• Title, Summary, Keyword: Maize

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Changes in Ear and Kernel Characteristics of Colored Waxy Corn Hybrids During Ripening with Different Sowing Dates (파종시기에 따른 유색찰옥수수 품종의 등숙 중 이삭 및 종실 특성 변화)

  • Kim, Mi-Jung;Lee, Jae-Eun;Kim, Jung-Tae;Jung, Gun-Ho;Lee, Jin-Seok;Kim, Sun-Lim;Youn, Kyoung-Jin;Kim, Wook-Han;Chung, Ill-Min
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.60 no.3
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    • pp.308-317
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    • 2015
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the ear and kernel characteristics of colored waxy corn hybrids during ripening according to different sowing dates. Heukjinjuchal and Eolrukchal 1 were sown at April 20 (first cropping) and July 20 (second cropping) in 2011~2012. The accumulated temperature from silking to harvesting was about $590{\sim}610^{\circ}C$. It takes 23~24 days when Heukjinjuchal and Eolrukchal 1 were sown in April 20, but July 20 sowing takes 32~35 days. Ear weight, ear diameter, 100-kernel weight and starch content of colored waxy corn were increased as ears matured (p<0.05). Growth temperature was getting decreased during the ripening stage of second cropping, the rate of ear and kernel development had slowed. Starch granules started to accumulate in the cells around the pericarp, then developed in the cells around the embryo. In the second cropping, starch granules in the kernel of colored waxy corn were less compact than the first cropping. The contents of total anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside were increased according to ripening (p<0.05). These results will be helpful to farmers for double cropping of colored waxy corn cultivation and management.

Diapause and Voltinism in Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Suwon, and Larval Instar Sensitivity to Diapause Induction (수원 지방에서 조명나방 휴면과 발생 세대수 및 휴면유도에 대한 유충의 민감성)

  • Kim, Eun Young;Kim, I Hyeon;Seo, Bo Yoon;Kim, Yonggyun;Park, Chang-Gyu;Jung, Jin Kyo
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.59 no.3
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    • pp.185-202
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    • 2020
  • The diapause induction season in Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was estimated in Suwon. Three batches of adult generations were observed, the first one from early May to early July, the second from early or mid-July to early or mid-August, and the third from mid-August to October. In outdoor larval rearing, colony rearing occurring from mid-July to mid-August produced both non-overwintering and overwintering larvae, whereas late-reared colonies produced only overwintering larvae. Larvae collected during July and August in maize fields produced both non-overwintering and overwintering larvae, whereas late-collected larvae produced only overwintering larvae. The results indicated that O. furnacalis has a bi- or trivoltine complex life cycle in this area. In the laboratory, when larvae of all instars within 9 h after molting were first treated to a diapause induction condition (11:13 h = light:dark photoperiod and 20℃), almost all larvae were induced to diapause. However, when similar treatments were conducted age-specifically for the 5th instar larvae, diapause induction rates in 3- and 4-day-old larvae of the 5th instar decreased. In contrast, when larvae were subjected to the diapause induction treatment only during the periods from the hatching stage to the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instar, almost all larvae were not induced to diapause. The results suggest that the early age of the 5th larval instar is the last stage for sensitivity to diapause induction stimuli. In the diapause-induced larvae, hemolymph trehalose content increased and body supercooling points dropped, compared with those in non-diapause larvae.

Major Characteristics Related on Eating Quality and Classification of Inbred Lines of Waxy Corn (찰옥수수 자식계통 식미관련 특성 및 계통 분류)

  • Jung Tae-Wook;Kim Sun-Lim;Moon Hyeon-Gui;Son Beom-Young;Kim Si Ju;Kim Soon Kwon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.50 no.spc1
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    • pp.161-166
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    • 2005
  • Objectives of this study were to select inbred lines which have a good eating quality and desirable segregates during inbreeding of waxy corn. The 64 inbred lines showed a large variance in their kernel shape and weight. 100-kernel weight, pericarp thickness, kernel length, kernel width, and kernel thickness ranged $11.7\~37.3g,\;11\~77{\mu}m,\;5.8\~9.6mm,\;6.5\~10.0mm$, and $4.1\~6.8mm$, respectively. The physicochemical analysis of 64 waxy corn inbred lines showed crude protein, crude fat, free sugar, and amylopectin content ranging $8.7\~15.8\%,\;2.3\~5.8\%,\;1.1\~11.0\%,\;and\;78.5\~93.8\%$, respectively. The texture property analysis of 64 inbred lines by texture analyzer showed a big difference. Gumminess, hardness, and chewiness of 64 inbred lines ranged $91\~383,\;181\~394,\;and\;73\~370$, respectively. The principal component analysis for 14 characteristics related to kernel quality showed that $73.1\%$ of the total variation could be attributed to the first five principal components. Biological meaning of the principal component was explained clearly by the correlation coefficient between principal components and characters. The first principal component appeared to correspond to small kernel and bad eating quality, The second principal component appeared to correspond to large kernel and good eating quality. The 64 inbred lines were classified into 8 groups by the cluster analysis using the first and second principal component. Among the groups, group VII and VIII included inbred lines with good eating quality that had thin pericarp thickness, low protein content, large kernel, and soft tenderness.

Characteristics of Early Growth in Inbred Line of Dangyang Waxy Maize ("단양찰" 자식계통의 초기생육 특성)

  • Ji, Hee Chung;Kim, Choong-Soo;Lee, Hee-Bong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.149-157
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    • 2006
  • The objective of this research was to know useful genetic characteristics for breeding program of corn. These materials were inbreds after selfing of six or eight generations and had useful genetic informations. The emergence of Danyang Waxy Corn was faster than those of other inbred lines at 2~3 days in field conditions. The plant height of Dangyang Waxy Corn was the highest at 8 days after emergence. However the plant height of New Dangjin was the shortest with 6.25cm at 8 days after emergence, the fresh weight of New Dangjin was 0.046g at 2 days after emergence but that of Dangyang was the heaviest with 0.180g. The fresh weight of 9 inbred lines had more increments in 2 days after emergence. The mean values of dry weight also showed similar trends in 9 inbred lines. The shoot dry weight of inbred lines, Dangyang and New Dangjin was 0.045g and 0.018g at 8 days after emergence, respectively. The root length of inbred line, Dangyang, was the longest with 64.4cm at 8 days after emergence. But the root length of New Dangjin was the shortest with 20.4cm at 8 days after emergence. The fresh weight of endosperm was 0.35g at 2 days after emergence and 0.26g at 8 days after emergence in Dangyang Waxy Corn, because of reduced nutrition of endosperm.

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Flavonoid Biosynthesis: Biochemistry and Metabolic Engineering (Flavonoid 생합성:생화학과 대사공학적 응용)

  • Park, Jong-Sug;Kim, Jong-Bum;Kim, Kyung-Hwan;Ha, Sun-Hwa;Han, Bum-Soo;Kim, Yong-Hwan
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.265-275
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    • 2002
  • Flavonoid biosynthesis is one of the most extensively studied areas in the secondary metabolism. Due to the study of flavonoid metabolism in diverse plant system, the pathways become the best characterized secondary metabolites and can be excellent targets for metabolic engineering. These flavonoid-derived secondary metabolites have been considerably divergent functional roles: floral pigment, anticancer, antiviral, antitoxin, and hepatoprotective. Three species have been significant for elucidating the flavonoid metabolism and isolating the genes controlling the flavonoid genes: maize (Zea mays), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) and petunia (Prtunia hybrida). Recently, many genes involved in biosynthesis of flavonoid have been isolated and characterized using mutation and recombinant DNA technologies including transposon tagging and T-DNA tagging which are novel approaches for the discovery of uncharacterized genes. Metabolic engineering of flavonoid biosynthesis was approached by sense or antisense manipulation of the genes related with flavonoid pathway, or by modified expression of regulatory genes. So, the use of a variety of experimental tools and metabolic engineering facilitated the characterization of the flavonoid metabolism. Here we review recent progresses in flavonoid metabolism: confirmation of genes, metabolic engineering, and applications in the industrial use.

Simulation of Local Climate and Crop Productivity in Andong after Multi-Purpose Dam Construction (임하 다목적댐 건설 후 주변지역 기후 및 작물생산력 변화)

  • 윤진일;황재문;이순구
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.579-596
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    • 1997
  • A simulation study was carried out to delineate potential effects of the lake-induced climate change on crop productivity around Lake Imha which was formed after a multi-purpose dam construction in Andong, Korea. Twenty seven cropping zones were identified within the 30 km by 25 km study area. Five automated weather stations were installed within the study area and operated for five years after the lake formation. A geostatistical method was used to calculate the monthly climatological normals of daily maximum and minimum temperature, solar radiation and precipitation for each cropping zone before and after the dam construction. Daily weather data sets for 30 years were generated for each cropping zone from the monthly normals data representing "No lake" and "After lake" climatic scenarios, respectively. They were fed into crop models (ORYZA1 for rice, SOYGRO for soybean, CERES-maize for corn) to simulate the yield potential of each cropping zone. Calculated daily maximum temperature was higher after the dam construction for the period of October through March and lower for the remaining months except June and July. Decrease in daily minimum temperature was predicted for the period of April through August. Monthly total radiation was predicted to decrease after the lake formation in all the months except February, June, and September and the largest drop was found in winter. But there was no consistent pattern in precipitation change. According to the model calculation, the number of cropping zones which showed a decreased yield potential was 2 for soybean and 6 for corn out of 27 zones with a 10 to 17% yield drop. Little change in yield potential was found at most cropping zones in the case of paddy rice, but interannual variation was predicted to increase after the lake formation. the lake formation.

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Characterization of Oszinc626, knock-out in zinc finger RING-H2 protein gene, in Ac/Ds mutant lines of rice(Oryza sativar L.) (Zinc finger RING-H2 protein관련 Ac/Ds전이인자 삽입 변이체 Oszinc626 유전자의 특성 분석)

  • Park, Seul-Ah;Jung, Yu-Jin;Ahn, Byung-Ohg;Yun, Doh-Won;Ji, Hyeon-So;Park, Yong-Hwan;Eun, Moo-Young;Suh, Seok-Cheol;Lee, Soon-Youl;Lee, Myung-Chul
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.177-183
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    • 2008
  • Ac/Ds mutant lines of this study were transgenic rice plants, each of which harbored the maize transposable element Ds together with a GUS coding sequence under the control of a promoterless(Ds-GUS). We selected the mutants that were GUS expressed lines, because the GUS positive lines will be useful for identifying gene function in rice. One of these mutants was identified knock-out at Oszinc626(NP_001049991) gene, encoding a RING-H2 zinc-finger protein, by Ds insertion. In this mutant, while primary root development is normal, secondary root development from lateral root was very poor and seed development was incomplete compare with normal plant. RING zinc-finger proteins play important roles in the regulation of development in a variety of organisms. In the plant kingdom, a few genes encoding RING zinc-finger proteins have been documented with visible effects on plant growth and development. The consensus of the RING-H2(C3-H2-C3 type) domain for this group of protein is $Cys-X_2-Cys-X_{28}-Cys-X-His-X_2-His-X_2-Cys-X_{14}-Cys-X_2-Cys$. Oszinc626 encodes a predicted protein product of 445 amino acids residues with a molecular mass of 49 kDa, with a RING-zinc-finger motif located at the extreme end of the C-terminus. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression of Oszinc626 gene was induced by IAA, cold, dehydration, high-salinity and abscisic acid, but not by 2,4-D, and the transcription of Oszinc626 gene accumulated primarily in rice immature seeds, root meristem and shoots. The gene accumulation patterns were corresponded with GUS expression.

Evaluation of Pollen Viability of Nakdongbyeo, Two Transgenic Rice Lines, Its Hybrids with Weedy Rice, and Subsequent Selfed Progenies: F2 and F3 (낙동벼, 2개의 promoter를 각각 삽입한 유전자변형 계통과 잡초성벼(Oryza sativa)인공수정 한 후 다음세대인 F1, F2, F3의 화분활력 평가)

  • Ghimire, Sita Ram;Sohn, Eun-Young;Shin, Dong-Hyun;Lee, In-Jung;Kim, Kil-Ung
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.7
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    • pp.839-844
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    • 2009
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate pollen viability of Nakdongbyeo, transgenic rice lines, an F$_1$ hybrid from a cross between Milyang weedy rice and ABC-promoter transgenic rice line containing basta-resistant (bar) gene and subsequent selfed progenies, F$_2$ and F$_3$. The reaction of pollen with 3-{4,5 dimethylthiazolyl-2}-2,5-diphenyl monotetrazolium bromide (MTT) as a staining chemical immediately after pollen shedding showed maximum pollen viability of 86% in Nakdongbeyo, 75% in ABC-promoter transgenic rice line, 62% in ubiquitin-promoter transgenic line, 68% in F$_1$, 79% in F$_2$ and 78% in F$_3$. Viability gradually declined during subsequent observations at 20-minute intervals. However, there was a drastic decline in pollen viability after 40 minutes of pollen shedding. The mean difference of pollen viability among rice lines and time was highly significant, indicating significantly different pollen viabilities at different time intervals. Maximum viability of 36.2% was observed in F$_3$ and minimum viability of 3.5% was found in F$_2$ at 90 min after pollen shedding. Results of this experiment on pollen viability and longevity elucidate potential risks of pollen-mediated flow of herbicide-resistant gene from transgenic rice lines and possible integration of it into the weedy rice population.

Studies on Cropping System for Year-Round Cultivation of Forage Crops in Gyeongnam Province (경남지방에서 조사료 주년생산 작부체계에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Dal-Soon;Kim, Dae-Ho;Shin, Hyun-Yul;Son, Gil-Man;Rho, Chi-Woong;Kim, Jung-Gon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.137-152
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    • 2009
  • Present experiment was conducted at the field of Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services in Jinju city for two continuous cropping seasons to develop several adaptable and valuable year-round forage-producing system for elevating self-sufficiency and dollar-saving by reduced importing of crude forage. Twenty cropping systems were tested in experiment using whole crop barley (WCB), oat, rye, Italian ryegrass (IRG), and triticale in winter season and com, sorghum, sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid, and oat in summer time. Sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid showed highest fresh forage yield among experimented summer season crops, and followed com. Com produced the most dry matter yield, and followed sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid, sorghum and oat in order. There was no significant effect of former winter crops on fresh and dry matter production succeeding summer time crops. Among winter season forage crops tested, oat showed the highest fresh and dry matter when clipped on mid-May, and followed triticale, IRG, rye and WCB. Winter-time cultivated crops showed no clear effect on the growth and forage (fresh and dry matter) producing ability of following summer crops. There was the most protein content in oat plant among summer season planted crops, and in sorghum for acid detergent fiber (ADF) and in sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid for neutral detergent fiber (NDF), respectively. While, com showed highest value of relative feed value (RFV) and total digestive nutrients (TDN) among those crops. Among winter crops, the highest crude protein was in oat plant showing no significant differences of ADF and NDF, while, relatively higher value of RFV was recognized with rye and triticale. Also, triticale contained more TDN as compare to other forage crops. The cropping combinations such as com followed by (fb) rye and maize fb triticale were regarded as promising systems having higher dry matter producing ability among tested combinations. Considering TDN producing potential, the combinations with sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid fb triticale andlor rye were would be suitable ones, coincidently. There was a tendency which elevating pH, electric conductivity (EC) and organic matter (OM) contents in soil after experiment comparing to before planting. More crude protein content in plant was shown at mid-May clipping as compared to the forage at April cut in all winter season grown crops. ADF and NDF contents were increased by delayed clipping showing decreased tendency of RFV and TDN in plant. In conclusion, many cropping systems would be available using above mentioned forage crops according to farmer's conditions and scale, etc.

The Economic Feasibility Analysis of Crop Cultivation Practice Project in Pirganj and Kurigram Districts, Bangladesh (작물재배기술의 경제적 타당성 분석 : 방글라데시 피르간즈군과 쿠리그람군 사례)

  • Tabassum, Nazia;Lim, Jae-Hwan;Gim, Uhn-Soon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.85-100
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    • 2008
  • The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) funded collaborative project on The Economic Feasibility Analysis of Crop Cultivation Practice Project in Pirganj and Kurigram Districts in Bangladesh will started during 2008-2012, for 4 years with total project cost of US$ 571,270. The project will be implemented in 6 villages; has 1,097 hectares areas which is divided into 948 hectares of agricultural land, 52 hectares of forest land and 345 hectares of other land, covered 1,059 households equal to 5,305 persons in Pirganj and Kurigram districts The project has proposed to be implemented in joint collaboration by Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC), Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) and Rangpur Dinajpur Rural Service (RDRS) Bangladesh with full participation of the farmers' groups of respective project site. The specific objectives of the project are: (1) to estimate the productivity of paddy, wheat, maize, tobacco and sugarcane (2) to determine the cost of production and returns to the above mentioned crops (3) to study the interrelationship between inputs and output of the above mentioned crops and (4) to examine the resource utilization patterns at farm level. In this project analysis, the net incremental profit is US$33,028. The expected incremental project benefit and incremented production cost are estimated as US$ 219,959 and US$ 186,931 respectively. The financial decision making criteria would be followed in this crop cultivation practice project. After the project implementation, the expected project benefits are assumed to be continued for 15 years. The benefit cost ratio (B/C) of the project is estimated at 1.077 (table 11) when using discount rate of 10% as an opportunity cost of capital in Bangladesh. FIRR of project is estimated at 26.15% which is bigger than the opportunity cost by more than double. So this project is financially feasible and acceptable. Therefore, this project should be extended to other areas to increase the farm income and economic growth of marginal poor farmers in Bangladesh.

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