was found to be the most important mechanism of particle back transport for the charged particles of 0.1 ~10${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ diameter with 20 to 40 mV of zeta potential. Hematite particles with different sizes were synthesized with ferric chloride (FeCl$_3$) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) at high temperature, and subsequently experimental critical fluxes for each sized particle were obtained. The experimental results were well coincident with the calculated critical fluxes based on back transport mechanisms.

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Generalized Frequency-wavenumber Migration Implemented by the Intrinsic Attenuation Effect (비탄성 매질의 진폭 감쇠 효과를 첨가한 일반화된 주파수-파수 구조보정)

  • Baag Chang-Eob;Shim Jae-Heon
    • The Korean Journal of Petroleum Geology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.47-52
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    • 1993
  • A method and results of computations are presented for the 2-D seismic migration process in the frequency-wavenumber domain for the laterally and vertically inhomogeneous medium. In order to take the intrinsic attenuation effect into account in the migration process the complex-valued wave velocity is used in the wavefield extrapolation operator, improving the generalized frequency-wavenumber migration technique. The imaginary part of the complex-valued wave velocity includes the seismic quality factor Q value. In derivation of the solution of the wave equation for the medium of inhomogeneous wave velocity and anelasticity, the inhomogeneous medium is mathematically converted to an equivalent system which consists of a homogeneous medium of averaged slowness and an inhomogeneous distribution of hypothetical wave source. The strength of the hypothetical wave source depends on the deviation of squared slowness from the averaged value of the medium. Results of numerical computation using the technique show more distinct geologic images than those using the convensional generalized frequency-wavenumber migration. Especially, the obscured images due to the wave attenuation by anelasticity are restored to show sharp boundaries of structures. The method will be useful in the imaging of the reflection data obtained in the regions of possible petroleum or natural gas reservoir and of fractured zone.

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Effect of Water Temperature on Generation of Ion Migration (이온 마이그레이션 발생에 대한 수분온도의 영향)

  • Lee Deok Bo;Kim Jung Hyun;Kang Soo Keun;Kim Sang Do;Jang Seok Won;Lim Jae Hoon;Ryu Dong Soo
    • Journal of Applied Reliability
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.261-272
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    • 2005
  • In evaluation of electronic reliability on the PCB(Printed Circuit Board), electrochemical migration is one of main test objects. The phenomenon of electrochemical migration occurs In the environment of the high humidity and the high temperature under bias through a continuous aqueous electrolyte. In this paper, the generating mechanism of electrochemical migration is investigated by using water droll acceleration test under various waters. The waters used in the water drop test are city water, distilled water and ionic water. It found that the generated velocity of electrochemical migration depended on the temperature of water and the electrolyte quantity which included in the various waters.

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