• Title/Summary/Keyword: Mass loss rates

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MASS-LOSS RATES OF OH/IR STARS

  • Suh, Kyung-Won;Kwon, Young-Joo
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.235-242
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    • 2013
  • We compare mass-loss rates of OH/IR stars obtained from radio observations with those derived from the dust radiative transfer models and IR observations. We collect radio observational data of OH maser and CO line emission sources for a sample of 1533 OH/IR stars listed in Suh & Kwon (2011). For 1259 OH maser, 76 CO(J=1-0), and 55 CO(J=2-1) emission sources, we compile data of the expansion velocity and mass-loss rate. We use a dust radiative transfer model for the dust shell to calculate the mass-loss rate as well as the IR color indices. The observed mass-loss rates are in the range predicted by the theoretical dust shell models corresponding to $\dot{M}=10^{-8}M_{\odot}/yr-10^{-4}M_{\odot}/yr$. We find that the dust model using a simple mixture of amorphous silicate and amorphous $Al_2O_3$ (20% by mass) grains can explain the observations fairly well. The results indicate that the dust radiative transfer models for IR observations generally agree with the radio observations. For high mass-loss rate OH/IR stars, the mass-loss rates obtained from radio observations are underestimated compared to the mass-loss rates derived from the dust shell models. This could be because photon momentum transfer to the gas shell is not possible for the physical condition of high mass-loss rates. Alternative explanations could be the effects of different dust-to-gas ratios and/or a superwind.

Mass Loss Rates and Nutrient Dynamics of Oak and Mixed-Hardwood Leaf Litters in a Gyebangsan (Mt,) Forest Ecosystem

  • Kim, Choonsig
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.335-340
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    • 2003
  • Patterns of mass loss and nutrient release from decomposing oak (Quercus mongolica) and mixed litters (Q. mongolica, Betula schmidtii, Acer pseudo-sieboldianum, Kalopanx pictus and Tilia amurensis) in a natural hardwood forest in Gyebangsan (Mt.) were examined using litterbags placed on the forest floor for 869 days. Mass loss rates from decomposing litter were consistently higher in mixed litter (59%) than in oak litter types (52%) during the study period. Nutrient concentrations such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and magnesium (Mg) from decomposing litter were also higher in mixed litter than in oak litter types. Nutrient concentrations (N, P, Ca, and Mg) increased compared with initial concentration of litter, while K concentrations dropped rapidly at the first 5 months and then stabilized. The results suggest that mas loss and nutrient release obtained from decomposing litter of single species in mixed hardwood forest ecosystem should be applied with caution because of the potential differences of mass loss and nutrient release between single litter and mixed litter types.

Fertilization and Tree Density Effects on Cellulose Decomposition in a Larix leptolepis Plantation

  • Kim, Choonsig;Kim, Oue-Ryong;Ahn, Hyun-Chul;Cho, Hyun-Seo;Choo, Gab-Chul;Park, Jae-Hyeon
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.399-403
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    • 2002
  • Cellulose mass loss by cellulose filter papers was measured for 3 time (35 days, 70 days, 105 days) incubation during the growing season (from May to September 2002) with different tree density and after fertilization in a Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis) plantation. Cellulose mass loss rates were significantly different between tree density types and fertilization treatments during the study periods. After 105 day incubation of cellulose filter paper, cellulose mass loss rates were significantly higher in the low tree density (70.1 $\%$) than in the high tree density (49.9$\%$). Cellulose mass loss rates averaged 62.8$\%$ in the fertilization and 58.9% in the unfertilization treatments during the same periods. However, cellulose mass loss was not significantly different between the forest floor and the mineral soil layer except for 35 day incubation. The results indicate that cellulose decomposition rates are a useful index to express differences in organic matter decomposition activity in different tree density and after fertilizer treatments.

Relationships between Cellulose Decomposition and Soil Environmental Factors in Three Coniferous Plantations (3수종의 침엽수조림지내 셀룰로오스 분해와 토양 환경요인과의 관계)

  • Kim, Choon-Sig
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to determine the relationships between cellulose decomposition and soil environmental factors in larch (Larix leptolepis) and pine (red pine: Pinus densiflora; rigitaeda pine: P. rigida ${\times}$ P. taeda) species planted in the same year (1963). The variation of cellulose mass loss with soil temperature, soil pH, soil $CO_2$ efflux rates, and soil water content was measured monthly for 4 months (July, August, September and October 2006) from three coniferous plantations. Mean mass loss rates during the study period were generally more rapid in rigitaeda pine (6.5 $mg\;g^{-1}\;day^{-1}$) than in red pine (6.2 $mg\;g^{-1}\;day^{-1}$) or larch (6.1 $mg\;g^{-1}\;day^{-1}$) plantations, although the mass loss rates were not significantly different among three tree species (P > 0.05). Cellulose mass loss rates among three tree species were positively correlated with soil temperature (red pine: r = 0.77, P < 0.05; rigitaeda pine: r = 0.59, P < 0.05; larch: r = 0.48, P < 0.05) at the 20 cm soil depth, while the mass loss rates were negatively correlated with soil pH (red pine: r = -0.63, P < 0.05; rigitaeda pine: r = -0.47, P < 0.05; larch: r = -0.43, P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between cellulose mass loss and soil $CO_2$ efflux rates except for regitaeda pine plantation, while no significant correlation (P > 0.05) between cellulose mass loss and soil water content in larch or rigitaeda pine. The results suggest that cellulose mass loss rates in soil layers depend on the different soil environmental factors caused by tree species.

A Semi-empirical Mass-loss Rate in Short-period CVs

  • Kim, Woong-Tae;Sirotkin, Fedir V.
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.76.2-76.2
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    • 2010
  • We present the final results of our study on the mass-loss rate of donor stars in cataclysmic variables (CVs). Observed donors are oversized in comparison with those of isolated single stars of the same mass, which is thought to be a consequence of the mass loss. Using the empirical mass-radius relation of CVs and the homologous approximation for changes in effective temperature T2, orbital period P, and luminosity of the donor with the stellar radius, we find the semi-empirical mass-loss rate M2dot of CVs as a function of P. The derived M2dot is at ~10-9.5-10-10 $M\odot$/yr and depends weakly on P when P > 90 min, while it declines very rapidly towards the minimum period when P < 90 min. The semi-empirical M2dot is significantly different from, and has a less-pronounced turnaround behavior with P than suggested by previous numerical models. The semi-empirical P-M2dot relation is consistent with the angular momentum loss due to gravitational wave emission, and strongly suggests that CV secondaries with 0.075 $M\odot$ < M2 < 0.2 $M\odot$ are less than 2 Gyrs old. When applied to selected eclipsing CVs, our semi-empirical mass-loss rates are in good agreement with the accretion rates derived from the effective temperatures T1 of white dwarfs. Based on the semi-empirical M2dot, SDSS 1501 and 1433 systems that were previously identified as post-bounce CVs have yet to reach the minimal period.

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Mass Loss Rates and Nutrient Dynamics of Decomposing Fine Roots in a Sawtooth Oak and a Korean Pine Stands

  • Kim, Choonsing
    • 한국생태학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.101-105
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    • 2002
  • Fine root decomposition and nutrient release patterns were examined using in situ buried fine root (< 2mm in diameter) bags inserted vertically into the mineral soil to a depth of the top 15 cm in a sawtooth oak (Quercus acutissima) and a Korean pine (Pinus korainesis) stands in the Jungbu Forest Experiment Station, Kyonggi-do, Korea. The pine roots compared with the oak roots showed rapid mass loss in early stages of decomposition, but decomposed similarly after 12 months of incubation. Decomposition rates of fine roots were about 33%/yr for the oak roots and 37%/yr for the pine roots. Nutrients except for calcium and phosphorus showed similar concentrations between the oak and the pine roots during the study period. However, calcium concentration was significantly higher in the oak than in the pine roots. Nutrient concentrations in both stands except for nitrogen decreased during the study period. In addition, potassium compared with other nutrients was the most mobile ion and about 70% of initial amount was released during the first 3 months of incubation. The results indicate that tree species influence mass loss and nutrient dynamics of fine roots on similar site conditions.

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Mass-Loss Rate in Short-Period Cataclysmic Variables

  • Sirotkin, Fedir V.;Kim, Woong-Tae
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.52.1-52.1
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    • 2010
  • The relationship between orbital periods of cataclysmic variables (CV) and mass-loss rates of their donor stars is an important subject of theoretical researches. The observed donor's radii are oversized in comparison with those of isolated unperturbed stars of the same mass, which is thought to be a consequence of the mass-loss. Using the empirical mass-radius relation of CVs and the Hayashi theory for changes in effective temperature, orbital period, and luminosity of the donor with the stellar radius, we find the mass-loss rate of CVs as a function of the orbital period P. The derived mass-loss rate is more or less constant at 10-9.6-10-10M$\odot$ yr-1 with P above 90 minutes and declines very rapidly with P below 90 minutes, reaching 10-10.3-10-11.7M$\odot$ yr-1 when P is close to the minimum period. The turnaround behavior of the mass-loss rate shape with P near the minimal period is much less pronounced than suggested by earlier numerical models, making observational detection of the turnaround highly unlikely. When applied to our new results, SDSS 1035, 1507, 1501 and 1433 systems, previously known as post-bounce CVs, are more likely to be systems that have yet to reach the minimal period.

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A Study on the Burning Rate of Puzzle Mats (퍼즐매트의 연소속도에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Hyung-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.84-90
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    • 2008
  • The mass loss rate and heat release rate of puzzle mats were analysed using variable external irradiation level. Five samples of puzzle mat were tested in this study : Type A, B, C, D and E. Type A, B and C are all general grades whereas Type D and E are both Flame retardant grades. Incident heat fluxs of $25kW/m^2$, $35kW/m^2$, $50kW/m^2$ and $70kW/m^2$ were selected for these experiments. All samples were tested in the horizontal orientation and were wrapped in a single layer of aluminum foil. Each sample was nominally 20mm thick and 100mm square. The combustion heat and mass loss rate were carried out from Oxygen bomb calorimeter and mass loss calorimeter according to ISO 5660-1 respectively. Heat release rates were calculated using the equation ${\dot{Q}}=A_f{\dot{m}}"_X{\Delta}H_c=0.75A_f{\dot{m}}"{\Delta}H_c$. where $A_f$ is the horizontal burning area of the sample, $\dot{m}"$ is mass loss rate per unit area, ${\Delta}H_c$ is complete heat of combustion and 0.75 is combustion efficiency.

Observational Properties of Wolf-Rayet stars and Type Ib/Ic supernova progenitors

  • Jung, Moo-Keon;Yoon, Sung-Chul
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.42.3-42.3
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    • 2020
  • We investigate the observational properties of Wolf-Rayet stars, suggest the constraint of their mass-loss rate and apply our results to the observed progenitor candidates of Type Ib/Ic supernovae (iPTF13bvn and SN 2017ein). For this purpose, we adopt the WR star models with various mass-loss rates and wind terminal velocities. We obtain the high resolution spectra of those models at the pre-supernova phase using the radiative transfer code CMFGEN. We verify the optically faint property of SN Ic progenitors and show that the optical faintness is mainly originated by the high effective temperature at the photosphere. We also show that a simple analytic model for WR winds using a constant opacity can roughly predict the photospheric parameters. We show that the change of the mass-loss rate and the terminal wind velocity critically affects the optical luminosity. We find the optical luminosities of SN Ic progenitor models with our fiducial mass-loss rate prescription are fainter than the detection limits. We also suggest the mass-loss rate of WR stars may not exceed 2 times of our fiducial value by comparing our predictions with the detection limit of SN Ib/Ic progenitors. The directly observed progenitor candidate of iPTF13bvn can be explained by our SN Ib progenitor models. We find that the SN 2017ein progenitor candidate is too bright and too blue to be a SN Ic progenitor.

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Investigating Exoplanet Orbital Evolution Around Binary Star Systems with Mass Loss

  • Rahoma, Walid A.
    • Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.257-264
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    • 2016
  • A planet revolving around binary star system is a familiar system. Studies of these systems are important because they provide precise knowledge of planet formation and orbit evolution. In this study, a method to determine the evolution of an exoplanet revolving around a binary star system using different rates of stellar mass loss will be introduced. Using a hierarchical triple body system, in which the outer body can be moved with the center of mass of the inner binary star as a two-body problem, the long period evolution of the exoplanet orbit is determined depending on a Hamiltonian formulation. The model is simulated by numerical integrations of the Hamiltonian equations for the system over a long time. As a conclusion, the behavior of the planet orbital elements is quite affected by the rate of the mass loss from the accompanying binary star.