• Title, Summary, Keyword: Micro-batteries

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The Surface Micro-structures with the Atmospheres in Graphitizing the Carboneous Materials for Rechargeable Batteries and Their Effects on the Cell Performances (이차전지용 탄소재의 흑연화 분위기에 따른 표면미세구조와 전지성능에 미치는 영향)

  • Huh, Yoon;Lee, Jeong-Yong;Yoon, Sang-Young
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.10 no.11
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    • pp.743-748
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    • 2000
  • Amorphous carbons(neddle cokes), which are used as anode materials for lithium ion secondary batteries, were graphitized or heat-treated at high temperature in $N_2$ atmosphere and in Ar atmosphere, after adding $B_2O_3$. After then, using transmission eletron microscopy, their surface micro-structures and the formations and distributions of the second phases were analyzed. It was studied that such analyzed results were related to the cell capacities and efficiencies.

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Electrochemical Performance of Micro Sized Silicon/CNT/Carbon Composite as Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries (리튬이차전지용 음극활물질로서 Micro sized Silicon/CNT/Carbon 복합입자의 전기화학적 특성)

  • Shin, Min-Seon;Lee, Tae-Min;Lee, Sung-Man
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.112-121
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    • 2019
  • In this study, silicon / carbon nanotube / carbon composite particles with high capacity were fabricated by using micro-sized silicon particles and carbon nanotubes as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The silicon / carbon nanotube / carbon composite particles were prepared by spray drying method to prepare spherical composite particles. The composite particles have the network structure of the carbon nanotubes around the silicon particles, in which the silicon particles and the carbon nanotubes are bonded by amorphous carbon. It appears that the volume expansion of silicon is effectively buffered and the electrical contact is maintained in the network structure of the composite particles during charge-discharge cycles.

A Study on Characteristics of Charging and Discharging for Lead Storage Batteries in Series (직렬 연결된 납축전지의 충방전 전압 특성 연구)

  • Moon, Chae-Joo;Jin, Jong-Soo;Seo, Dong-Choon;Jung, Kwen-Sung;Kim, Tae-Gon;Kim, Young-Gu
    • 한국태양에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.75-79
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    • 2008
  • To control the lead storage batteries it is necessary to consider the characteristics of each battery connected in series. In this study, the charging and discharging characteristics of sealed lead storage batteries 12V/1.2A was investigated one by one through experiments. The results of the experiment shows that one should consider the state of each battery to prevent overcharge or deep discharge. Also, we designed an equipment to measure battery voltages simultaneously using micro-controller. This equipment will be useful for monitoring batteries at PV generation system.

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Influence of Safety Valve Pressure on Gelled Electrolyte Valve-Regulated Lead/Acid Batteries Under Deep Cycling Applications

  • Oh, Sang-Hyub;Kim, Myung-Soo;Lee, Jin-Bok;Lee, Heung-Lark;, Myung-Soo
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.75-80
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    • 2002
  • Cycle life tests have been carried out to evaluate the influence of safety valve pressure on valve regulated lead/acid batteries under deep cycling applications. Batteries were cycled at 5 hour rates at 100% DOD, and safety valve pressure was set to 1.08 and 2.00 bar, respectively. The batteries lost 248.3 g and 235.3 g of water for each case after about 1,200 cycles, but the cyclic performances of the batteries were comparable. Most of the gas of the battery during discharging was hydrogen, and the oxygen concentration increased to 18% after 3 hours of charging. The micro structure of the positive active materials was completely changed and the corrosion layer of the positive grid was less than $50{\mu}m$, regardless of the pressure of the safety valve after cycle life tests. The cause of discharge capacity decrease was found to be water loss and the shedding of the positive active materials. The pressure of safety valve does not give little effect to the cyclic performances and the failure modes of the gelled electrolyte valve-regulated lead acid batteries.

Safety Improvement of Military Primary Lithium Batteries by New Protection Circuit for Low Current System (신규 보호회로 적용을 통한 저전류 장비용 군 리튬전지 안전성 개선)

  • Youn, Seong Gi;Cho, Yu Seup
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.256-261
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    • 2019
  • The use of military lithium batteries in this field accelerates the generation of internal pressure because the active materials, lithium and the electrolyte, react to form sulfur dioxide gas. This also reduces the amount of electrolyte. In this condition, batteries can 'vent' or 'explode' especially when completely discharged. Such venting and explosion can be regarded as a safety accident, as toxic gases and shrapnel are ejected from the batteries which can harm the user. A DTaQ was carried out in 2017 as a quality problem solution project to solve this safety issue. A protection circuit was thereby developed, which included a micro controller unit (MCU) which can stop battery usage when in an over-discharging state by sensing its low-voltage condition. In 2018, this concept was expanded to lithium batteries for the remote controlled ammunition system. This paper reports results of the improved performance.

ANALYSIS OF FLUID CHARACTERISTICS OF THRUST BEARING ON MILLIMETER-SCALE MICRO GAS TURBINE (초소형 가스 터빈용 스러스트 베어링 내의 유동특성 해석)

  • Seo, J.H.;Baek, J.H.
    • 한국전산유체공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.258-262
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    • 2010
  • Since MEMS based micro actuators or generating devices showed high efficiency per volume, plenty of research are ongoing. Among them, MEMS based millimeter-scale micro gas turbine is one of the most powerful item for replacing chemical batteries. However, due to MEMS manufacturing technique, it is very difficult that makes wide turbine bearing area. It causes low DN number, so sufficient bearing force is hard to achieve. Thus, the most important issue on micro gas turbine is to design the proper bearing which can keep rotor stable during operation. In order to that, micro-scale gas-lubricated bearing is generally used. In this paper, basic feasibility study of thrust bearing of 10mm diameter turbine is described. Thrust bearing is hydrostatic gas-lubricated type. Numerical simulation is performed with ANSYS CFX 11.0 which is commercial numerical tool. Relationship between bearing inlet pressure and mass flow rate and bearing force is figured while changing bearing gap and number of capillaries. The simulation results will be used for further design of micro gas turbine.

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Simplified Design and Optimization of Slotless Brushless DC Machine for Micro-Satellites Electro-Mechanical Batteries

  • Abdi, Babak;Bahrami, Hamid;Mirtalaei, S.M.M.
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.124-129
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    • 2013
  • Electro-Mechanical Batteries have important advantages compared with chemical batteries, especially in Low Earth Orbit satellites applications. High speed, slotless, external rotor, brushless DC machines are proposed and used in these systems as Motor/Generator. A simplified analytic design method is given for this type of machines and, the optimization of machine in order to have maximum efficiency and minimum volume and weight are given in this paper. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used as the optimization algorithm and the finite element-based simulations are used to confirm the design and optimization process and show less than 6% error in parametric design.

A Monitoring Unit for Lead Storage Batteries in Stand Alone PV Generation Systems (독립형 태양광 발전소의 연 축전지 모니터링장치 개발)

  • Moon, Chae-Joo;Kim, Tae-Gon;Chang, Young-Hag;Kjm, Eui-Sun;Lim, Jung-Min
    • Journal of the Korean Solar Energy Society
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2009
  • Use of the PV(photovoltaic) generation system is increased in such areas as remote mountain places or islands at which electrical energy is not serviced. The stand alone PV system is required the power storage products such as battery, fly wheel and super capacitor. Several lead storage batteries are connected in series to get high voltages. The life of lead storage battery is shortened when over charge or over discharge takes place. So, it is needed to control batteries not to be overcharged or be discharged deeply. Voltage of each battery was ignored in former control methods in which overall voltage was used to control charge or discharge battery. In this study, the charging and discharging voltage variations of sealed lead storage batteries with l2V/l.2A were investigated step by step experiments. The results of the test show that one should consider and specify the state of each battery to prevent overcharge or deep discharge. With the basis of the experiments, we designed a monitoring unit to monitor battery voltages simultaneously using micro-controller. The unit measures voltage of 20 batteries simultaneously and displays data on the color LCD monitor with curved line graph. It also sends data to PC using the RS232C communication port. The designed unit was adapted to stand alone PV system with 1kW capacity and lead storage batteries are connected to the PV generation system. The number of lead storage batteries was 10 in series and 12V/250Ah each. Resistive load with 3kW was used for discharging.

Electrical Characteristics According to the Manufacturing Process of the Flexible Li/MnO2 Primary Cell (플렉서블 Li/MnO2 일차전지의 제조공정에 따른 전기적 특성)

  • Lee, Mi-Jai;Chae, Yoo-Jin;Kim, Jin-Ho;Hwang, Jong-Hee;Park, Sang-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.22 no.12
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    • pp.717-721
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    • 2012
  • Manganese dioxide ($MnO_2$) is one of the most important cathode materials used in both aqueous and non-aqueous batteries. The $MnO_2$ polymorph that is used for lithium primary batteries is synthesized either by electrolytic (EMD-$MnO_2$) or chemical methods (CMD-$MnO_2$). Commonly, electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) is used as a cathode mixture material for dry-cell batteries, such as a alkaline batteries, zinc-carbon batteries, rechargeable alkaline batteries, etc. The characteristics of lithium/manganese-dioxide primary cells fabricated with EMD-$MnO_2$ powders as cathode were compared as a function of the parameters of a manufacturing process. The flexible primary cells were prepared with EMD-$MnO_2$, active carbon, and poly vinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder (10 wt.%) coated on an Al foil substrate. A cathode sheet with micro-porous showed a higher discharge capacity than a cathode sheet compacted by a press process. As the amount of EMD-$MnO_2$ increased, the electrical conductivity decreased and the electrical capacity increased. The cell subjected to heat-treatment at $200^{\circ}C$ for 1 hr showed a high discharge capacity. The flexible primary cell made using the optimum conditions showed a capacity and an average voltage of 220 mAh/g and 2.8 V, respectively, at $437.5{\mu}A$.