• Title, Summary, Keyword: Maize

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Potential of Using Maize Cobs in Pig Diets - A Review

  • Kanengoni, A.T.;Chimonyo, M.;Ndimba, B.K.;Dzama, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.12
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    • pp.1669-1679
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    • 2015
  • The quest to broaden the narrow range of feed ingredients available to pig producers has prompted research on the use of low cost, unconventional feedstuffs, which are typically fibrous and abundant. Maize cobs, a by-product of a major cereal grown worldwide, have potential to be used as a pig feed ingredient. Presently, maize cobs are either dumped or burnt for fuel. The major challenge in using maize cobs in pig diets is their lignocellulosic nature (45% to 55% cellulose, 25% to 35% hemicellulose, and 20% to 30% lignin) which is resistant to pigs' digestive enzymes. The high fiber in maize cobs (930 g neutral detergent fiber/kg dry matter [DM]; 573 g acid detergent fiber/kg DM) increases rate of passage and sequestration of nutrients in the fiber reducing their digestion. However, grinding, heating and fermentation can modify the structure of the fibrous components in the maize cobs and improve their utilization. Pigs can also extract up to 25% of energy maintenance requirements from fermentation products. In addition, dietary fiber improves pig intestinal health by promoting the growth of lactic acid bacteria, which suppress proliferation of pathogenic bacteria in the intestines. This paper reviews maize cob composition and the effect on digestibility of nutrients, intestinal microflora and growth performance and proposes the use of ensiling using exogenous enzymes to enhance utilization in diets of pigs.

Potato-maize double cropping using paddy field in southern plain of Korea

  • Seo, Jong Ho;Hwang, Chung Dong;Yi, Hwi Jong;Choi, Weon Young;Bae, Hyun Kyung;Kim, Sang Yeol;Oh, Meong Kyu
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.345-345
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    • 2017
  • In order to reduce rice cultivation area in paddy fields and to increase domestic self-sufficiency of imported upland grain, it is necessary to increase double cropping area of upland crops in paddy field in accordance with decrease of rice consumption in Korea. The double cropping of spring potato-summer grain maize can be combined because of enough growing season in the southern plain of Korea. Spring potato, which is profitable, can be planted in the late February and harvested in the late May as the main crop. Subsequent grain maize can be planted in early June and harvested in November (maturity in the early October). Spring potato (variety Soomi) yielded $2,544kg\;10a^{-1}$ (tuber) when planted in late February, 2016. When maize was planted in June as the second cropping crop, though growth of plant decreased much, grain yield decreased slightly compared to normal planting in April or May. There was enough time to dry maize ear in the field after maturity before harvesting, which saved labor and time for grain drying, since there is no autumn planting at the double cropping of spring potato-summer grain maize. When grain maize (variety Gwangpyeongok) was planted in the early June (June $10^{th}$), average grain yield of above $860kg\;10a^{-1}$ over 2 years of 2015 and 2016 was obtained, and the annual total yield (potato tuber + maize grain) of 3,400 kg $10a^{-1}$ was obtained. The result indicates that the double cropping of spring potato-summer maize using paddy fields in southern plain of Korea, could contribute to the self-sufficiency of upland crops through the maximum production.

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Nutrient Uptake and Productivity as Affected by Nitrogen and Potassium Application Levels in Maize/Sweet Potato Intercropping System

  • Haque, M.Moynul;Hamid, A.;Bhuiyan, N.I.
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2001
  • Field experiment was conducted during 1993-94 season to determine the pattern of nutrient uptake and productivity of maize/sweet potato intercropping system. Four levels of nitrogen (0, 50, 100 and 150kg N ${ha}_{-1}$) and four levels of potassium (0, 40, 80 and 120kg $K_2$O ${ha}_{-1}$) formed treatment variables. Plants were sampled periodically to determine dry matter and tissue concentrations of N and K in the individual plant components of intercropped maize and sweet potato. Nitrogen and potassium fertilizer did not interact significantly to nutrient uptake by any plant parts of intercropped maize and sweet potato. But application of N fertilizer independently enhanced N uptake in all the plant parts of maize and sweet potato. The uptake of N in leaf, leaf sheath, stem, husk, and cob of maize increased upto 90 days after planting (DAP) but grain continued to accumulate N till its maturity. Sweet potato exhibited a wide variation in N uptake pattern. Sweet potato leaf shared the maximum uptake of N at 50 DAP which rapidly increased at 70 DAP and then declined. Declination of N uptake by petiole and stem were observed after 120 DAP whereas N uptake by tuber increased slowly upto 90 DAP and then rapidly till harvest. Rate of applied K had very little effect on the uptake patterns in different components of intercropped maize. Pattern of K uptake by leaf, petiole and stem of sweet potato showed almost similar trend to N uptake. But uptake of K by tuber increased almost linearly with the K application. Pattern of N and K uptake by grain and tuber paralleled the grain yield of maize and sweet potato respectively. Intercropped productivity of maize and sweet potato found to be better by the application of 100kg N and 120 kg $K_2$O ${ha}_{-1}$

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Interaction between different nitrogen fertilizer levels and maize-bean intercropping patterns

  • Sadeghi, Hossein;Kazemeini, Seyed Abdolreza
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.269-277
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    • 2012
  • In order to investigate the effects of different maize-bean intercropping patterns, and of nitrogen fertilizers on morphological and yield related traits, a factorial study based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was performed during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons in a research filed of Shiraz University, Iran. The first factor of the study was seven different ratios of Maize-Bean intercropping system (Maize sole cropping, Bean sole cropping, and intercropping of maize/bean at the ratios of 1/3, 1/1, 2/3, 3/2 and 3/1) and the second factor was three nitrogen (N) fertilizer application levels (0, 100 and 200 kg N/ha). Results showed that with respect to increasing the levels of N fertilizer, the yield of bean sole cropping decreased but the yield of maize sole cropping increased. On the other hand, in intercropping systems with N fertilizer application, the yield of both crops increased. Results of total land equivalent ratio (LER) for both crops showed that the highest LER value under both 100 and 200 kg N/ha application was that of M1B1 (1 seed of maize after 1 seed of bean, consecutively, on a row with same distance). Under no N fertilizer application the highest LER value was that of M2B3 (2 seeds of maize after 3 seeds of bean, consecutively, on a row with same distance). Overall, it can be concluded that M1B1 is the best intercropping pattern in maize-bean intercropping systems and that the application of N fertilizer can be effective within practical settings of intercropping agriculture, resulting in higher yields.

Evaluation of Biogas Production Performance and Dynamics of the Microbial Community in Different Straws

  • Li, Xue;Liu, Yan-Hua;Zhang, Xin;Ge, Chang-Ming;Piao, Ren-Zhe;Wang, Wei-Dong;Cui, Zong-Jun;Zhao, Hong-Yan
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.524-534
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    • 2017
  • The development and utilization of crop straw biogas resources can effectively alleviate the shortage of energy, environmental pollution, and other issues. This study performed a continuous batch test at $35^{\circ}C$ to assess the methane production potential and volatile organic acid contents using the modified Gompertz equation. Illumina MiSeq platform sequencing, which is a sequencing method based on sequencing-by-synthesis, was used to compare the archaeal community diversity, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to analyze the bacterial community diversity in rice straw, dry maize straw, silage maize straw, and tobacco straw. The results showed that cumulative gas production values for silage maize straw, rice straw, dry maize straw, and tobacco straw were 4,870, 4,032.5, 3,907.5, and $3,628.3ml/g{\cdot}VS$, respectively, after 24 days. Maximum daily gas production values of silage maize straw and rice straw were 1,025 and $904.17ml/g{\cdot}VS$, respectively, followed by tobacco straw and dry maize straw. The methane content of all four kinds of straws was > 60%, particularly that of silage maize straw, which peaked at 67.3%. Biogas production from the four kinds of straw was in the order silage maize straw > rice straw > dry maize straw > tobacco straw, and the values were 1,166.7, 1,048.4, 890, and $637.4ml/g{\cdot}VS$, respectively. The microbial community analysis showed that metabolism was mainly carried out by acetate-utilizing methanogens, and that Methanosarcina was the dominant archaeal genus in the four kinds of straw, and the DGGE bands belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Silage maize is useful for biogas production because it contains four kinds of straw.

The Intake and Palatability of Four Different Types of Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum) Silage Fed to Sheep

  • Manyawu, G.J.;Sibanda, S.;Chakoma, I.C.;Mutisi, C.;Ndiweni, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.823-829
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    • 2003
  • Four different types of silage from new cultivars of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), cv. NG 1 and NG 2, were fed to eight wethers in order to evaluate their preference and intake by sheep. The silages were prepared from direct-cut NG 1 herbage; pre-wilted NG 1 herbage; NG 1 herbage with maize meal (5% inclusion) and NG 2 herbage with maize meal (5% inclusion). All silages were palatable to sheep. Maize-treated silage had high quality fermentation, characterized by high Fleig scores and low pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and ammoniacal nitrogen contents. The pH, Fleig score, in vitro digestible organic matter (IVDOMD) and ammoniacal-N contents for maize-treated cv. NG 1 silage were 3.7, 78, $540g\;kg^{-1}$ dry matter (DM ) and $0.18g\;kg^{-1}$ DM whereas, in maize-treated cv. NG 2 they were 3.6, 59, $^458g\;kg{-1}$ DM and $0.18g\;kg^-1$ DM, respectively. The superior quality of maize-treated silages made them more preferable to sheep. Among the maize-fortified silages, palatability and intake were significantly (p<0.001) greater with cv. NG 1. Although direct-cut silage had better fermentation quality compared to wilted silage, wilted silage was significantly (p<0.001) more preferable to sheep. However, there were no significant differences (p<0.05) in the levels of preference and intake of wilted silage compared to maize-treated cv. NG 2 silage, even though the latter tended to be more palatable. There were indications that high pH (4.6 vs 3.5) and IVDOMD content (476 vs $457g\;kg^{-1}%$ DM) of wilted silage contributed to higher intake, compared to direct-cut silage. It was generally concluded that pre-wilting and treatment of Napier grass with maize meal at ensiling enhances intake and palatability.

Influence of Different Supplements on the Commercial Cultivation of Milky White Mushroom

  • Alam, Nuhu;Amin, Ruhul;Khair, Abul;Lee, Tae-Soo
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.184-188
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    • 2010
  • Calocybe indica, known as milky white mushroom, grows and cultivated in the sub-tropical and temperate zones of South Asia. We investigated the most suitable supplements and their levels for the commercial cultivation of milky white mushroom. Rice bran, maize powder, and wheat bran with their different levels (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) were used as supplements to evaluate the yield and yield contributing characteristics of C. indica. Primordia initiation was observed between 13.5 and 19.3 days. The results indicated that the 30% maize powder supplement was effective for producing viable fruiting bodies. The maximum diameters of the pileus and stalk were observed with 30% maize powder. The highest biological and economic yield and biological efficiency were also obtained with 30% maize powder as a supplement. The results indicate that increasing the supplement level resulted in less biological efficiency, and that 30% maize powder was the best supplement level for rice straw substrate to cultivate milky white mushrooms.

Effects of Alfalfa Cultivation on Soil Erosion and Maize Production in Highland Agriculture (고랭지 농업에서 알팔파 재배가 토양유실 및 옥수수 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • Bak, Gyeryeong;Lee, Jeong-Tae
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.145-152
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    • 2021
  • Soil conservation management is necessary for sustainable agriculture, in highland areas, and cover crops are one of the best soil conservation methods for slopes. In this study, we evaluated the effects of alfalfa cultivation on maize production, as well as soil conservation and quality. There was an outstanding soil conservation effect with alfalfa cultivation in the fallow and maize growing seasons. In particular, alfalfa cultivation reduced soil loss by up to 98% compared with bare field. It also increased the activities of soil microorganisms and the supply of organic matter. Maize production with alfalfa cultivation showed no significant differences in yield. In conclusion, alfalfa is an advantageous perennial cover crop in highland agricultural slope areas, which can have positive effects on soil quality and conservation, as well as maize production.

Use of Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Imaging for Photochemical Stress Assessment in Maize (Zea mays L.) Leaf under Hot Air Condition

  • Park, Jong Yong;Yoo, Sung Young;Kang, Hong Gyu;Kim, Tae Wan
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.61 no.4
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    • pp.270-276
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to find a rapid determination of the hot air stress in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves using a portable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging instrument. To assess the photosynthetic activity of maize leaves, an imaging analysis of the photochemical responses of maize was performed with chlorophyll fluorescence camera. The observed chlorophyll imaging photos were numerically transformed to the photochemical parameters on the basis of chlorophyll a fluorescence. Chlorophyll a fluorescence imaging (CFI) method showed that a rapid decrease in maximum fluorescence intensity ($F_m$) of leaf occurred under hot air stress. Although no change was observed in the maximum quantum yield ($F_v/F_m$) of the hot air stressed maize leaves, the other photochemical parameters such as maximum fluorescence intensity ($F_m$) and Maximum fluorescence value ($F_p$) were relatively lowered after hot air stress. In hot air stressed maize leaves, an increase was observed in the nonphotoquenching (NPQ) and decrease in the effective quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion in photosystem II (${\Phi}PSII$). Thus, NPQ and ${\Phi}PSII$ were available to be determined non-destructively in maize leaves under hot air stress. Our results clearly indicated that the hot air could be a source of stress in maize leaves. Thus, the CFI analysis along with its related parameters can be used as a rapid indicating technique for the determining hot air stress in plants.