• Title, Summary, Keyword: Microencapsulation

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Microencapsulation of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB)

  • Feucht, Andreas;Kwak, Hae-Soo
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.229-238
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    • 2013
  • Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are added to different food products for a long time due to health beneficial effects on human host. LAB is applied in dairy products, such as yoghurt, cheese, and various fermented products, and also in non-dairy products, such as sausages. However, reaching the human gut alive as well as in a sufficient cell amount to exert positive health effects is still a big challenge, due to LAB sensitive character and vulnerability against harsh and detrimental conditions in human digestive system. Keeping physiological activity of sensitive LAB strains alive is for the formulation of novel food products with a probiotic health claim of utmost interest, thus microencapsulation has been applied and investigated as a promising technique for a good and reliable protection. Microencapsulation allows reduced cell injury or cell loss by retaining cells within the encapsulating membrane and can be enforced by spray-drying, emulsion, extrusion, and a range of other technologies in combination with an appropriate coating material, such as alginate, chitosan, and mixture of these two polymers. In this review, established and well-studied microencapsulation techniques with their favored coating materials, as well as the recent applications of microencapsulated LAB into dairy products will be discussed.

Microencapsulation of Fish Oil by Spray Drying using Different Wall Materials (분무건조기술을 이용한 어유의 미세캡슐화)

  • Cha, Kwang-Ho;Yang, Jin-Su;Yeon, Seung-Ho;Hong, Jang-Hwan;Kim, Min-Soo;Kim, Jeong-Soo;Hwang, Sung-Joo
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.113-117
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    • 2007
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different wall material on the microencapsulation efficiency of microcapsules containing fish oil. The present work reports on the microencapsulation of fish oil by spray drying using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) 2910, maltodextrin, gelatin, sodium caseinate as wall materials. The emulsion stability was assessed by emulsion stability index value (ESI). The microstructural properties of microcapsules was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microencapsulation efficiency (ME) was assessed by soxhlet method. The highest ESI and ME were observed in the case of a 1:1 gelatin/sodium caseinate ratio and 1:1 glycerin fatty acid ester/lecithin ratio, and ME of microcapsules was increased with increasing the ESI of emulsion. Thus, the stability of emulsion was a critical factor for the encapsulation of fish oil.

Microencapsulation Methods for Delivery of Protein Drugs

  • Yoon Yeo;Namjin Baek;Park, Kinam
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.212-230
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    • 2001
  • Recent advances in recombinant DNA technology have resulted in development of many new protein drugs. Due to the unique properties of protein druges, they have to be delivered by parenteral injection Although delivery of protein drugs by other routes, such as pulmonary and nasal routes, has shown some promises, to date most protein drugs are administered by par-enteral routs. For long-term delivery of protein drugs by parenteral administration, they have been formulated into biodegradable microspheres. A number of microencapsulation methods have been developed, and the currently used microencapsulation methods are reviewed here, The microen-capsulation methods have been divided based on the method used. They are: solvent evapora-tion/extraction; phase separation (coacervation);spray drying; ionotropic gelation/polyelectrolyte complexation; interfacial polyumerization and supercritical fluid precipitation. Each method is de-scribed fro its applications, advantages, and limitations.

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Studies on the Development of Sustained Release Preparation (I) Preparation and Evaluation of CAP Microcapsules of Sodium Ascorbate (지속성 제제의 개발에 관한 연구 (I) 아스코르빈산 나트륨의 CAP 마이크로캅셀의 제조 및 평가)

  • Shin, Sang-Chul;Koh, Ik-Bae
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.253-262
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    • 1991
  • Microencapsulation of sodium ascorbate with cellulose acetate phthalate(CAP) by coacervation/ phase separation method were carried out. Various factors affecting microencapsulation, i.e., surfactant concentration. CAP concentration, stirring speed and treatment of spermaceti as a sealing agent were studied. Dissolution rate. particle size distribution, surface feature and stability test were investigated. CAP microcapsules prepared using 0.5% span 80 as a surfactant showed smooth and round surfaces. The release of sodium ascorbate was retarded by microencapsulation with CAP and by sealant treatment with spermaceti. When triturated with sodium bicarbonate, CAP microcapsules were more stable than unencapsulated sodium ascorbate under various RH conditions at $37^{\circ}C$.

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The Effects of Microencapsulated Chitooligosaccharide on Physical and Sensory Properties of the Milk

  • Choi, H.J.;Ahn, J.;Kim, N.C.;Kwak, H.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.1347-1353
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    • 2006
  • Effects of microencapsulated chitooligosaccharide addition in milk were evaluated by determination of the efficiency of microencapsulation, cholesterol removal, color, viscosity and sensory properties. Coating material was polyglycerol monostearate (PGMS) and the efficiency of microencapsulation was 88.08% at a 10:1 ratio of coating to core materials (w/w). When 0.5% of microencapsulated chitooligosaccharide was added into milk, the color values (L, a, and b) and viscosity were significantly different from those of noncapsulated chitooligosaccharide-added groups (p<0.05). The release of chitooligosaccharide from microcapsules was 7.6% in milk at $4^{\circ}C$ for 15-day storage. In both 0.5 and 1.5% microencapsulation addition, the scores of all sensory characteristics except for off-flavor were significantly different between encapsulated chitooligosaccharide and noncapsulated chitooligosaccharide-added groups during all periods of storage. The present study indicated that chitooligosaccharide microcapsules could be applicable into commercial milk with little adverse effects on physical and sensory properties.

A Study on Metal Hydride Electrode of Ni/MH Battery(I) (니켈/금속수소 축전지의 금속수소 전극에 관한 연구(I))

  • Kim, Jeong-Seon;Cho, Won-Il;Cho, Byung-Won;Yun, Kyung-Suk;Kim, Sang-Ju;Shin, Chee-Burm
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.81-89
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    • 1994
  • A study on Mm type electrode which is relatively high in electrode capacity and low in material cost was performed to develope high performance nickel-metal hydride battery. The electrode characteristics were investigated by P-C-T, charge-discharge and microencapsulation treatment experiments. The plateau pressure and hydrogen absorption capacity obtained from the P-C-T experiment were 0.4 atm and 310 mAh/g, respectively. The electrode capacity and stability of microencapsulated electrode were improved than those of conductor mixed electrode and the microencapsulation was possible without pretreatment. The electrode capacity of microencapsulated Mm type alloy was 240~250 mAh/g(0.2 C).

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High-Density Cultivation of Microalgae using Microencapsulation (Microencapsulation에 의한 미세조류의 고밀도 배양)

  • HAN Young-Ho;LEE Jung-Suck;KWAK Jung-Ki;LEE Eung-Ho;CHO Man-Gi
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.186-191
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    • 1999
  • The three speices of miroalgae (Chlorella vulgaris, Dunaliella salina and Porphyridium purpureum) were immobilized in Ca-alginate capsules as a basic study for development of economic cultivation process, and then were cultivated in an air-bubble column bioreactor. Under the batch culture of aerobic conditions, the thickness of the capsule membrane and $CO_2$ supply did not affect the growth of the immobilized microalga, Chlorella vulgaris. Cell concentration of immobilized microalgae in the capsule was higher than those of imobilized microalgae in beads and free cells. The cell concentration of microencapsulated Dunaliella salina was greater about 5 times than that of free cells. Based on these results, it is concluded that the application of microencapsulation technology to the culture of microalgae was an effective method for high-density cultivation.

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Microencapsulation of Caramel Flavor and Properties of Ready-to-drink Milk Beverages Supplemented with Coffee Containing These Microcapsules

  • Kim, Gur-Yoo;Lee, Jaehak;Lim, Seungtae;Kang, Hyojin;Ahn, Sung-Il;Jhoo, Jin-Woo;Ra, Chang-Six
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.780-791
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    • 2019
  • This study aimed to extend the retention of flavor in coffee-containing milk beverage by microencapsulation. The core material was caramel flavor, and the primary and secondary coating materials were medium-chain triglyceride and maltodextrin, respectively. Polyglycerol polyricinoleate was used as the primary emulsifier, and the secondary emulsifier was polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate. Response surface methodology was employed to determine optimum microencapsulation conditions, and headspace solid-phase microextraction was used to detect the caramel flavor during storage. The microencapsulation yield of the caramel flavor increased as the ratio of primary to secondary coating material increased. The optimum ratio of core to primary coating material for the water-in-oil (W/O) phase was 1:9, and that of the W/O phase to the secondary coating material was also 1:9. Microencapsulation yield was observed to be approximately 93.43%. In case of in vitro release behavior, the release rate of the capsules in the simulated gastric environment was feeble; however, the release rate in the simulated intestinal environment rapidly increased within 30 min, and nearly 70% of the core material was released within 120 min. The caramel flavor-supplemented beverage sample exhibited an exponential degradation in its flavor components. However, microcapsules containing flavor samples showed sustained flavor release compared to caramel flavor-filled samples under higher storage temperatures. In conclusion, the addition of coffee flavor microcapsules to coffee-containing milk beverages effectively extended the retention of the coffee flavor during the storage period.

Patterns of Protein Leaching to Dispersion Medium during W/O/W Double Emulsion-Based Microencapsulation Processes (이중유제법에 근거한 미립자 제조 공정 중 단백질의 분산매로의 전이 양상)

  • Cho, Mi-Hyun;Choi, Soo-Kyoung;Sah, Hong-Kee
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.369-377
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    • 2004
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the patterns of protein leaching to an external phase during an ethyl acetate-based, double emulsion microencapsulation process. An aqueous protein solution (lactoglobulin, lysozyme, or ribonuclease; $W_1$) was emulsified in ethyl acetate containing poly-d,l-lactide-co-glycolide 75:25. The $W_1/O$ emulsion was transferred to a 0.5% polyvinyl alcohol solution saturated with ethyl acetate $(W_2)$. After the double emulsion was stirred for 5, 15, 30, or 45 min, additional 0.5% polyvinyl alcohol $(W_3)$ was quickly added into the emulsion. This so-called quenching step helped convert emulsion microdroplets into microspheres. After 2-hr stirring, microspheres were collected and dried. The degree of protein leaching to $W_2$ and/or $W_3$ phase was monitored during the microencapsulation process. In a separate, comparative experiment, the profile of protein leaching to an external phase was investigated during the conventional methylene chloride-based microencapsulation process. When ethyl acetate was used as a dispersed solvent, proteins continued diffusing to the $W_2$ phase, as stirring went on. Therefore, the timing of ethyl acetate quenching played an important role in determining the degree of protein microencapsulation efficiency. For example, when quenching was peformed after 5-min stirring of the primary $W_1/O$ emulsion, the encapsulation efficiencies of lactoglobulin and ribonuclease were $55.1{\pm}4.2\;and\;45.3{\pm}7.6%$, respectively. In contrast, when quenching was carried out in 45 min, their respective encapsulation efficiencies were $39.6{\pm}3.2\;and\;29.9{\pm}11.2%$. By sharp contrast, different results were attained with the methylene-chloride based process: up to 2 hr-stirring of the primary and double emulsions, less than 5% of a protein appeared in $W_2$. Afterwards, it started to partition from $W_1\;to\;W_2/W_3$, and such a tendency was affected by the amount of PLGA75:25 used to make microspheres. Different solvent properties (e.g., water miscibility) and their effect on microsphere hardening were to be held answerable for such marked differences observed with the two microencapsulation processes.

Optimization of Conditions for the Double Layer Microencapsulation of Lactic Acid Bacteria (유산균 함유 이중층 미세캡슐화를 위한 조건 최적화)

  • Park, Byung-Gye;Lee, Jong-Hyuk;Shin, Hye-Kyoung;Lee, Jae-Hwan;Chang, Phan-Shik
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.767-772
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    • 2006
  • In this study, we sought to produce a double layer microcapsule containing Lactobacillus sp. as the core material. The conditions for this microencapsulation process were optimized for the formation of a microcapsule with high storage stability. The effects of the ratio of[core material] to [wall material], the type and concentration of emulsifier used, the stirring rate(dispersibility) and the temperature of the dispersion fluid on the microencapsulation yield were studied. The optimal concentration and type of emulsifier required in order to allow for the stable formation of a W/O type emulsion (a primary process in double layer microencapsulation) were 1.00% (w/w) and polyglycerol polyricinileate (PGPR, HLB 0.6). However, the optimal concentration and type of emulsifier required to construct a W/O/W type emulsion (a secondary process in double layer microencapsulation), were 0.65% (w/w) and polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (PSML, HLB 16.7). Finally, we obtained a maximum yield of microencapsulation with a dispersion fluid stirring rate of 270rpm and a dispersion fluid temperature of 10$^{\circ}C$ after spraying a W/O/W type emulsion into the dispersion fluid.