• Title/Summary/Keyword: Maize

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Population of Laodelphax striatellus, Percentage of Rice Black-streaked Dwarf Virus(RBSDV) Viruliferous Vector and RBSDV Infection of Maize in Different Locations (지역별 애멸구 발생양상과 옥수수 흑조위축병 발생)

  • Lee, Suk-Soon;Park, Keun-Yong;Park, Seung-Ue;Lee, Sang-Seuk
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.74-80
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    • 1988
  • Seasonal population changes in Laodelphax striatellus Fallen (small brown planthopper), percentage of rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) viruliferous L. striatellus, and RBSDV infection of 11 corn hybrids were observed at various locations and years. The population size of L. striatellus was relatively small in the middle parts of Korea, but it was much greater in the southern areas. The population size of the first generation of adult L. striatellus emerged from late April to early May was similar or smaller compared with that of the second generation emerged in middle June in the middle parts of Korea. However, in the southern areas the population size of second generation was much greater than the first generation. The percentage of RBSDV viruliferous L. striatellus differed depending on the years, locations, and testing methods. The percentage of viruliferous vector was highest in southern plain areas and it tended to decrease with distance from the areas. The percentage of viruliferous vectors tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was higher than that tested by rice seedling test. The RBSDV infection rate of corn hybrids was highest at Daegu and ranged from 9 to 39% probably due to both a higher L. striatellus population and a higher percentage of viruliferous vectors. However, it was significantly lower in other areas and ranged from 0 to 13%.

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Concentration- and Time-Dependent Effect of Disinfectant Treatment on Sorghum Seeds (소독제의 침지시간 및 희석농도가 수수 발아 및 오염율에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Kyeongmin;Choi, Se-Hyun;Kim, Changsoo
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.65 no.2
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    • pp.124-129
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    • 2020
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is an annual crop belonging to Poaceae, and is the fifth-largest crop after maize, wheat, rice, and barley. This study was conducted to establish an efficient seed sterilization method to manage fungal or bacterial infections of germinating sorghum seeds. Two varieties of sorghum seeds (BTx623 and SAP317) were treated with benomyl-thiram and thiophanate-methyl triflumizole which are known to be effective disinfectants for sorghum seeds. For SAP317, the highest germination rate was accomplished with 24-hour treatment of both chemicals at a 200× dilution rate. For BTx623, the highest germination rate was observed after 24-hour treatment at a 200×/400× dilution rate for benomyl-thiram and control/200× for thiophanate-methyl triflumizole. Consequently, the optimal treatment for the seed disinfection in sorghum seeds may be at the dilution rate of 200× or 400× for 24 hours.

Different Sources and Levels of Copper Supplementation on Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Castrated Black Bengal (Capra hircus) Kids Diet

  • Mondal, M.K.;Biswas, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.7
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    • pp.1067-1075
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    • 2007
  • Twenty eight 3-4 month old castrated Black Bengal kids (Capra hircus) were used to determine the effects of source and level of dietary copper (Cu) concentration on their performance and nutrient utilization. Cu was supplemented (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg diet DM) as copper sulfate ($CuSO_4$, $5H_2O$) or copper proteinate (Cu-P). Kids were fed a basal diet containing maize (19.5%), soybean (17.0%), deoiled rice bran (56.5%), molasses (4.0%), di-calcium phosphate and salt (1.0% each) and mineral and vitamin mixture (0.5% each) supplements at 3.5% of body weight to meet NRC (1981) requirements for protein, energy, macro minerals and micro minerals, excluding Cu. The basal diet contained 5.7 mg Cu/kg, 122.5 mg Fe/kg, 110 mg Zn/kg, 0.26 mg Mo/kg and 0.32% S. $CuSO_4$ or Cu-P was added to the basal diet at the rate of 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg. Kids were housed in a well ventilated shed with facilities for individual feeding in aluminum plated metabolic cages. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d 0, 30, 60 and 90 to determine hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC) and serum enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, alanine transferase and aspertate transferase). A metabolism trial of 6 days duration was conducted after 90 days of experimental feeding. Statistical analysis revealed that source and level of Cu supplementation improved live weight gain (p<0.04) and average daily gain (p<0.01). No significant contribution of source and level of Cu to alter serum serum enzymes was evident. Goats fed Cu-P tended to have higher Hb, PCV and TEC than with $CuSO_4$ supplementation. Cu-P increased digestibility of ether extract (EE, p<0.02) and crude fiber (p<0.05) and showed an increasing trend (p<0.09) for digested crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF). Supplemental dose of Cu linearly improved (p<0.02) digestibilities of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), EE and nitrogen free extract (NFE). Though the absorption of nitrogen (N) was not affected (p>0.10) by both source and dose of Cu, N retention was affected (p<0.04) and there was a significant $Source{\times}Dose$ interaction (p<0.05). Final body weight (BW) was not influenced (p>0.10) by the source of Cu but increasing dose of Cu increased (p<0.04) the BW of kids. TDN intake (g/kg $W^{0.75}$) was higher (p<0.05) with the increased dose of Cu and there was a significant $Source{\times}Dose$ interaction. It was concluded that supplementation of Cu from different sources and varying dose level in a concentrate based diet may improve performance, nutrient utilization and plane of nutrition in castrated Black Bengal kids. The effects on performance and nutrient utilization are more pronounced with Cu-P than $CuSO_4$ supplementation. Higher dose of Cu showed better result than lower dose.

Evaluation of Different Yeast Species for Improving In vitro Fermentation of Cereal Straws

  • Wang, Zuo;He, Zhixiong;Beauchemin, Karen A.;Tang, Shaoxun;Zhou, Chuanshe;Han, Xuefeng;Wang, Min;Kang, Jinhe;Odongo, Nicholas E.;Tan, Zhiliang
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.230-240
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    • 2016
  • Information on the effects of different yeast species on ruminal fermentation is limited. This experiment was conducted in a $3{\times}4$ factorial arrangement to explore and compare the effects of addition of three different live yeast species (Candida utilis 1314, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1355, and Candida tropicalis 1254) at four doses (0, $0.25{\times}10^7$, $0.50{\times}10^7$, and $0.75{\times}10^7$ colony-forming unit [cfu]) on in vitro gas production kinetics, fiber degradation, methane production and ruminal fermentation characteristics of maize stover, and rice straw by mixed rumen microorganisms in dairy cows. The maximum gas production (Vf), dry matter disappearance (IVDMD), neutral detergent fiber disappearance (IVNDFD), and methane production in C. utilis group were less (p<0.01) than other two live yeast supplemented groups. The inclusion of S. cerevisiae reduced (p<0.01) the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen ($NH_3$-N), isobutyrate, and isovalerate compared to the other two yeast groups. C. tropicalis addition generally enhanced (p<0.05) IVDMD and IVNDFD. The $NH_3$-N concentration and $CH_4$ production were increased (p<0.05) by the addition of S. cerevisiae and C. tropicalis compared with the control. Supplementation of three yeast species decreased (p<0.05) or numerically decreased the ratio of acetate to propionate. The current results indicate that C. tropicalis is more preferred as yeast culture supplements, and its optimal dose should be $0.25{\times}10^7$ cfu/500 mg substrates in vitro.

Effects of Amount of Concentrate Supplement on Forage Intake, Diet Digestibility and Live Weight Gain in Yellow Cattle in Vietnam

  • Ba, Nguyen Xuan;Van Huu, Nguyen;Ngoan, Le Duc;Leddin, Clare M.;Doyle, Peter T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.12
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    • pp.1736-1744
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    • 2008
  • Two experiments were conducted in central Vietnam to test the hypothesis that supplementation with a concentrate, comprising rice bran (45% fresh basis), maize (49%), fish meal (3%), urea (2%) and salt (1%), up to 2% of live weight (LW)/d (dry matter (DM) basis) would linearly increase digestible organic matter intake and LW gain of yellow cattle. In both experiments, there were five treatments, namely a basal diet of fresh grass fed at 1.25% of LW (experiment 1, elephant grass, Pennisetum purpureum; experiment 2, native grass) and rice straw (Oryza sativa) fed ad libitum or this diet supplemented with concentrate at about 0.3, 0.7, 1.3 or 2.0% LW. There were 4 male growing cattle per treatment in experiment 1 and 3 in experiment 2. Diets were fed for 44 (experiment 1) or 49 (experiment 2) days, with feed intake recorded daily, LW measured about weekly and digestibility measurements made over 7 days commencing on day 24 (experiment 1) or day 10 (experiment 2). The elephant grass and native grass had neutral detergent fibre (NDF) concentrations of 82 and 73% DM, and nitrogen concentrations of 1.3 and 1.8% DM, respectively. The rice straw used had a NDF concentration of 79-84% DM and nitrogen concentration of 0.8% DM. The concentrate had NDF and nitrogen concentrations of 33 and 2.8% DM. In both experiments, DM intake increased (p<0.001) linearly as the amount of concentrate consumed increased. Rice straw intake declined (p<0.001) (experiment 1: 1.24 to 0.48 kg DM/d; experiment 2: 0.95 to 0.50 kg DM/d) as concentrate intake increased. Grass intake was not significantly affected by concentrate intake in either experiment. The lowest amount of concentrate supplement increased forage intake, after which substitution rate increased as the amount of concentrate consumed increased. However, substitution rates at the highest amount of concentrate consumed were modest at 0.3 to 0.5 kg DM reduction in forage intake/kg DM supplement consumed. In both experiments, digestible organic matter intake increased linearly (p<0.001) (experiment 1: 1.16 to 2.38 kg/d; experiment 2: 1.30 to 2.49 kg/d) as the amount of supplement consumed increased, as did LW gain (experiment 1: 0.15 to 0.81 kg/d; experiment 2: 0.15 to 0.77 kg/d). This was associated with significant (p<0.01) linear increases in organic matter intake and apparent organic matter digestibility. Neutral detergent fibre digestibility declined as concentrate intake increased, but the effect was not significant (p = 0.051) in experiment 2. These results are discussed in relation to existing literature and potential to improve the profitability of cattle fattening in central Vietnam.

Effects of Dietary Supplementation with the Combination of Zeolite and Attapulgite on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Secretion of Digestive Enzymes and Intestinal Health in Broiler Chickens

  • Zhou, P.;Tan, Y.Q.;Zhang, L.;Zhou, Y.M.;Gao, F.;Zhou, G.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.1311-1318
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    • 2014
  • This study was designed to investigate the effects of basal diets supplemented with a clay product consisting of zeolite and attapulgite (ZA) at 1:1 ratio on growth performance, digestibility of feed nutrients, activities of digestive enzymes in small intestine and intestinal health in broiler chickens. In experiment 1, 112 one-day-old male chickens were randomly divided into 2 groups with 8 replicates of 7 chickens each. In experiment 2, 84 one-day-old male chickens were randomly allocated into 2 groups consisting 6 replicates of 7 chickens each. The experimental diets both consisted of a maize-soybean basal control diet supplemented with 0% or 2% ZA. The diets were fed from 1 to 42 days of age. The results showed that ZA supplementation could increase body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI), but had no significant effect on feed conversion ratio. The apparent digestibility values of crude protein and gross energy were significantly increased (p<0.05) by ZA from 14 to 16 d and 35 to 37 d. Dietary ZA treatment significantly increased (p<0.05) the activities of amylase, lipase and trypsin in jejunal digesta and the activities of maltase and sucrase in jejunal mucosa on days 21 and 42. The ZA supplementation also significantly increased (p<0.05) the catalase activity, reduced (p<0.05) the malondialdehyde concentration in the jejunal mucosa. In addition, a decrease of serum diamine oxidase activity and an increase (p<0.05) in concentration of secretory immunoglobulin A in jejunal mucosa were observed in birds treated with ZA on 21 and 42 days. It is concluded that ZA supplementation (2%) could partially improve the growth performance by increasing BWG and FI. This improvement was achieved through increasing the secretion of digestive enzymes, enhancing the digestibilites of nutrients, promoting intestinal health of broiler chickens.

Effect of commercially purified deoxynivalenol and zearalenone mycotoxins on microbial diversity of pig cecum contents

  • Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar;Kim, Minji;Kim, Ki Hyun;Ji, Sang Yun;Baek, Youlchang;Chun, Ju Lan;Jung, Hyun Jung;Choe, Changyong;Lee, Hyun Jeong;Kim, Minseok;Lee, Sung Dae
    • Animal Bioscience
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.243-255
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    • 2021
  • Objective: Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are mycotoxins that frequently contaminate maize and grain cereals, imposing risks to the health of both humans and animals and leading to economic losses. The gut microbiome has been shown to help combat the effects of such toxins, with certain microorganisms reported to contribute significantly to the detoxification process. Methods: We examined the cecum contents of three different dietary groups of pigs (control, as well as diets contaminated with 8 mg DON/kg feed or 0.8 mg ZEN/kg feed). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were acquired from the cecum contents and evaluated by next-generation sequencing. Results: A total of 2,539,288 sequences were generated with ~500 nucleotide read lengths. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla, occupying more than 96% of all three groups. Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Megasphaera, and Campylobacter showed potential as biomarkers for each group. Particularly, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides were more abundant in the DON and ZEN groups than in the control. Additionally, 52,414 operational taxonomic units were detected in the three groups; those of Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Campylobacter, and Prevotella were most dominant and significantly varied between groups. Hence, contamination of feed by DON and ZEN affected the cecum microbiota, while Lactobacillus and Bacteroides were highly abundant and positively influenced the host physiology. Conclusion: Lactobacillus and Bacteroides play key roles in the process of detoxification and improving the immune response. We, therefore, believe that these results may be useful for determining whether disturbances in the intestinal microflora, such as the toxic effects of DON and ZEN, can be treated by modulating the intestinal bacterial flora.

Relative Performance of Fattening Lambs on Raw and Processed Cottonseed Meal Incorporated Diets

  • Nagalakshmi, D.;Sastry, V.R.B.;Agrawal, D.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.29-35
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    • 2003
  • In order to find the feasibility of feeding raw or processed cotton (Gossypium) seed meal (CSM), 30 male crossbred lambs were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments with 6 animals each. Lambs were fed each of the isonitrogenous and isocaloric concentrate mixtures containing 30% deoiled groundnut cake (DGNC) (reference diet), 40% raw, 45 minute cooked, 1% $Ca(OH)_2$ or iron (1 part free gossypol:0.3 parts iron) treated CSM (replacing about 50% nitrogen moiety of reference concentrate mixture). The concentrate mixture was fed to meet 80% of CP requirements (NRC, 1985) along with ad libitum maize (Zea mays) hay for 180 days. Incorporation of raw or processed CSM did not affect the palatability of diets as evidenced by higher (p<0.01) or comparable overall daily intakes of DM and protein (CP and Digestible CP) per kg $W^{0.75}$ by lambs in comparison to reference group. Intakes of DE and ME increased (p<0.01) due to inclusion $Ca(OH)_2$ treated CSM in diets, while the intakes were lower (p<0.01) on iron treated CSM based diet when compared with reference diet. The intakes of DM, CP, TDN, DE and ME by reference and experimental lambs were higher than the requirements stipulated by NRC (1985). The growth rate was highest (p<0.01) in lambs fed on diets with cooked CSM followed by those fed raw or $Ca(OH)_2$ treated CSM based diets. The growth of lambs fed on iron treated CSM diets was depressed (p<0.01) in comparison to that of other experimental lambs probably due to increased iron intake (889 mg/kg DM of diet) which was much higher than the toxic levels of 500 ppm (NRC, 1980). The lambs on various diets utilized DM with similar efficiency while the utilization of energy (TDN, DE and ME) was more efficient (p<0.01) when the diets contained raw or cooked CSM in comparison to that of reference diet. The lambs fed raw and $Ca(OH)_2$ treated CSM incorporated diets utilized DCP with higher (p<0.01) efficiency than the lambs fed reference diet. The feed cost per kg weight gain was lower (p<0.01) on raw, cooked and $Ca(OH)_2$ treated CSM based diets in comparison to reference diet. Cooking of CSM for 45 minutes further reduced the feed cost of weight gain.

Effect of Different Source of Energy on Urea Molasses Mineral Block Intake, Nutrient Utilization, Rumen Fermentation Pattern and Blood Profile in Murrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

  • Hosamani, S.V.;Mehra, U.R.;Dass, R.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.818-822
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    • 2003
  • In order to investigate the effect of different sources of energy on intake and nutrient utilization from urea molasses mineral block (UMMB), rumen fermentation pattern and blood biochemical constituents, 18 intact and 9 rumen fistulated male Murrah buffaloes aged about 3 years and average weight 310.8 kg were randomly allocated into three groups of 9 animals in each, thus each group having 6 intact and three rumen fistulated buffaloes. All animals were fed individually for 90 days. All buffaloes were offered wheat straw as basal roughage and urea molasses mineral block for free choice of licking. Three different energy sources viz., barley grain, (group I), maize grain (group II) and jowar green (group III) were offered to meet their nutrient requirement as per Kearl (1982). At the end of feeding trial, a metabolism trial of 7 days duration was carried out on intact animals to determine the digestibility of nutrients. Rumen fermentation studies were carried out on rumen fistulated animals. After the metabolism trial blood was collected from intact animals to estimate the nitrogen constituents in blood serum of animals fed on different sources of energy. Results revealed no significant difference in the intake of UMMB in three groups. Similarly, the intake of DM (kg), DCP (g) and TDN (kg) per day was similar in three groups statistically. The apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), ether extract (EE) and nitrogen free extract (NFE) was significantly (p<0.05) more in group II than group III, whereas the digestibility of DM, OM and NFE was similar in group I and II. The digestibility of crude fiber (CF) and all the fiber fractions i.e. NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemicellulose was alike in 3 groups. Nitrogen balance (g/d) was significantly (p<0.05) more in group III as compared to group I and II, which were alike statistically, though the N intake (g/d) was similar in 3 groups but N balance (g/d) was significantly (p<0.05) less in group III as compared to other 2 groups. Significantly (p<0.05) higher concentration of total volatile fatty acids (TVFA), total nitrogen (TN) and its fractions were observed in group I and II as compared to group III. There was no effect on rumen pH, rumen volume and digesta flow rate due to different sources of energy in 3 groups. Similarly the blood serum biochemical parameters (NH3-N, urea-N and total protein) were statistically identical in 3 groups.

Requirement of Non-phytate Phosphorus in Synthetic Broiler Breeder Diet

  • Bhanja, S.K.;Reddy, V.R.;Panda, A.K.;Rama Rao, S.V.;Sharma, R.P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.933-938
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    • 2007
  • An experiment was conducted to study the laying performance, shell quality, bone mineralization, hatchability of eggs and performance of progeny (weight at day one and 14 d of age, P content in day old chick, leg score and survivability of chicks) of synthetic broiler breeders fed different levels of non-phytate phosphorus (NPP). Six levels of NPP (1.2, 1.8, 2.4, 3.0, 3.6 and 4.2 g/kg diet) at a constant calcium (Ca) level (30 g/kg) in a maize-soya-deoiled rice bran based diet were tested. Levels of dicalcium phosphate, shell grit and deoiled rice bran were adjusted to achieve the desired levels of NPP and Ca. Each level of NPP was fed with a weighed quantity of feed (160 g/b/d) to 40 female broiler breeders from 25 to 40 weeks of age housed in individual cages. Each bird was considered as a replicate. Egg production, feed/egg mass, body weight, egg weight, shell weight, shell thickness, egg specific gravity, serum Ca content and tibia breaking strength were not influenced (p>0.05) by the variation in dietary NPP levels tested. Increasing the dietary levels of NPP did not influence the hatchability of eggs, phosphorus (P) contents both in egg yolk and day old chick, chick body weight at day one and 14 d of age, leg score and survivability of chicks up to 14 d of age. Maximum response ($p{\leq}0.01$) in shell breaking strength, tibia ash and serum inorganic P contents were observed at NPP levels of 2.09, 2.25 and 3.50 g per kg diet, respectively. The retention of Ca increased, while the P retention decreased ($p{\leq}0.01$) with increasing dietary levels of NPP. Though maximum responses in shell breaking strength, bone ash and serum inorganic P were observed at NPP higher than 1.2 g/kg diet, the broiler breeder performance in terms of egg production, shell quality, hatchability of eggs and progeny performance and their survivability was not influenced by dietary NPP concentrations. It is concluded that synthetic broiler breeders maintained in cages do not require more than 1.2 g NPP/kg diet with a daily intake of 192 mg NPP/b/d during 24 to 40 weeks of age.