• Title, Summary, Keyword: Mass culture

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ICM-Trophectoderm Cell Numbers of Bovine IVM/IVF/IVC Blastocysts (체외성숙, 수정 및 체외배양에서 생산된 소 배반포기배의 ICM과 Trophectoderm세포수에 관한 연구)

  • 김은영;엄상준;김선의;윤산현;박세필;정길생;임진호
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 1996
  • The objective of this study was to examine the cell number of Total, ICM and TE cells of bovine blastocysts according to development progression cultured in CR1 medium, which was reported as successfully supporting medium for preimplantaion bovine embryo development to the blastocyst stage, by differential labelling of the nuclei with immunosurgery and polynucleot-ide-specific fluorochromes. Blastocysts were obtained at day 8 after in vitro fertilization and classified to early, middle, expanded stage according to the developmental morphology; blastocoel expansion and zona thickness. Also, bias tocysts in the same category were divided into two parts to check the Total cell number by using bisbenzimide only and ICM, TE and Total cell number by using immunosurgery and two polynucleotide-specific fluorochromes. 1) The development rate of blastocysts at day 8 after in vitro fertilization was 29.3% and classified bIas tocysts to early, middle, expanded and hatching stage were 8.7, 9.9, 7.6 and 3.1%, respectively. 2) The numbers of total blastomere using bisbenzimide in the classified blastocysts to early, middie and expanded were 46.9${\pm}$8.6, 66.2${\pm}$12.5 and 122.8 ${\pm}$ 14.4, respectively. This indicated that CR1 is a appropriate culture medium for bovine embryo development. 3) The count of ICM and TE cell number by using differential labelling with immunosurgery and polynucleotide-specific fluorochromes in the classified blastocysts to early, middle and expanded; ICM cell numbers of were 12.8${\pm}$5.9, 26.3${\pm}$8.4 and 35.5${\pm}$15.0, respectively and TE cell numbers were 30.5${\pm}$5.0, 4 41.3${\pm}$8.2 and 81.1${\pm}$13.4, respectively. These results presented that the increase of ICM and TE cell numbers averaged two and three doublings between early and expanded blastocyst stage and also total cell number counted from ICM nuclei and TE nuclei by using differential label-ling showed the increase pattern with development advance level and the results were similar to total cell number obtained from bisbenzimide treatment only. Therefore, the differential labelling of ICM and TE nuclei in situ is a very useful technique to evaluate embryo qualities and can be used as an indicator on study of preim-plantation embryo development.

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Studies on the Availability of Marine Bacteria and the Environmental Factors for the Mass Culture of the High Quality of Rotifer and Artemia 1. Change of Fatty Acid and Amino Aicd Composition During Cultivation of Rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis by Marine Bacteria Erythrobacter sp. $S\;\pi-I$ (고품질의 Rotifer와 Artemia의 생산을 위한 해양세균 이용과 대량생산에 따른 환경인자에 관한 연구 1. Erythrobacter sp. $S\;\pi-I$에 의한 Rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis의 배양시 지방산과 아미노산 조성의 변화)

  • LEE Won-Jae;PARK You-Soo;PARK Young-Tae;KIM Sung-Jae;KIM Kwang-Yang
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.319-328
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    • 1997
  • To develop a beneficial microbial feed for the cultivation of rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, an aerobic photosynthetic bacterium, Erythrobacter sp. $S\;\pi-I$ was isolated from marine structure at Haeundae beach in Pusan, Korea. Feeding effects of Erythrobacter sp. $S\;\pi-I$ on the growth of rotifer were analyzed comparing to other feeds such as PSB (purple nonsulfur bacteria), Chlorella sp. and baker's yeast. Erythrobacter sp. $S\;\pi-I$ contained more linoleic acid $(C_{18:3\omega3})$ and oleic acid $(C_{18:1\omega9})$ and amino acids than PSB (purple nonsulfur bacteria), Chlorella sp. and baker's yeast. The rotifer fed on Erythrobacter sp. $S\;\pi-I$ showed better effects than those fed on other feeds in the individual growth, size and weight. Also, the rotifer especially contained more eicosapentaenoic acid $(C_{20:5\omega3})$ and docosahexaenoic acid $(C_{22:6\omega3})$ in case of Erythrobacter sp. $S\;\pi-I$ feeding than the other feeds. In case of the feed of PSB and baker's yeast docosahexaenoic acid $(C_{22:6\omega3})$ did not show. In amino acid analysis, the rotifer fed on Erthrobacter sp, $S\;\pi-I$ showed more amino acid content comparing to those fed on other diets. Especially, arginine, isoleucine, histidine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, which are essential amino acid for fish growth, showed high contents. These results suggested that the aerobic photosynthetic bacterium, Erythrobacter sp. $S\;\pi-I$ would be a beneficial microbial teed for the cultivation of rotifer.

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Effect of Photosynthetic Bacterial Addition to Chlorella or ${\omega}-Yeast$ on Growth of Rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, and its Dietary Value for Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, Larvae (Rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, 성장을 위한 광합성세균의 첨가 효과와 넙치, Paralichthys oliraceus, 자어에 대한 먹이효율)

  • KIM Man Soo;KIM Hae Young;HUR Sung Bum
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.164-170
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    • 2000
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of photosynthetic bacteria to chlorella or ${\omega}-yeast$ on Browth of the rotifer and its dietary value for flounder, Paralicbthys oliraceus. The rotifer fed the chlorella (200,000 cells/ind./day) with the addition of 20 times the photosynthetic bacteria of the chlorella concentration showed the highest growth. But the specific growth rate of 100,000 chlorella/ind./day with the addition of 30 times the photosynthetic bacteria was the most economical feeding regime for mass culture of the rotifer. The rotifer frd ${\omega}-yeast$ with 200,000 cells/ind./days with the addition of 20 times the photosynthetic bacteria of the chlorella conecentration showed the highest growth. Growth and survial rate of the larvae of Paralichithys oiivaceus fed the rotifer reared on both chlorella and ${\omega}-yeast$ with the addition of photosynthetic bacteria were higher than those without the bacteria, and the chlorella had better dietary value than the ${\omega}-yeast$ for the larvae. The larvae fed the rotifer which was cultured with the chlorella of 200,000 cells/ind./day and the photosynthetic bacteria of $4{\times}10^6$ cells/ind./day showed the highest survial rate and growth. The larvae reared with the addition of the photosynthetic bacteris had higher total lipid and the total content of EPA and DHA than those reared without the bacteria. The larvae fed the enriched artemia nauplius with the photosynthetic bacteria also showed higher suurval rate and growth than those fed the nauplius without the enrichment. The optimum enrichment concentration of the photosynthetic bacteria for artemia nauplius was $2{\times}1^7\;cells/ml$. The addition of the photosynthetic bacteria to the chlorella and the ${\omega}-yeast$ was effective to growth of the rotifer and dietary value for the flounder larvae. However, an excessive addition of the bacteria decreased both the growth of the rotifer and the dietary of the larvae.

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Effect of Selenium on Internal Quality of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) During Storage (Basil 양액재배 시 Selenium 첨가가 저장 중 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • 박권우;김민순;강호민;이문정
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.193-200
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    • 2000
  • The object of this study is to investigate the quality change of sweet basil grown with selenium(Se) in hydroponic culture. Sweet basil was cultured with 1 fold herb nutrient solution as suggested by European vegetable R & D Center in Belgium. Before three weeks harvest, sodium selenate(N $a_2$Se $O_4$) was supplied to 2 and 4 mg. $L^{-1}$ in the nutrient solution. Sweet basil was stored at 1$0^{\circ}C$ using 40um ceramic film and PET (polyethylene terephalate) for 15 days in modified atmosphere(MA) storage condition. The weight loss of sweet basil was higher in non-treatment compared to Se treatments in both of two films but it was decreased over 5% in PET treatment. Se concentrations in leaf tissues increased in the response to the treated levels of N $a_2$Se $O_4$concentrations, and this tendency was appeared similar results after storage. There was no significant effect of packing materials on volatilization of Se in sweet basil. The total chlorophyll and essential oil content was increased with increasing N $a_2$Se $O_4$concentration in nutrient solution. The amount of volatilization flavor was not higher at N $a_2$Se $O_4$4mg. $L^{-1}$ treatment compare to others during storage. Se content was 112.73 ug. $g^{-1}$ dry mass at 2 mg. $L^{-1}$ treatment before storage and the decrease of Se content was observed by 50% at 15 days after storage. The condition, which N $a_2$Se $O_4$2mg. $L^{-1}$$^{plement}$ in nutrient solution during growth stage and stored with 40um ceramic film on 1$0^{\circ}C$are acceptable for maintaining of sweet basil quality. Moreover it can be a proper Se concentration for human health. Overall, Se treatment in nutrient solution has effect on promoting and maintaining quality of herb during storage life. Also, there was not significant change of essential oil compounds by volatilization of Se.mpounds by volatilization of Se.

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Uptake of Heavy Metal Ions by Water Dropwort (Oenanthe stolonifera DC.) and Identification of Its Heavy Metal-Binding Protein (미나리의 중금속 흡수량 측정 및 중금속 결합단백질의 동정)

  • Park, Young-Il;Kim, Hee-Guen;Kim, Yoo-Young;Kim, In-Soo
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.494-500
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    • 1996
  • Uptake of hen metal ions by water dropwort (Oenanthe stolonifera DC.) and its cadmium-binding protein were studied to probe for good method to remove heavy metal contaminants from environments. The plant was cultured in the culture medium (pH 7.0) containing the various concentrations of $Cd^{2+}$, $Cr^{3+}$ or $Pb^{2+}$, for 3 and 7 days. The residual heavy metals deposited in roots linearly increased as the metal ions concentration increased up to 17 ppm for $Cd^{2+}$, 20 ppm for $Cr^{3+}$ and 50 ppm for $Pb^{2+}$. Above these concentrations, the plant growth was inhibited and the uptake rates of the metal ions decreased. The heavy metals absorbed by the plant were mostly deposited in roots. In particular, the residual concentration of lead in roots was about four times higher than those of cadmium and chromium. When cultured in the medium containing 20 ppm of each metal ion, 80% of cadmium, 90% of cromium and 96% of lead were deposited in roots out of the total residual metal ions in the plant. These values correspond to 6.1 mg of cadmium, 5.2 mg of chromium and 23.6 mg of lead per one gram of roots tissue on a dry weight basis. A cadmium-binding protein was partially purified by extraction, gel filtration and DEAE-Cellulose chromatography from water dropworts that was grown in the medium containing 20 ppm $Cd^{2+}$. The purified protein was a single band on SDS- and non-denaturing- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its molecular mass was estimated to be ca. 5,000 dalton by gel filteration. Analysis of amino acid composition of the protein indicated that it had a typical amino acid composition of heavy metal-binding protein in that it contained 27% of acidic amino acids and 9.9% of cysteine. However, it is likely that the protein is a new plant metal-binding protein, since its amino acid composition is somewhat different from those of phytochelatins that have been known so far.

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Plant Growth Promoting Effect and Antifungal Activity of Bacillus subtilis S37-2 (Bacillus subtilis S37-2 균주의 항진균활성 및 식물생육촉진 효과)

  • Kwon, Jang-Sik;Weon, Hang-Yeon;Suh, Jang-Sun;Kim, Wan-Gyu;Jang, Kab-Yeul;Noh, Hyung-Jun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.447-453
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    • 2007
  • With a broad objective for the development of microbial based fertilizers, a total of 373 strains were isolated from rhizoplane and rhizosphere of pepper, tomato, lettuce, pasture, and grass. The efficacy of the isolates to augument overall plant growth was evaluated. After screening for their plant growth promotion and antagonistic properties in vitro efficient strains were further selected. The most efficient strains was characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequences and biochemical techniques and was designated as Bacillus subtilis S37-2. The strains facilitated plant growth and inhibited the plant phathogenic fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum (KACC 40037, Rhizoctonia solani (KACC 40140), and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (KACC 40457). Pot based bioassay using lettuce as test plant was conducted by inoculating suspension ($10^5$ to $10^8cells\;mL^{-1}$) of B. subtilis S37-2 to the rhizosphere of lettuce cultivated in soil pots. Compared with non-inoculated pots, marked increase in leaf (42.3%) and root mass (48.7%) was observed in the inoculation group where the 50ml of cell mixture ($8.7{\times}10^8cells\;ml^{-1}$) was applied to the rhizosphere of letuce either once or twice. Antagonistic effects of B. subtilis S37-2 strain on S. sclerotiorum (KACC 40457) were tested. All the tested lettuce plants perished after 9 days in treatment containing only S. sclerotiorum, but only 17% of lettuce was perished in the inoculation plot. B. subtilis grew well in the TSB culture medium. The isolates grew better in yeast extracts than peptone and tryptone as nitrogen source. The growth rate was 2~4 times greater at $37^{\circ}C$ as compared with $30^{\circ}C$ incubation temperature. B. subitlis S37-2 produced $0.1{\mu}g\;ml^{-1}$ of IAA (indole 3-acetic acid) in the TSB medium containing L-tryptophan($20mg\;L^{-1}$) in 24 hours.

Effects of Water Temperature and Body Weight on Oxygen Consumption Rate of Black Rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli (조피볼락, Sebastes schlegeli의 산소 소비율에 미치는 수온과 체중의 영향)

  • Oh, Sung-Yong;Noh, Choong Hwan;Myoung, Jung-Goo;Jo, Jae-Yoon
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2007
  • The effect of water temperature (T) and body weight (W) on the oxygen consumption of the fasted black rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli was investigated to provide empirical data for the culture management and bioenergetic growth model of this species. The mean wet body weights of two fish groups used for the present experiment were $12.9{\pm}2.7g$ ($mean{\pm}SD$) and $351.1{\pm}9.2g$. The oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was measured under three water temperature regimes (15, 20 and $25^{\circ}C$) at an interval of 5 minutes for 24 hours using a continuous flow-through respirometer. In each treatment three replicates were set up and 45 fish in small size groups and 6 fish in large size groups were used. The OCRs increased with increasing water temperature in both size groups (p<0.001). Mean OCRs at 15, 20 and $25^{\circ}C$ were 414.2, 691.5 and $843.8mg\;O_2\;kg^{-1}h^{-1}$ in small size groups, and 182.0, 250.7 and $328.2mg\;O_2\;kg^{-1}h^{-1}$ in large size groups, respectively. The OCRs decreased with increasing body weights in three water temperature groups (p<0.001). The mass effect on metabolic rate can be expressed by the power of 0.69~0.75. The data are best described by the relationship: OCR=89.12+28.79T-1.17W. $Q_{10}$ values ranged 1.90~2.79 between 15 and $20^{\circ}C$, 1.49~1.71 between 20 and $25^{\circ}C$, and 1.80~2.03 over the full temperature range, respectively. The energy loss by metabolic cost increased with increasing water temperature and decreasing body weight (p<0.001). Mean energy loss rates by oxygen consumption at 15, 20 and $25^{\circ}C$ were 282.9, 472.3 and $576.3kJ\;kg^{-1}d^{-1}$ in small size groups and 124.3, 171.3 and $224.1kJ\;kg^{-1}d^{-1}$ in large size groups, respectively.

A study of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Speaker's Development Process in Terms of Social Constructivism: Focused on the Products and Periodic Co-revolution Process (인공지능(AI) 스피커에 대한 사회구성 차원의 발달과정 연구: 제품과 시기별 공진화 과정을 중심으로)

  • Cha, Hyeon-ju;Kweon, Sang-hee
    • Journal of Internet Computing and Services
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.109-135
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    • 2021
  • his study classified the development process of artificial intelligence (AI) speakers through analysis of the news text of artificial intelligence (AI) speakers shown in traditional news reports, and identified the characteristics of each product by period. The theoretical background used in the analysis are news frames and topic frames. As analysis methods, topic modeling and semantic network analysis using the LDA method were used. The research method was a content analysis method. From 2014 to 2019, 2710 news related to AI speakers were first collected, and secondly, topic frames were analyzed using Nodexl algorithm. The result of this study is that, first, the trend of topic frames by AI speaker provider type was different according to the characteristics of the four operators (communication service provider, online platform, OS provider, and IT device manufacturer). Specifically, online platform operators (Google, Naver, Amazon, Kakao) appeared as a frame that uses AI speakers as'search or input devices'. On the other hand, telecommunications operators (SKT, KT) showed prominent frames for IPTV, which is the parent company's flagship business, and 'auxiliary device' of the telecommunication business. Furthermore, the frame of "personalization of products and voice service" was remarkable for OS operators (MS, Apple), and the frame for IT device manufacturers (Samsung) was "Internet of Things (IoT) Integrated Intelligence System". The econd, result id that the trend of the topic frame by AI speaker development period (by year) showed a tendency to develop around AI technology in the first phase (2014-2016), and in the second phase (2017-2018), the social relationship between AI technology and users It was related to interaction, and in the third phase (2019), there was a trend of shifting from AI technology-centered to user-centered. As a result of QAP analysis, it was found that news frames by business operator and development period in AI speaker development are socially constituted by determinants of media discourse. The implication of this study was that the evolution of AI speakers was found by the characteristics of the parent company and the process of co-evolution due to interactions between users by business operator and development period. The implications of this study are that the results of this study are important indicators for predicting the future prospects of AI speakers and presenting directions accordingly.

A Clinical Study on Treatments of Hwabyung with Oriental Medicine (홧병환자의 한의학적 치료에 대한 임상적 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Woo;Whang, Wei-Wan
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.5-16
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    • 1998
  • Hwabyung is a common emotional disorder which has symptoms expressed like firt's explosion in middle-aged after long period of emotional suppression among Koreans. It is similar in its characteristics such as neurosis, anxiety, panic attacks in Western Medicine, though the treatment method was not effective. So we have done a clinical research on Oriental Medical Method, especially on Acupuncture Therapy, and obtained following results. 1. Patients with Hwabyung complained of pressure pain around the Chunjung(?中, CV-17) point distinctively. About 70% of those were located on the CV-17 point, 25% were 1cm upper than the CV-17 point and 5% of those were 1cm lower point than the CV-17 point. 2. Degrees of pressure pain were divided into 5 grades from ade 1(feeling pain with slight pressure) to grade 5(feeling no pain with severe pressure), respectively. 3. Patients with Hwabyung showed various symptoms compared to fire's explosion such as anger, chest discomfort, difficulty in breathing. tachycardia. and feeling of epigasfric mass etc., and the degrees were divided into 5 grades according to the severities from grade 1(can't keep their usual living) to grade 5(no complaints with heavy stresses), respectively. 4. For the treatment of Hwabyung in this study, we had given Acupuncture therapy on some points such as Chunjung:?中:CV-17, Jungwan:中脘:CV-12) and Chunchu:天樞:S-25, etc. for 15 minutes a time twice a week. And Bunshimkiumgmnihang(分心氣飮加味方) was administered 3 times a day. 5. About 40% of the patients took treatment for more than 2 months, 29% of those took 1 to 2 months and 31% of those took less than 1 month. In this study, we excluded those who stopped treatment within a month without any expected effects. 6. We evaluated the changes of severity of pain according to the following categories such as - for no change, + for 1 grade, ++ for 2 grades, +++ for 3 grades, and ++++ for 4 grades of improvements. Among the patients taken 1 to 2 months of treatment. 48% of the those showed +, 7% of those showed ++, 3% of those showed +++ and 41% of those showed no change. Among the patients taken less than 2 months of treatment, 20%of those showed +, 40% of those showed ++, 28% of those showed +++ and 13% of those showed no change. 7. We evaluate the changes of symptoms according to the following categories such as - for no change, + for 1 grade, ++ for 2 grades, +++ for 3 grades and +++ for 4 grades of improvements. Among the patients taken 1 to 2 months of treatment, 34% of those showed +, 14% of those showed ++ and 52% of those showed no change. Among the patients taken more than 2 months of treatment, 20% of those showed +, 43% of those showed 20% of those showed +++, 3% of those showed +++ and 15% of those showed no change. 8. When we compare the changes of pain and symptoms according to the periods of treatment, the changes in quantity of pain in 1 to 2 months group was $0.72{\pm}0.75$, in more than 2 months group was $1.83{\pm}0.98$, and the changes in quantity of symptoms in 1 to 2 months group was $0.62{\pm}0.73$, in more than 2 months group was $1.75{\pm}1.03$. According to the above results, we have concluded that more than 2 months of treatment is more beneficial than 1 to 2 months of treatment.

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Ginseng Research in Natural Products Research Institute (NPRI) and the Pharmaceutical Industry Complex in Gaesong (생약연구소의 인삼연구와 약도개성)

  • Park, Ju-young
    • Journal of Ginseng Culture
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    • v.3
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    • pp.54-73
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    • 2021
  • The Natural Products Research Institute (NPRI, 生藥硏究所), an institution affiliated with Keijo Imperial University (京城帝國大學), was the predecessor of the NPRI at Seoul National University and a comprehensive research institute that focused on ginseng research during the Japanese colonial era. It was established under the leadership of Noriyuki Sugihara (杉原德行), a professor of the second lecture in pharmacology at the College of Medicine in Keijo Imperial University. Prof. Sugihara concentrated on studying Korean ginseng and herbal medicine beginning in 1926 when the second lecture of pharmacology was established. In addition to Prof. Sugihara, who majored in medicine and pharmacology, Kaku Tenmin (加來天民), an assistant professor who majored in pharmacy; Tsutomu Ishidoya (石戶谷勉), a lecturer who majored in agriculture and forestry; and about 36 researchers actively worked in the laboratory before the establishment of the NPRI in 1939. Among these personnel, approximately 14 Korean researchers had basic medical knowledge, derived mostly from specialized schools, such as medical, dental, and pharmaceutical institutions. As part of the initiative to explore the medicinal herbs of Joseon, the number of Korean researchers increased beginning in 1930. This increase started with Min Byung-Ki (閔丙祺) and Kim Ha-sik (金夏植). The second lecture of pharmacology presented various research results in areas covering medicinal plants in Joseon as well as pharmacological actions and component analyses of herbal medicines. It also conducted joint research with variousinstitutions. Meanwhile, in Gaesong (開城), the largest ginseng-producing area in Korea, the plan for the Pharmaceutical Industry Complex was established in 1935. This was a large-scale project aimed at generating profits through research on and the mass production of drugs and the reformation of the ginseng industry under collaboration among the Gaesong Ministry, Kwandong (關東) military forces, Keijo Imperial University, and private organizations. In 1936 and 1938, the Gyeonggi Provincial Medicinal Plant Research Institute (京畿道立 藥用植物硏究所) and the Herb Garden of Keijo Imperial University (京城帝國大學 藥草園) and Pharmaceutical Factory were established, respectively. These institutions merged to become Keijo Imperial University's NPRI, which wasthen overseen by Prof. Sugihara as director. Aside from conducting pharmacological research on ginseng, the NPRI devoted efforts to the development and sale of ginseng-based drugs, such as Sunryosam (鮮麗蔘), and the cultivation of ginseng. In 1941, the Jeju Urban Test Center (濟州島試驗場) was established, and an insecticide called Pancy (パンシ) was produced using Jeju-do medicinal herbs. However, even before research results were published in earnest, Japanese researchers, including Prof. Sugihara, hurriedly returned to Japan in 1945 because of the surrender of Japanese forces and the liberation of Korea. The NPRI was handed over to Seoul National University and led by Prof. Oh Jin-Sup (吳鎭燮), a former medical student at Keijo Imperial University. Scholars such as Woo Lin-Keun (禹麟根) and Seok Joo-Myung (石宙明) worked diligently to deal with the Korean pharmaceutical industry.

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