• Title/Summary/Keyword: Maize

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Flavonoid Biosynthesis: Biochemistry and Metabolic Engineering (Flavonoid 생합성:생화학과 대사공학적 응용)

  • Park, Jong-Sug;Kim, Jong-Bum;Kim, Kyung-Hwan;Ha, Sun-Hwa;Han, Bum-Soo;Kim, Yong-Hwan
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.265-275
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    • 2002
  • Flavonoid biosynthesis is one of the most extensively studied areas in the secondary metabolism. Due to the study of flavonoid metabolism in diverse plant system, the pathways become the best characterized secondary metabolites and can be excellent targets for metabolic engineering. These flavonoid-derived secondary metabolites have been considerably divergent functional roles: floral pigment, anticancer, antiviral, antitoxin, and hepatoprotective. Three species have been significant for elucidating the flavonoid metabolism and isolating the genes controlling the flavonoid genes: maize (Zea mays), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) and petunia (Prtunia hybrida). Recently, many genes involved in biosynthesis of flavonoid have been isolated and characterized using mutation and recombinant DNA technologies including transposon tagging and T-DNA tagging which are novel approaches for the discovery of uncharacterized genes. Metabolic engineering of flavonoid biosynthesis was approached by sense or antisense manipulation of the genes related with flavonoid pathway, or by modified expression of regulatory genes. So, the use of a variety of experimental tools and metabolic engineering facilitated the characterization of the flavonoid metabolism. Here we review recent progresses in flavonoid metabolism: confirmation of genes, metabolic engineering, and applications in the industrial use.

Effect of Rice Bran and Barley Bran Application on Growth and Yield of Chinese Chive (Allium tuberosum Rottler) and Taro (Colocasia esculenta) and Weed Control (쌀겨, 보릿겨 처리가 부추와 토란의 생육과 수량 및 잡초방제에 미치는 영향)

  • Ryu, Deok-Kyo;Yun, Young-Beom;Kwon, Oh-Do;Shin, Dong-Young;Hyun, Kyu-Hwan;Lee, Do-Jin;Kuk, Yong-In
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.260-270
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    • 2011
  • This study was carried out to examine the effect of rice bran, barley bran, burned rice bran, and burned barley bran on the growth and yield of Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum Rottler), taro (Colocasia esculenta), and weed control. When the above 4 brans were examined 13, 27, 41 and 57 days respectively after application, the plant height of Chinese chive applied with burned barley bran was significantly higher than non-treated control, whereas the other brans did not have any distinct effect on the plant height or population number of Chinese chive. However, when examined 57 days after the application of the above 4 brans, all the plants applied with brans showed more than twice the improvement in shoot fresh weight compared with non-treated control. A chemical analysis of soil 57 days after the application of the above 4 brans showed that the soils were richer in available phosphate and organic matter. Shoot fresh weight of Chinese chive at 2 weeks after cutting was significantly higher in barely bran treated plot than in non-treated plot. In the case of taro, only taro plots transplanted when 10 cm tall and applied with barley bran showed an improvement in growth increment of both the underground and above parts. However, when sowed seeds after the application of the 4 brans, the yield of taro was reduced by the brans. Thus this research indicates that the effect of brans is differ based on the amount of bran application as well as crops. The effect of weed control on Echinochloa crus-galli, Digitaria clliaris, Chenopodium album, and Solanum nigrum as affected by brans was very low in pot conditions. Weed efficacy of the brans was also very low in field conditions. Growth of Chinese cabbage and garland chrysanthemum was inhibited 63% and 37% by rice bran at $4,000kg\;ha^{-1}$, respectively, but other crops such as maize, squash, cucumber, and Chinese chive were inhibited by 0-20%. These results were similar to that of barley bran except for Chinese cabbage.

Major Characteristics Related to Eating Quality in Waxy Corn Hybrids (찰옥수수 교잡종의 식미관련 주요 특성)

  • Jung Tae wook;Kim Sun Lim;Moon Hyeon Gui;Son Beom Young;Kim Si Ju;Kim Soon Kwon
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    • v.50 no.spc1
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    • pp.152-160
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to investigate selectable criteria in evaluating waxy corn $F_1$ hybrids for developing good eating quality waxy corn variety. The physicochemical property analysis of 6 waxy corn $F_1$ hybrids - Chalok1, Chalok2, Heugjeomchal, Yeonnongl, Chalok4, and Suwon45- showed a range of $11.2\~13.1\%$ for crude protein, $5.1\~6.0\%$ for crude fat, $91.8\~92.6\%$ for amylopectin, and $4.5\~6.6\%$ for free sugar content. The pericarp thickness which is one of the most important characteristics related to tenderness in waxy corn was ranged $34\~47{\mu}m$ in 4 waxy corn hybrids - Yeonnongl, Chalok4, Suwon45, and Heugjeomchal. On the other hand, it was ranged $64\~81{\mu}m$ in Chalok1 and Chalok2. The amylogram analysis by rapid visco analyzer showed that in fresh waxy corn hybrid (DAP25), all amylogram properties except setback were higher in Yeonnongl, Chalok4, and Suwon45 compared to those of Chalokl, Chnlok2, and Heugjeomchal. However, in matured waxy corn hybyids (DAP45), the result was the opposite - the amylogram properties were higher in Chalokl, Chalok2, and Heugjeomchal than those of Yeonnongl, Chalok4, and Suwon45. The texture analysis showed that gumminess, chewiness, and hardness increased dramatically with the time after the cooking in Chalokl and Beugjeomchal. On the other hand, these above pyoperties did not change as rapidly with the time in Yeonnongl, Chalok4, and Suwon45. Gumminess, chewiness, and hardness did not increase much within 6 hours after steamingr but increased significantly 32 hours after steaming. Therefore, we have reached a conclusion that texture analysis of cooked waxy corn should be carried out 6 hours after steaming. In the sensory evaluation, Yeonnongl, Chalok4, and Suwon45 revealed higher palatability -6.8, 7.1, and 6.9 respectively - than. that of Chnlokl, Chalok2, and Heugjeomchal. The palatability analysis of 6 waxy corn hybrids showed palatability positively correlating with free sugar content,100-kernel weight, kernel length, kernet width, and consistency, but negatively correlating with pericarp thickness, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness.