• Title, Summary, Keyword: Migration velocity

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Numerical Analysis of the Prediction of Zincate Concentration at a Zinc Electrode with Electrolyte Flow Conditions in a Zinc Air Fuel Cell (전해질 유동 조건에 따른 아연공기전지 아연극 표면의 Zincate 이온 농도 예측을 위한 수치해석적 연구)

  • Kim, Jung-Yun;Lee, Ho-Il;Oh, Tae-Young;Park, Sang-Min
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.231-238
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    • 2011
  • In this work, the numerical analysis for the zincate behavior at a zinc electrode with an electrolyte flow was carried out for a ZAFC. The Nernst-Planck equation with a boundary condition of Butler-Volmer type was adopted to describe electrochemical effects of mass transfer, migration, kinetics of electrode. The Navier-Stokes equation, coupling to the Nernst-Planck equation, is also applied to describe the internal electrolyte flow fields. The validity of the numerical model is proved through the comparative analysis between numerical and experimental results. The concentration of zincate and the current density were also investigated at a zinc anode according to various electrolyte velocities. We have found the concentration of zincate decreased and the current density increased with an increase in the electrolyte velocity.

Fish Fauna Using Fishway on Six River in Korea (국내 6개 하천에서 어도를 이용하는 어류상)

  • Kim, Dong-Oug;Park, Je-Chul;Hwang, Jeong-Seo;Kim, Dong-Sup;Lee, Wan-Ok;Hwang, Gilson
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.255-264
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    • 2020
  • The use of fishway has been investigated up to 2~9 years, continuously each month and over the long term that installed in 6 domestic rivers. The fish's use of fishway has been investigated as direct collection by trap in exit section of the fishway. The population structure of fish using 6 fishway and the fish that live in the river showed difference. About 2 to 7 species of fish took possession of more than 80% of total use of fish in fishways. This seems to be not the results of attraction flow in fishway but specialized result of physiology characteristic followed by species of fish. In addition, the distribution of fish species using fishway was different with the fishways installed in river. This difference seems to be consequence of the place that of the river and fishway types. Generally, the fish species were less and had high ratio of home migratory fish in vertical slot type fishway, which shows relatively fast velocity of water flow. This analysis result of major fish species using fishway can be used in planning fishway and to choose major targeted species for the planning.

Seismic First Arrival Time Computation in 3D Inhomogeneous Tilted Transversely Isotropic Media (3차원 불균질 횡등방성 매질에 대한 탄성파 초동 주시 모델링)

  • Jeong, Chang-Ho;Suh, Jung-Hee
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.241-249
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    • 2006
  • Due to the long tectonic history and the very complex geologic formations in Korea, the anisotropic characteristics of subsurface material may often change very greatly and locally. The algorithms commonly used, however, may not give sufficiently precise computational results of traveltime data particularly for the complex and strong anisotropic model, since they are based on the two-dimensional (2D) earth and/or weak anisotropy assumptions. This study is intended to develope a three-dimensional (3D) modeling algorithm to precisely calculate the first arrival time in the complex anisotropic media. Considering the complex geology of Korea, we assume 3D TTI (tilted transversely isotropy) medium having the arbitrary symmetry axis. The algorithm includes the 2D non-linear interpolation scheme to calculate the traveltimes inside the grid and the 3D traveltime mapping to fill the 3D model with first arrival times. The weak anisotropy assumption, moreover, can be overcome through devising a numerical approach of the steepest descent method in the calculation of minimum traveltime, instead of using approximate solution. The performance of the algorithm developed in this study is demonstrated by the comparison of the analytic and numerical solutions for the homogeneous anisotropic earth as well as through the numerical experiment for the two layer model whose anisotropic properties are greatly different each other. We expect that the developed modeling algorithm can be used in the development of processing and inversion schemes of seismic data acquired in strongly anisotropic environment, such as migration, velocity analysis, cross-well tomography and so on.

Studies on the Transport of Acetic Acid by Electrodialysis (전기투석에 의한 초산의 이동특성 연구)

  • 최동민;구윤모
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.360-366
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    • 1996
  • Electrodialysis of acetic acid was studied to find out the trend of the transport of organic acids through ultrafiltration and ion exchange membranes. The net transport rate of acetic acid was determined from the electro-migration velocity relative to the electro-osmotic flow rate through the membrane. Electro-osmosis flows through ultrafiltration membranes were from the anodic side to the cathodic side in the presence of electric field. The surface of ultrafiltration membrane was measured by the electro-osmotic flow to be charged negatively. Different transport behaviors of acetic acid were found with the ultrafiltration membranes of different materials. In general, regenerated cellulose membranes (YM series) were more effective than polysulfone membranes (PM series) for the transport of acetic acid. The transport of acetic acid was affected by electric strength, distance between the electrodes, surface area of electrode, temperature, and pore size of membrane. The transport rate through the ion exchange membrane was 1.5 to 3 times of those through the ultrafiltration membranes at the constant current of 150 mA in the experimental ranges. The transport rate of acetic acid through the ion exchange membrane increased by 10% with a pulse electric field of 10 sec/hr.

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Optimal Determination of Marine Seismic Data Processing Parameter for Domi-Sediment Basin (도미퇴적분지 해양탄성파 탐사자료 최적 전산처리 변수도출)

  • Cheong, Snons;Kim, Won-Sik;Koo, Nam-Hyung;Yoo, Dong-Geun;Lee, Ho-Young;Shin, Won-Chul;Park, Keun-Pil
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.279-285
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    • 2008
  • Korea Institute of Geoscience & Mineral Resources (KIGAM) carried out 2 dimensional multi-channel seismic surveys for Domi-Basin of east-southern part of Jeju Island, South Sea, Korea in 2007. The purpose of this survey is to investigate the structure of acoustic basement and the potential of energy resources in the Korean shelf. It is essential to produce fine stack and migration section to understand the structure of basement. However a basement can not be clearly defined where multiples exist between sea surface and seafloor. This study aimed at designing the optimal data processing parameter, especially to eliminate the peg-leg multiples. Main data processing procedure is composed of minimum phase predictive deconvolution, velocity analysis and Radon filter. We tested the efficiency of processing parameter from stack sections of each step. Our results confirmed that processing parameters are suitable for the seismic data of Domi-Basin.

Dehydration of Solid Food Material Immersed in Fluidized-Bed (유동층(流動層)에 의한 고체식품(固體食品)의 건조(乾燥))

  • Yu, Ju-Hyun;Lee, Shin-Young;Pyun, Yu-Ryang;Yang, Ryung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.398-403
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    • 1978
  • Squid was dried on the fluidized-bed in the drying chamber filled with solid particles which were also fluidized with hot-air, and effects of the fluidized particles, the squid's height from the grid and the drying temperature on the drying rate and quality of the squid were observed The mechanism of moisture transfer during the falling rate period was also derived. 1. Sodium chloride was found to be the most suitable fluidized particles and at an air velocity of 3.8 m/sec, optimal fluidization state of this particle was obtained. 2. Uniform profiles of temperature were obtained at a point 4 cm above the grid and the location of squid on the fluidized-bed observed to be suitable when it was 4 cm above the grid. 3. At an air velocity of 3.8 m/sec and when the location height of the squid on the fluidized-bed was 4 cm, the optimal temperature for the drying time which is required to reduce the moisture from 80.8% to 18-22% was 8.5 hours. 4. Drying data followed the empirical equation of unsteady state diffusion $log\;(\frac{W-We}{Wc-We})=-m{\theta}$ in the region of the moisture contents measured and the drying constant (m) was calculated as $0.32hr^{-1}$. These results suggested that the migration of moisture during the falling rate period is due to a diffusion type mechanism. 5. The short constant rate period was observed in the early stage and thereafter, drying was controlled by the falling rate period, and the time ratio of the fluidized bed drying to the through circulation drying for reducing the squid's moisture contents to the same level at the same drying temperature was 1 : 1.4 6. Comparisons of fluidized-bed dried squid and sun dried squid in sale showed that there was no significant change in qualities such as external appearance and hydrogen ion concentration of dry product.

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A Study on the Field Data Applicability of Seismic Data Processing using Open-source Software (Madagascar) (오픈-소스 자료처리 기술개발 소프트웨어(Madagascar)를 이용한 탄성파 현장자료 전산처리 적용성 연구)

  • Son, Woohyun;Kim, Byoung-yeop
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.171-182
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    • 2018
  • We performed the seismic field data processing using an open-source software (Madagascar) to verify if it is applicable to processing of field data, which has low signal-to-noise ratio and high uncertainties in velocities. The Madagascar, based on Python, is usually supposed to be better in the development of processing technologies due to its capabilities of multidimensional data analysis and reproducibility. However, this open-source software has not been widely used so far for field data processing because of complicated interfaces and data structure system. To verify the effectiveness of the Madagascar software on field data, we applied it to a typical seismic data processing flow including data loading, geometry build-up, F-K filter, predictive deconvolution, velocity analysis, normal moveout correction, stack, and migration. The field data for the test were acquired in Gunsan Basin, Yellow Sea using a streamer consisting of 480 channels and 4 arrays of air-guns. The results at all processing step are compared with those processed with Landmark's ProMAX (SeisSpace R5000) which is a commercial processing software. Madagascar shows relatively high efficiencies in data IO and management as well as reproducibility. Additionally, it shows quick and exact calculations in some automated procedures such as stacking velocity analysis. There were no remarkable differences in the results after applying the signal enhancement flows of both software. For the deeper part of the substructure image, however, the commercial software shows better results than the open-source software. This is simply because the commercial software has various flows for de-multiple and provides interactive processing environments for delicate processing works compared to Madagascar. Considering that many researchers around the world are developing various data processing algorithms for Madagascar, we can expect that the open-source software such as Madagascar can be widely used for commercial-level processing with the strength of expandability, cost effectiveness and reproducibility.

Research of Diffusion Bonding of Tungsten/Copper and Their Properties under High Heat Flux

  • Li, Jun;Yang, Jianfeng
    • Proceedings of the Materials Research Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.14-14
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    • 2011
  • W (tungsten)-alloys will be the most promising plasma facing armor materials in highly loaded plasma interactive components of the next step fusion reactors due to its high melting point, high sputtering resistance and low deuterium/tritium retention. The bonding technology of tungsten to Cu alloy was one of the key issues. In this paper, W/CuCrZr diffusion bonding has been performed successfully by inserting pure metal interlay. The joint microstructure, interfacial elements migration and phase composition were analyzed by SEM, EDS, XRD, and the joint shear strength and micro-hardness were investigated. The mock-ups were fabricated successfully with diffusion bonding and the cladding technology respectively, and the high heat flux test and thermal fatigue test were carried out under actively cooling condition. When Ni foil was used for the bonding of tungsten to CuCrZr, two reaction layers, Ni4W and Ni(W) layer, appeared between the tungsten and Ni interlayer with the optimized condition. Even though Ni4W is hard and brittle, and the strength of the joint was oppositely increased (217 MPa) due primarily to extremely small thicknesses (2~3 ${\mu}m$). When Ti foil was selected as the interlayer, the Ti foil diffused quickly with Cu and was transformed into liquid phase at $1,000^{\circ}C$. Almost all of the liquid was extruded out of the interface zone under bonding pressure, and an extremely thin residual layer (1~2 ${\mu}m$) of the liquid phase was retained between the tungsten and CuCrZr, which shear strength exceeded 160 MPa. When Ni/Ti/Ni multiple interlayers were used for bonding of tungsten to CuCrZr, a large number of intermetallic compound ($Ni_4W/NiTi_2/NiTi/Ni_3T$) were formed for the interdiffusion among W, Ni and Ti. Therefore, the shear strength of the joint was low and just about 85 MPa. The residual stresses in the clad samples with flat, arc, rectangle and trapezoid interface were estimated by Finite Element Analysis. The simulation results show that the flat clad sample was subjected maximum residual stress at the edge of the interface, which could be cracked at the edge and propagated along the interface. As for the rectangle and trapezoid interface, the residual stresses of the interface were lower than that of the flat interface, and the interface of the arc clad sample have lowest residual stress and all of the residual stress with arc interface were divided into different grooved zones, so the probabilities of cracking and propagation were lower than other interfaces. The residual stresses of the mock-ups under high heat flux of 10 $MW/m^2$ were estimated by Finite Element Analysis. The tungsten of the flat interfaces was subjected to tensile stresses (positive $S_x$), and the CuCrZr was subjected to compressive stresses (negative $S_x$). If the interface have a little microcrack, the tungsten of joint was more liable to propagate than the CuCrZr due to the brittle of the tungsten. However, when the flat interface was substituted by arc interfaces, the periodical residual stresses in the joining region were either released or formed a stress field prohibiting the growth or nucleation of the interfacial cracks. Thermal fatigue tests were performed on the mock-ups of flat and arc interface under the heat flux of 10 $MW/m^2$ with the cooling water velocity of 10 m/s. After thermal cycle experiments, a large number of microcracks appeared at the tungsten substrate due to large radial tensile stress on the flat mock-up. The defects would largely affect the heat transfer capability and the structure reliability of the mock-up. As for the arc mock-up, even though some microcracks were found at the interface of the regions, all microcracks with arc interface were divided into different arc-grooved zones, so the propagation of microcracks is difficult.

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Changes in the Stability Properties of Methylcellulose Emulsions as Affected by Competitive Adsorption Between Methylcellulose and Tween 20 (메칠셀룰로오스/Tween 20 경쟁 흡착이 메칠셀룰로오스 유화액의 안정도 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Soon-Taek
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.10
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    • pp.1278-1286
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    • 2008
  • The effect of Tween 20 addition on changes in the stability of methylcellulose (MC) emulsions (1 wt% MC, 10 wt% n-tetradecane, 20 mM bis-tris buffer, pH 7) was investigated by creaming stability and orthokinetic stability measurements. In the case of MC emulsions containing varying amounts of oil (1$\sim$30 wt%) and no Tween 20 added, creaming stability, judged by mean migration velocity of fat globules ($V_m$), was found to depend on droplet size: the larger the droplet size, the worse the stability [$V_m$: 0.326 $\mu$m $min^{-1}$ ($d_{32}$: 0.32 $\mu$m) ${\rightarrow}V_m$: 0.551 $\mu$m $min^{-1}$ ($d_{32}$: 0.53 $\mu$m)]. With Tween 20, creaming stability was found to be worse than the one without Tween 20, except for MC emulsion containing 0.2 wt% Tween 20. In addition, cream stability was the lowest with the lowest concentration of Tween 20 and a tendency to recover with increasing Tween 20 concentration [$V_m$: 0.598 $\mu$m $min^{-1}$ (0.01 wt%)${\rightarrow}V_m$: 0.389 $\mu$m $min^{-1}$ (0.2 wt%)] was found. From viscosity measurement for aqueous bulk phase of MC emulsions, such a change in the creaming stability was found to coincide well with the results of viscosity measurement. Therefore, it was reasonable to say that creaming stability of MC emulsions containing Tween 20 depended on MC concentration in aqueous bulk phase, which was in turn varied by competitive adsorption between MC and Tween 20 at the oil droplet surface. In case of orthokinetic stability, judged by destabilization time ($t_d$), it was found that the addition of Tween 20 resulted in lowered stability with more pronounce tendency at higher concentrations [$t_d$: 160 min (0.03 wt%)${\rightarrow}t_d$: 100 min (0.2 wt%)]. Moreover, combined with previous results, the orthokinetic stability of MC emulsions containing Tween 20 was found to be exponentially proportional to MC load. In conclusion, competitive adsorption between MC and Tween 20 may affect the stability properties of MC emulsion to varying extents, depending on the concentration of Tween 20.