• Title/Summary/Keyword: Maize

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Simulation of Local Climate and Crop Productivity in Andong after Multi-Purpose Dam Construction (임하 다목적댐 건설 후 주변지역 기후 및 작물생산력 변화)

  • 윤진일;황재문;이순구
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.579-596
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    • 1997
  • A simulation study was carried out to delineate potential effects of the lake-induced climate change on crop productivity around Lake Imha which was formed after a multi-purpose dam construction in Andong, Korea. Twenty seven cropping zones were identified within the 30 km by 25 km study area. Five automated weather stations were installed within the study area and operated for five years after the lake formation. A geostatistical method was used to calculate the monthly climatological normals of daily maximum and minimum temperature, solar radiation and precipitation for each cropping zone before and after the dam construction. Daily weather data sets for 30 years were generated for each cropping zone from the monthly normals data representing "No lake" and "After lake" climatic scenarios, respectively. They were fed into crop models (ORYZA1 for rice, SOYGRO for soybean, CERES-maize for corn) to simulate the yield potential of each cropping zone. Calculated daily maximum temperature was higher after the dam construction for the period of October through March and lower for the remaining months except June and July. Decrease in daily minimum temperature was predicted for the period of April through August. Monthly total radiation was predicted to decrease after the lake formation in all the months except February, June, and September and the largest drop was found in winter. But there was no consistent pattern in precipitation change. According to the model calculation, the number of cropping zones which showed a decreased yield potential was 2 for soybean and 6 for corn out of 27 zones with a 10 to 17% yield drop. Little change in yield potential was found at most cropping zones in the case of paddy rice, but interannual variation was predicted to increase after the lake formation. the lake formation.

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Characterization of Oszinc626, knock-out in zinc finger RING-H2 protein gene, in Ac/Ds mutant lines of rice(Oryza sativar L.) (Zinc finger RING-H2 protein관련 Ac/Ds전이인자 삽입 변이체 Oszinc626 유전자의 특성 분석)

  • Park, Seul-Ah;Jung, Yu-Jin;Ahn, Byung-Ohg;Yun, Doh-Won;Ji, Hyeon-So;Park, Yong-Hwan;Eun, Moo-Young;Suh, Seok-Cheol;Lee, Soon-Youl;Lee, Myung-Chul
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.177-183
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    • 2008
  • Ac/Ds mutant lines of this study were transgenic rice plants, each of which harbored the maize transposable element Ds together with a GUS coding sequence under the control of a promoterless(Ds-GUS). We selected the mutants that were GUS expressed lines, because the GUS positive lines will be useful for identifying gene function in rice. One of these mutants was identified knock-out at Oszinc626(NP_001049991) gene, encoding a RING-H2 zinc-finger protein, by Ds insertion. In this mutant, while primary root development is normal, secondary root development from lateral root was very poor and seed development was incomplete compare with normal plant. RING zinc-finger proteins play important roles in the regulation of development in a variety of organisms. In the plant kingdom, a few genes encoding RING zinc-finger proteins have been documented with visible effects on plant growth and development. The consensus of the RING-H2(C3-H2-C3 type) domain for this group of protein is $Cys-X_2-Cys-X_{28}-Cys-X-His-X_2-His-X_2-Cys-X_{14}-Cys-X_2-Cys$. Oszinc626 encodes a predicted protein product of 445 amino acids residues with a molecular mass of 49 kDa, with a RING-zinc-finger motif located at the extreme end of the C-terminus. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression of Oszinc626 gene was induced by IAA, cold, dehydration, high-salinity and abscisic acid, but not by 2,4-D, and the transcription of Oszinc626 gene accumulated primarily in rice immature seeds, root meristem and shoots. The gene accumulation patterns were corresponded with GUS expression.

Evaluation of Pollen Viability of Nakdongbyeo, Two Transgenic Rice Lines, Its Hybrids with Weedy Rice, and Subsequent Selfed Progenies: F2 and F3 (낙동벼, 2개의 promoter를 각각 삽입한 유전자변형 계통과 잡초성벼(Oryza sativa)인공수정 한 후 다음세대인 F1, F2, F3의 화분활력 평가)

  • Ghimire, Sita Ram;Sohn, Eun-Young;Shin, Dong-Hyun;Lee, In-Jung;Kim, Kil-Ung
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.7
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    • pp.839-844
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    • 2009
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate pollen viability of Nakdongbyeo, transgenic rice lines, an F$_1$ hybrid from a cross between Milyang weedy rice and ABC-promoter transgenic rice line containing basta-resistant (bar) gene and subsequent selfed progenies, F$_2$ and F$_3$. The reaction of pollen with 3-{4,5 dimethylthiazolyl-2}-2,5-diphenyl monotetrazolium bromide (MTT) as a staining chemical immediately after pollen shedding showed maximum pollen viability of 86% in Nakdongbeyo, 75% in ABC-promoter transgenic rice line, 62% in ubiquitin-promoter transgenic line, 68% in F$_1$, 79% in F$_2$ and 78% in F$_3$. Viability gradually declined during subsequent observations at 20-minute intervals. However, there was a drastic decline in pollen viability after 40 minutes of pollen shedding. The mean difference of pollen viability among rice lines and time was highly significant, indicating significantly different pollen viabilities at different time intervals. Maximum viability of 36.2% was observed in F$_3$ and minimum viability of 3.5% was found in F$_2$ at 90 min after pollen shedding. Results of this experiment on pollen viability and longevity elucidate potential risks of pollen-mediated flow of herbicide-resistant gene from transgenic rice lines and possible integration of it into the weedy rice population.

Studies on Cropping System for Year-Round Cultivation of Forage Crops in Gyeongnam Province (경남지방에서 조사료 주년생산 작부체계에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Dal-Soon;Kim, Dae-Ho;Shin, Hyun-Yul;Son, Gil-Man;Rho, Chi-Woong;Kim, Jung-Gon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.137-152
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    • 2009
  • Present experiment was conducted at the field of Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services in Jinju city for two continuous cropping seasons to develop several adaptable and valuable year-round forage-producing system for elevating self-sufficiency and dollar-saving by reduced importing of crude forage. Twenty cropping systems were tested in experiment using whole crop barley (WCB), oat, rye, Italian ryegrass (IRG), and triticale in winter season and com, sorghum, sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid, and oat in summer time. Sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid showed highest fresh forage yield among experimented summer season crops, and followed com. Com produced the most dry matter yield, and followed sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid, sorghum and oat in order. There was no significant effect of former winter crops on fresh and dry matter production succeeding summer time crops. Among winter season forage crops tested, oat showed the highest fresh and dry matter when clipped on mid-May, and followed triticale, IRG, rye and WCB. Winter-time cultivated crops showed no clear effect on the growth and forage (fresh and dry matter) producing ability of following summer crops. There was the most protein content in oat plant among summer season planted crops, and in sorghum for acid detergent fiber (ADF) and in sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid for neutral detergent fiber (NDF), respectively. While, com showed highest value of relative feed value (RFV) and total digestive nutrients (TDN) among those crops. Among winter crops, the highest crude protein was in oat plant showing no significant differences of ADF and NDF, while, relatively higher value of RFV was recognized with rye and triticale. Also, triticale contained more TDN as compare to other forage crops. The cropping combinations such as com followed by (fb) rye and maize fb triticale were regarded as promising systems having higher dry matter producing ability among tested combinations. Considering TDN producing potential, the combinations with sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid fb triticale andlor rye were would be suitable ones, coincidently. There was a tendency which elevating pH, electric conductivity (EC) and organic matter (OM) contents in soil after experiment comparing to before planting. More crude protein content in plant was shown at mid-May clipping as compared to the forage at April cut in all winter season grown crops. ADF and NDF contents were increased by delayed clipping showing decreased tendency of RFV and TDN in plant. In conclusion, many cropping systems would be available using above mentioned forage crops according to farmer's conditions and scale, etc.

The Economic Feasibility Analysis of Crop Cultivation Practice Project in Pirganj and Kurigram Districts, Bangladesh (작물재배기술의 경제적 타당성 분석 : 방글라데시 피르간즈군과 쿠리그람군 사례)

  • Tabassum, Nazia;Lim, Jae-Hwan;Gim, Uhn-Soon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.85-100
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    • 2008
  • The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) funded collaborative project on The Economic Feasibility Analysis of Crop Cultivation Practice Project in Pirganj and Kurigram Districts in Bangladesh will started during 2008-2012, for 4 years with total project cost of US$ 571,270. The project will be implemented in 6 villages; has 1,097 hectares areas which is divided into 948 hectares of agricultural land, 52 hectares of forest land and 345 hectares of other land, covered 1,059 households equal to 5,305 persons in Pirganj and Kurigram districts The project has proposed to be implemented in joint collaboration by Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC), Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) and Rangpur Dinajpur Rural Service (RDRS) Bangladesh with full participation of the farmers' groups of respective project site. The specific objectives of the project are: (1) to estimate the productivity of paddy, wheat, maize, tobacco and sugarcane (2) to determine the cost of production and returns to the above mentioned crops (3) to study the interrelationship between inputs and output of the above mentioned crops and (4) to examine the resource utilization patterns at farm level. In this project analysis, the net incremental profit is US$33,028. The expected incremental project benefit and incremented production cost are estimated as US$ 219,959 and US$ 186,931 respectively. The financial decision making criteria would be followed in this crop cultivation practice project. After the project implementation, the expected project benefits are assumed to be continued for 15 years. The benefit cost ratio (B/C) of the project is estimated at 1.077 (table 11) when using discount rate of 10% as an opportunity cost of capital in Bangladesh. FIRR of project is estimated at 26.15% which is bigger than the opportunity cost by more than double. So this project is financially feasible and acceptable. Therefore, this project should be extended to other areas to increase the farm income and economic growth of marginal poor farmers in Bangladesh.

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Characteristics of Maize Line Treated with Mutagen of γ-Ray at M1 Generation (돌연변이원(突然變異原) γ-선(線)을 처리(處理)한 M1 세대(世代) 옥수수 계통(系統)의 특성(特性))

  • Lee, Hee Bong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.156-162
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    • 1995
  • This study was carried out to select the useful mutants among 20 lines treated with mutagen, gamma ray. These materials were treated with 15, 20, 25 and 30Krads, respectively and sowed at experimental field of College of Agriculture on 27th May, 1995. Items surveyed were germination rate and loss of chlorophyll at seedling stages, abnormal reproductive organs, discordance of flowering times and stem and ear height at ripening stages. The germination rate of lines treated with 15 Krad was different. The germination rate of the IK1, IK2 and Sinki lines were high, while the IK3, A632 and FR140 lines were very low. At same dose level, the germination rate of both IK1/H26 and Puyo synthetic variety were different; the germination rate of the IK1/H26 was high as above 70% at all treatments, while that of the Puyo synthetic variety was very poor at above 20 Krad. Generally stem adn ear height of the IK1/H26 were gradually decreased as the dose of mutagen increased, but there was no difference in stem and ear height of the IK1/H26 when this line was treated with 20Krad. The stem and ear height of lines treated with 15 Krad were shown to be decreased than those of check with non-treatment. The number of tiller of tillering lines were not greatly affected by ${\gamma}$-ray treatment.

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A Note on the Deveolopment of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on Brown Rice Oryzae sativa L. (현미에서의 거짓쌀도둑, Tribilium castaneum(딱정발레목:거저리과)의 발육)

  • 전환구;홍영석;류문일
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.103-137
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    • 1991
  • The developmental period(mean $\pm$ SE) of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum was studied on brown rice at four constant temperature(25, 28, 34, $36^{\circ}C$ $\pm$ $0.5^{\circ}C$, RH 70%)conditions. Based on the results, the lower and the upper developmental threshold temperature for the beetle were also estimated. The duration of the egg stage was estimated to be 7.6 $\pm$ 0.25, 4.8 $\pm$ 0.10, 3.0 $\pm$ 0.03 and 2.5 $\pm$ 0.09 days at 25, 28, 34, $36^{\circ}C$, respectively. That of the larval stage was estimated to be 53.3 $\pm$ 1.49, 33.4 $\pm$ 0.57, 30.6 $\pm$ 0.70, 31.0 $\pm$ 1.18; that of the pupal stage to be 12.1 $\pm$ 0.17, 7.8 $\pm$ 0.09, 5.7 $\pm$ 0.09, 5.0 $\pm$ 0.07 ; that of the overall period which spans from eggs to the adult emergence to be 72.3 $\pm$ 1.67, 46.0 $\pm$ 0.55, 39.4 $\pm$ 0.64, 38.7 $\pm$ 1.15 days at 25, 28, 34, $36^{\circ}C$, respectively. The duration of the egg and the pupal stage were similar to those of the results reared on other diets such as wheat and maize. Fed on brown rice, however, the duration of the larval stage was significantly retarded than on wheat. The mortality of the beetle during ,development was higher on brown rice than on wheat reported, indicating that brown rice is a poor diet compared with wheat. The lower developmental threshold temperature was estimated to be $20.0^{\circ}C$ for all stages of the beetle. The upper one was estimated to be $40.2^{\circ}C$ for the overall stage. The modal value of the moulting times during the larval stage was 7. However, as temperature increased,.the frequency of the beetle that moulted more than 7 times became higher. The sex ratio of the beetle was not affected by temperature.

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Germinability and Physiological Properties of Maize Seeds Affected by Matriconditioning (Matriconditioning에 의한 옥수수 종자 활력증진과 생리적 특성변화)

  • 이석순;서정문;윤상희;이문정
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.267-275
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    • 2003
  • To observe the effects of seed matriconditioning on the emergence, plumule growth, and seed physiological properties of normal and aged seeds of three corn(Zea mays L.) genotypes (dent, sugary, and shrunken-2), normal and artificially aged seeds were matriconditioned at 50, 75, 100, and 125% moisture contents of vermiculite at $25^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours and the germinability was examined at $25^{\circ}C$ and in cold test (7 days at 1$0^{\circ}C$followed by $25^{\circ}C$). Emergence rate, emergence speed, and plumule growth were smaller in the order of dent>sugary>shrunken-2. Matriconditioning did not affect the emergence rate of normal dent and sugary seeds, while it enhanced emergence speed and plumule growth. In contrast, the emergence rate, emergence speed, and plumule growth of normal shrunken-2 and aged seeds of all genotypes were enhanced as the moisture content of vermiculite increased up to 125% both at $25^{\circ}C$ and in cold test. Matriconditioning promoted $\alpha$-amylase activity and DNA and soluble protein contents, while it reduced the leakage of total sugars and electrolytes from the seeds when soaked in water.

Major Characteristics Related to Eating Quality in Waxy Corn Hybrids (찰옥수수 교잡종의 식미관련 주요 특성)

  • Jung Tae wook;Kim Sun Lim;Moon Hyeon Gui;Son Beom Young;Kim Si Ju;Kim Soon Kwon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.50 no.spc1
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    • pp.152-160
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to investigate selectable criteria in evaluating waxy corn $F_1$ hybrids for developing good eating quality waxy corn variety. The physicochemical property analysis of 6 waxy corn $F_1$ hybrids - Chalok1, Chalok2, Heugjeomchal, Yeonnongl, Chalok4, and Suwon45- showed a range of $11.2\~13.1\%$ for crude protein, $5.1\~6.0\%$ for crude fat, $91.8\~92.6\%$ for amylopectin, and $4.5\~6.6\%$ for free sugar content. The pericarp thickness which is one of the most important characteristics related to tenderness in waxy corn was ranged $34\~47{\mu}m$ in 4 waxy corn hybrids - Yeonnongl, Chalok4, Suwon45, and Heugjeomchal. On the other hand, it was ranged $64\~81{\mu}m$ in Chalok1 and Chalok2. The amylogram analysis by rapid visco analyzer showed that in fresh waxy corn hybrid (DAP25), all amylogram properties except setback were higher in Yeonnongl, Chalok4, and Suwon45 compared to those of Chalokl, Chnlok2, and Heugjeomchal. However, in matured waxy corn hybyids (DAP45), the result was the opposite - the amylogram properties were higher in Chalokl, Chalok2, and Heugjeomchal than those of Yeonnongl, Chalok4, and Suwon45. The texture analysis showed that gumminess, chewiness, and hardness increased dramatically with the time after the cooking in Chalokl and Beugjeomchal. On the other hand, these above pyoperties did not change as rapidly with the time in Yeonnongl, Chalok4, and Suwon45. Gumminess, chewiness, and hardness did not increase much within 6 hours after steamingr but increased significantly 32 hours after steaming. Therefore, we have reached a conclusion that texture analysis of cooked waxy corn should be carried out 6 hours after steaming. In the sensory evaluation, Yeonnongl, Chalok4, and Suwon45 revealed higher palatability -6.8, 7.1, and 6.9 respectively - than. that of Chnlokl, Chalok2, and Heugjeomchal. The palatability analysis of 6 waxy corn hybrids showed palatability positively correlating with free sugar content,100-kernel weight, kernel length, kernet width, and consistency, but negatively correlating with pericarp thickness, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness.