• Title/Summary/Keyword: Maize

Search Result 839, Processing Time 0.161 seconds

Current status of comparative compositional analysis for GM crop biosafety assessment (유전자변형작물 안전성평가를 위한 영양성분 비교연구 동향)

  • Kim, Eun-Ha;Oh, Seon-Woo;Lee, Sang-Gu;Lee, Sung-Kon;Ryu, Tae-Hun
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.47 no.4
    • /
    • pp.261-272
    • /
    • 2020
  • Approvals for cultivation and import of genetically modified (GM) crops have dramatically increased around the world. Comparative compositional studies are an important aspect of safety assessments of products from GM crops and are based on substantial equivalence. Compositional analyses focus on determining similarities and differences between the compositions of the GM crops and their conventional counterparts, and thereby assessing the compositional equivalence of GM crops and their conventional comparators. The analytes, such as major constituents, key nutrients, and antinutrients, are generally determined on a crop-specific basis according to the OECD consensus document. The use of standard methods throughout the processes, such as selection of comparators, field trials, analytical methods, and statistical data analysis, is crucial. In this study, we showed the general framework of compositional studies. Literature for compositional studies of GM crops conducted abroad and in Korea was reviewed to obtain information about analytes, conventional counterparts, cultivation year, location, and statistical methods. The studies conducted abroad assessed for commercial release of GM crops such as soybean, maize, and cotton, while domestic studies were mainly performed for research in rice. In addition, we suggested a guidance for conventional comparators and field trials applicable to the domestic situation.

A Comparative Study on the Chemical Methods for the Determination of Available Phosphorus in Korean Soils (한국토양(韓國土壤)의 유효인산량(有效燐酸量) 검정(檢定)을 위한 화학적(化學的) 방법(方法)에 대한 연구(硏究))

  • Lim, Sun-Uk;Chung, Jong-Bae;Sa, Tong-Min
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
    • /
    • v.29 no.1
    • /
    • pp.62-72
    • /
    • 1986
  • At present, the definition and chemical analysis method of available soil phosphorus for plants have not been standardized because of the complexity of crop and soil characteristics in Korea and many analysis methods have been suggested with different extraction conditions. Suitable analytical method of available soil P should be established by the trial of various methods based on crop nutrition and soil conditions. To establish the most suitable analysis method of available soiIP, a pot experiment with young maize was conducted over 44 different upland soils collected over the land of Korea. The amount of uptaken P by the plant was determined by ten different chemical methods for the available soil P. The results obtained were as follows: 1. Total phosphorus content in the sample soils ranged ranged $533{\sim}4917\;ppm$, and showed significant positive correlation with the content of organic matter. 2. The P content was relatively low in the acid sulfate soil and very high in the volcanic ash soil although both types of soil contained high level of orgic matter. 3. The amount of extractable P determined by ten different methods were varied more or less, and the ratios of the extractable P to the total soil P were in the range of $1{\sim}48%$. 4. The relative values to the amount of extractable soil P by different methods were in the order of $H_2O(5\;min.)\;1.0\;<\;H_2O(60min.)\;2.27\;<\;NH_4HCO_3\;5.57\;<\;NaHCO_3\;7.42\;<\;Double\;lactate\;9.71\;<\;Bray\;No.1\;12.53\;<\;Lancaster\;17.63\;<\;Nelson\;25.96\;<\;AcOH\;27.6\;<\;CAL-method\;50.27$ 5. The amount of extractable P determined by all of applied methods was very low in acid sulfate soil, volcanic ash soil and coarse textured soil. 6. Soil pH and total soil P generally showed significant positive correlation with the chemically extracted P, and soil organic matter was negatively correlated with the determined by Nelson-and CAL-method. Olsen method which showed significant correlation with exchangeable calcium seemed to be recommendable for calcareous soils. 7. Total amount of uptaken P by Young maize through continuos twice cropping was 4.05% of total soil P in average, and the uptake in the second cropping was twice as much as that of the first cropping. 8. Three determination methods, i.e. Soltanpour-, Double lactate and Bray No. 1-method seemed to be more suitable than Lancaster method which is widely practiced at present in Korea. However, further study should be carried out with other crops and soils to most adequate chemical method for determination of available soil P.

  • PDF

Estimating carbon uptake in forest and agricultural ecosystems of Korea and other countries using eddy covariance flux data (에디 공분산 기반의 플럭스 타워 관측자료를 이용한 국내외 산림과 농업 생태계 탄소 흡수량 분석)

  • Lee, Bora;Kang, Wanmo;Kim, Choong-Ki;Kim, Gieun;Lee, Chang-Hoon
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
    • /
    • v.26 no.2
    • /
    • pp.127-139
    • /
    • 2017
  • Measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of $CO_2$ based on the eddy covariance technique provide reasonable carbon balance estimates in response to local environmental conditions. In South Korea, the forest ecosystems cover approximately 64% of the total area, thereby strongly affecting regional carbon balances. Cultivated croplands that cover about 17% of the total area should also be considered when calculating the carbon balance of the country. In this study, our objectives were (a) to quantify the range and seasonal variation of NEE at forest ecosystems, including deciduous, coniferous, and mixed forests, and agricultural ecosystems, including rice paddies and a potato field, in South Korea and (b) to compare NEE at ten Fluxnet sites that have the same or similar ecosystems as found in South Korea. The results showed that the forest and agricultural ecosystems were carbon sinks. In Korea, NEE at the forest ecosystems varied between -31 and $-362gC/m^2/yr$, and NEE at the croplands ranged from -210 to $-248gC/m^2/growing$ season. At the deciduous forest, NEE reached low values in late spring, early summer, and early autumn, while at the coniferous forest, it reached low values in spring, early summer, and mid autumn. The young mixed forest was a much stronger carbon sink than the old-growth deciduous and coniferous forests. During each crop growing season, beet had the lowest NEE value within six crops, followed by wither wheat, maize, rice, potato, and soybean. These results will be useful for designing and applying management strategies for the reduction of $CO_2$ emissions.

Changes in Ear and Kernel Characteristics of Colored Waxy Corn Hybrids During Ripening with Different Sowing Dates (파종시기에 따른 유색찰옥수수 품종의 등숙 중 이삭 및 종실 특성 변화)

  • Kim, Mi-Jung;Lee, Jae-Eun;Kim, Jung-Tae;Jung, Gun-Ho;Lee, Jin-Seok;Kim, Sun-Lim;Youn, Kyoung-Jin;Kim, Wook-Han;Chung, Ill-Min
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.60 no.3
    • /
    • pp.308-317
    • /
    • 2015
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the ear and kernel characteristics of colored waxy corn hybrids during ripening according to different sowing dates. Heukjinjuchal and Eolrukchal 1 were sown at April 20 (first cropping) and July 20 (second cropping) in 2011~2012. The accumulated temperature from silking to harvesting was about $590{\sim}610^{\circ}C$. It takes 23~24 days when Heukjinjuchal and Eolrukchal 1 were sown in April 20, but July 20 sowing takes 32~35 days. Ear weight, ear diameter, 100-kernel weight and starch content of colored waxy corn were increased as ears matured (p<0.05). Growth temperature was getting decreased during the ripening stage of second cropping, the rate of ear and kernel development had slowed. Starch granules started to accumulate in the cells around the pericarp, then developed in the cells around the embryo. In the second cropping, starch granules in the kernel of colored waxy corn were less compact than the first cropping. The contents of total anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside were increased according to ripening (p<0.05). These results will be helpful to farmers for double cropping of colored waxy corn cultivation and management.

Characterization of Oszinc626, knock-out in zinc finger RING-H2 protein gene, in Ac/Ds mutant lines of rice(Oryza sativar L.) (Zinc finger RING-H2 protein관련 Ac/Ds전이인자 삽입 변이체 Oszinc626 유전자의 특성 분석)

  • Park, Seul-Ah;Jung, Yu-Jin;Ahn, Byung-Ohg;Yun, Doh-Won;Ji, Hyeon-So;Park, Yong-Hwan;Eun, Moo-Young;Suh, Seok-Cheol;Lee, Soon-Youl;Lee, Myung-Chul
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.35 no.3
    • /
    • pp.177-183
    • /
    • 2008
  • Ac/Ds mutant lines of this study were transgenic rice plants, each of which harbored the maize transposable element Ds together with a GUS coding sequence under the control of a promoterless(Ds-GUS). We selected the mutants that were GUS expressed lines, because the GUS positive lines will be useful for identifying gene function in rice. One of these mutants was identified knock-out at Oszinc626(NP_001049991) gene, encoding a RING-H2 zinc-finger protein, by Ds insertion. In this mutant, while primary root development is normal, secondary root development from lateral root was very poor and seed development was incomplete compare with normal plant. RING zinc-finger proteins play important roles in the regulation of development in a variety of organisms. In the plant kingdom, a few genes encoding RING zinc-finger proteins have been documented with visible effects on plant growth and development. The consensus of the RING-H2(C3-H2-C3 type) domain for this group of protein is $Cys-X_2-Cys-X_{28}-Cys-X-His-X_2-His-X_2-Cys-X_{14}-Cys-X_2-Cys$. Oszinc626 encodes a predicted protein product of 445 amino acids residues with a molecular mass of 49 kDa, with a RING-zinc-finger motif located at the extreme end of the C-terminus. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression of Oszinc626 gene was induced by IAA, cold, dehydration, high-salinity and abscisic acid, but not by 2,4-D, and the transcription of Oszinc626 gene accumulated primarily in rice immature seeds, root meristem and shoots. The gene accumulation patterns were corresponded with GUS expression.

Simulation of Local Climate and Crop Productivity in Andong after Multi-Purpose Dam Construction (임하 다목적댐 건설 후 주변지역 기후 및 작물생산력 변화)

  • 윤진일;황재문;이순구
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.42 no.5
    • /
    • pp.579-596
    • /
    • 1997
  • A simulation study was carried out to delineate potential effects of the lake-induced climate change on crop productivity around Lake Imha which was formed after a multi-purpose dam construction in Andong, Korea. Twenty seven cropping zones were identified within the 30 km by 25 km study area. Five automated weather stations were installed within the study area and operated for five years after the lake formation. A geostatistical method was used to calculate the monthly climatological normals of daily maximum and minimum temperature, solar radiation and precipitation for each cropping zone before and after the dam construction. Daily weather data sets for 30 years were generated for each cropping zone from the monthly normals data representing "No lake" and "After lake" climatic scenarios, respectively. They were fed into crop models (ORYZA1 for rice, SOYGRO for soybean, CERES-maize for corn) to simulate the yield potential of each cropping zone. Calculated daily maximum temperature was higher after the dam construction for the period of October through March and lower for the remaining months except June and July. Decrease in daily minimum temperature was predicted for the period of April through August. Monthly total radiation was predicted to decrease after the lake formation in all the months except February, June, and September and the largest drop was found in winter. But there was no consistent pattern in precipitation change. According to the model calculation, the number of cropping zones which showed a decreased yield potential was 2 for soybean and 6 for corn out of 27 zones with a 10 to 17% yield drop. Little change in yield potential was found at most cropping zones in the case of paddy rice, but interannual variation was predicted to increase after the lake formation. the lake formation.

  • PDF

A Comparison of the Disease and Insect Damage, and Growth Characteristics of Sorghum and Foxtail Millet between Rotational Upland and Continuously Cropped Upland Field in Order to Identify the Optimum Varieties for an Organic Paddy-Upland Rotation System (답전윤환 적합 품종 선발을 위한 윤환밭과 연속밭에서의 수수, 조의 병충해, 생육 특성 비교)

  • Yu, Je-Bin;Yoon, Seong-Tak;Yang, Jing;Ye, Min-Hee
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.62 no.3
    • /
    • pp.224-232
    • /
    • 2017
  • In this study, we investigated the disease, insect damage, growth, and yield characteristics of sorghum and foxtail millet in an organic paddy-upland rotation system at Anseong-si Gyeonggi province, Korea, in 2016. Seven varieties of sorghum and foxtail millet are used in this study. A rotational upland field and continuously cropped upland field were compared in order to establish an optimum cultural method and to select the best sorghum and foxtail varieties for a paddy-upland rotation system. The incidence rate of major diseases was higher for sorghum than for foxtail millet. Moktaksusu (22.8%) had the highest incidence rate among sorghum varieties. Hwanggeumchal (7.0%) had the highest incidence rate among foxtail millet varieties. DS202 (89.3%) was the most severely damaged by Ostrinia furnacalis larva, which is the main pest of sorghum and maize. The weed numbers, and the weed fresh and dry weights were lower in the rotational upland field than in the continuously cropped upland field. Futhermore, the number of weed plants decreased by 42% and the dry weight of weeds decreased by 33% in the rotational upland field compared to the continuously cropped upland field. The culm length of sorghum and foxtail millet were 7.9 cm, and 3.4 cm longer, respectively, in the rotational upland field than in the continuously cropped upland field. The average yield of sorghum per 10 a increased by 90% in the rotational upland field compared to continuously cropped upland field. However, there was no significant difference between the rotational upland field and the continuously cropped upland field for foxtail millet. The most suitable varieties for a paddy-upland rotation system were judged to be Hwanggeumchal, Donganmae, and DS202 for sorghum, and Samdachal, Samdamae, Dahwangmae for foxtail millet.

Characteristics of Maize Line Treated with Mutagen of γ-Ray at M1 Generation (돌연변이원(突然變異原) γ-선(線)을 처리(處理)한 M1 세대(世代) 옥수수 계통(系統)의 특성(特性))

  • Lee, Hee Bong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
    • /
    • v.22 no.2
    • /
    • pp.156-162
    • /
    • 1995
  • This study was carried out to select the useful mutants among 20 lines treated with mutagen, gamma ray. These materials were treated with 15, 20, 25 and 30Krads, respectively and sowed at experimental field of College of Agriculture on 27th May, 1995. Items surveyed were germination rate and loss of chlorophyll at seedling stages, abnormal reproductive organs, discordance of flowering times and stem and ear height at ripening stages. The germination rate of lines treated with 15 Krad was different. The germination rate of the IK1, IK2 and Sinki lines were high, while the IK3, A632 and FR140 lines were very low. At same dose level, the germination rate of both IK1/H26 and Puyo synthetic variety were different; the germination rate of the IK1/H26 was high as above 70% at all treatments, while that of the Puyo synthetic variety was very poor at above 20 Krad. Generally stem adn ear height of the IK1/H26 were gradually decreased as the dose of mutagen increased, but there was no difference in stem and ear height of the IK1/H26 when this line was treated with 20Krad. The stem and ear height of lines treated with 15 Krad were shown to be decreased than those of check with non-treatment. The number of tiller of tillering lines were not greatly affected by ${\gamma}$-ray treatment.

  • PDF

The Economic Feasibility Analysis of Crop Cultivation Practice Project in Pirganj and Kurigram Districts, Bangladesh (작물재배기술의 경제적 타당성 분석 : 방글라데시 피르간즈군과 쿠리그람군 사례)

  • Tabassum, Nazia;Lim, Jae-Hwan;Gim, Uhn-Soon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
    • /
    • v.35 no.1
    • /
    • pp.85-100
    • /
    • 2008
  • The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) funded collaborative project on The Economic Feasibility Analysis of Crop Cultivation Practice Project in Pirganj and Kurigram Districts in Bangladesh will started during 2008-2012, for 4 years with total project cost of US$ 571,270. The project will be implemented in 6 villages; has 1,097 hectares areas which is divided into 948 hectares of agricultural land, 52 hectares of forest land and 345 hectares of other land, covered 1,059 households equal to 5,305 persons in Pirganj and Kurigram districts The project has proposed to be implemented in joint collaboration by Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC), Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) and Rangpur Dinajpur Rural Service (RDRS) Bangladesh with full participation of the farmers' groups of respective project site. The specific objectives of the project are: (1) to estimate the productivity of paddy, wheat, maize, tobacco and sugarcane (2) to determine the cost of production and returns to the above mentioned crops (3) to study the interrelationship between inputs and output of the above mentioned crops and (4) to examine the resource utilization patterns at farm level. In this project analysis, the net incremental profit is US$33,028. The expected incremental project benefit and incremented production cost are estimated as US$ 219,959 and US$ 186,931 respectively. The financial decision making criteria would be followed in this crop cultivation practice project. After the project implementation, the expected project benefits are assumed to be continued for 15 years. The benefit cost ratio (B/C) of the project is estimated at 1.077 (table 11) when using discount rate of 10% as an opportunity cost of capital in Bangladesh. FIRR of project is estimated at 26.15% which is bigger than the opportunity cost by more than double. So this project is financially feasible and acceptable. Therefore, this project should be extended to other areas to increase the farm income and economic growth of marginal poor farmers in Bangladesh.

  • PDF

Geographical Migration of Winter Barley in the Korean Peninsula under the RCP8.5 Projected Climate Condition (신 기후변화시나리오에 따른 한반도 내 겨울보리 재배적지 이동)

  • Kim, Dae-Jun;Kim, Jin-Hee;Roh, Jae-Hwan;Yun, Jin I.
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
    • /
    • v.14 no.4
    • /
    • pp.161-169
    • /
    • 2012
  • The RCP 8.5 scenario based temperature outlook (12.5 km resolution) was combined with high-definition gridded temperature maps (30 m grid spacing) across the Korean Peninsula in order to reclassify the cold hardiness zone for winter barley, a promising grain crop in the future under warmer winter conditions. Reference maps for the January minimum and mean temperature were prepared by applying the watershed-specific geospatial climate prediction schemes to the synoptic observations from 1981 to 2010 across North and South Korea. Decadal changes in the January minimum and mean temperatures projected by a regional version of RCP8.5 climate change scenario were prepared for the 2011-2100 period at 12.5 km grid spacing and were subsequently added to the reference maps, producing the 30 m resolution temperature surfaces for 9 decades from 2011 to 2100. A criterion for threshold temperature to grow winter barley safely in Korea was applied to the future temperature surfaces and the resulting maps were used to predict the production potential of 3 cultivar groups for the 9 future decades under the projected temperature conditions. By 2020s, hulled barley cultivars could be grown safely at the southern part of North Korea as well as the mountainous Gangwon province. Furthermore, most of South Korean rice paddies will be safe for growing naked barley after harvesting rice. Also, dual cropping systems such as 'winter-barley after rice' could be possible at most of the North Korean rice paddies by 2040s. Additional grain production in North Korea could increase up to 4 million tons per year if dual cropping systems can be fully operated, i.e., winter barley after rice at all lowlands and winter barley after maize or potato at all uplands.