• Title/Summary/Keyword: Maize

Search Result 839, Processing Time 0.097 seconds

Functional Ingredients of Maize and Their Variation (옥수수 기능성 물질의 종류와 변이)

  • Kim Sun Lim;Choi Byung Han;Park Seung Ue;Moon Hyun Guey
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.41 no.spc1
    • /
    • pp.46-68
    • /
    • 1996
  • The objective of this report is to review the up to present papers including 79 references about functional ingredients in maize and their variations. Maize is a good source of such antioxidants as ${\alpha}-,\;{\gamma}-tocopherols,\;{\alpha}-,\;{\beta}-carotene,\;{\beta}-cryptoxanthin$, zeaxanthin, quercetin and chlorogenic acid. Unsaponifiable standard extracts of Zea mays L. (ZML) have a beneficial effect on various dental diseases. Flavonoids, flavonoid biosynthetic pathway and their controling genes were also reviewed in this report. Flavonoids are required for successful fertilization in maize pollen, and maysin has a potent antibiotic activities to earworm and fall armyworm in maize silks. Maize silks have been used in traditional medicine for diuretic, vascular diseases and diabetes, etc. and boiling water extracts of maize silk have hemodynamic effects, but their ingredients still remain obscure.

  • PDF

Properties of High Amylose Maize Varieties for Use in Alkaline-Cooked Foods

  • Lee, Jae-Kwon
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
    • /
    • v.8 no.2
    • /
    • pp.179-184
    • /
    • 2003
  • The use of high amylose maize varieties significantly affected the alkaline-cooking process and characteristics of alkaline-processed food products, such as masa and tortilla chips. High amylose maize varieties had softer endosperm textures with move tightly attached pericarps than normal maize. Masa prepared from high amylose mutant maize was less cohesive than that of normal maize due to insufficient dispersion of amylopectin and excessive retrogradation of starches. Tortilla chips prepared from amylose-extender dull (ae du), amylomaize V, and Ⅶ had slightly increased oil absorption, while tortilla chips from dull (du) and amylose-extender sugary-2 (ae su-2) had oil contents similar to that of control chips. Increased oil absorption of the tortilla chips was due to their increased surface area. Tortilla chips produced from high amylose mutant maize had darker color than control chips, presumably due to the pigmented pericarp tissues, higher levels of reducing sugars, and phenolic compounds present in the kernel.

Chemical compositions and antioxidant characteristics of Korean maize hybrids in different cropping seasons

  • Kim, Mi-Jung;Jung, Gun-Ho;Son, Beom-Young;Woo, Koan Sik;Sim, Eun-Yeong;Jeon, Yong-Hee;Lee, Choon-Ki
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.289-289
    • /
    • 2017
  • The climate change impact has facilitated double cropping system on maize production in Korea. The objectives of this study were to investigate the chemical composition changes according to the sowing dates on double cropping in 8 dent type, 2 intermediate type, and 4 semiflint type of Korean maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids and evaluate its antioxidant characteristics. Fourteen maize hybrids were sown on April 5 and July 5 of 2015. The average crude protein contents in dent and semiflint type maize sown on April 5 were higher than those sown on July 5 (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in average of total amino acid contents in all types of maize according to the sowing dates. Major amino acid in maize hybrids were glutamic acid followed by proline, alanine, and aspartic acid, which has no significant difference according to the sowing dates. The average crude fat contents in semiflint and intermediate type maize sown on April 5 were higher than those sown on July 5 (p<0.05). The average composition of saturated fatty acid in dent type maize sown on April 5 was higher than those sown on July 5. However, the average unsaturated fatty acid composition showed the opposite result (p<0.05). Fatty acids were mainly composed of linoleic acid (C18:2) and oleic acid (C18:1) in maize hybrids. The average oleic acid percentage of dent and semiflint type maize sown on April 5 were higher than those sown on July 5, while the average linoleic acid was lower. The average amylose content of all types of maize sown on April 5 was higher than those sown on July 5. On the other hands, the average carotenoid contents had the opposite result (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in total average of polyphenol contents and DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities in all types of maize based on the sowing date. Total polyphenol contents had positive correlation with DPPH (r=0.33, p<0.01) and ABTS (r=0.50, p<0.0001) radical scavenging activities. In conclusion, the kernel composition affects maize quality. These data are useful for maize breeding program and cultivation and food processing industry.

  • PDF

Effects of Sown Season and Maturity Stage on In vitro Fermentation and In sacco Degradation Characteristics of New Variety Maize Stover

  • Tang, S.X.;Li, F.W.;Gan, J.;Wang, M.;Zhou, C.S.;Sun, Z.H.;Han, X.F.;Tan, Z.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.24 no.6
    • /
    • pp.781-790
    • /
    • 2011
  • The effects of seedtime and maturity stage on nutritive value of five maize stover varieties, including conventional maize (Kexiangyu 11, CM), fodder maize (Huqing 1, FM), high oil maize (Gaoyou 115, HOM), sweet maize (Kexiangtianyu 1, SM) and waxy maize (Kexiangluoyu 1, WM), were examined based on chemical composition, in vitro gas production and in situ incubation techniques. Maize stover was sampled at d 17 and d 30 after tasseling, and designated as maturity stage 1 and stage 2, respectively. The average dry matter (DM) organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and fiber contents were the greatest for HOM, SM and FM, respectively. CM had the highest in vitro organic matter disappearance (IVOMD) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration. The highest ammonia nitrogen ($NH_3$-N) concentration in the incubation solution, and effective degradability of DM ($ED_{DM}$) and neutral detergent fiber ($ED_{NDF}$) were observed in SM. Advanced maturity stage increased (p<0.05) DM content, $ED_{DM}$ and $ED_{NDF}$, but decreased (p<0.05) OM and CP contents, and decreased (p<0.05) b and a+b values, IVOMD and molar proportion of valerate in the incubation solution for maize stover. Maize sown in summer had greater (p<0.05) OM content, but lower DM, CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) content compared with maize sown in spring. Maize sown in summer had greater (p<0.001) IVOMD, $NH_3$-N concentration in the incubation solution and $ED_{NDF}$, but lower (p<0.01) ratio of acetate to propionate compared to maize sown in spring. The interaction effect of variety${\times}$seedtime was observed running through almost all chemical composition, in vitro gas production parameters and in situ DM and NDF degradability. The overall results suggested that SM had the highest nutrient quality, and also indicated the possibility of selecting maize variety and seedtime for the utilization of maize stover in ruminants.

Effect of Cattle Slurry on Growth, Biomass Yield and Chemical Composition of Maize Fodder

  • Rahman, S.M.E.;Islam, M.A.;Rahman, M.M.;Oh, Deog-Hwan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.21 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1592-1598
    • /
    • 2008
  • An experiment was carried out to study the effect of cattle slurry on maize fodder (Zea mays) production. Maize fodder was produced at 4 cattle slurry levels $T_0$ (0 ton/ha), $T_1$ (10 ton/ha), $T_2$ (12 ton/ha) and $T_3$ (14 ton/ha) in a randomized block design. Agronomic characteristics, plant heights, circumference of stems, number of leaves, leaf area and dry matter yield of maize fodder were measured. Maize plant height and stem circumference were significantly (p<0.01) influenced by the increasing rate of cattle slurry at 15, 30, 45 and 56 days after sowing. Number of leaves of fodder plants was not significant but leaf area was significant (p<0.05) among the treatment groups. The highest biomass yield (p<0.01) of maize fodder was observed in $T_2$ (44.0 ton/ha). For crude protein content, a significant difference (p<0.01) was observed in the treatment groups and the highest value was observed in $T_2$ (11.99%). Organic matter content of maize fodder showed a significant difference but ash, ADF and NDF contents showed no significant differences among treatment groups. From this study it may be concluded that the application of 12 tons of cattle slurry/ha was optimal for production of biomass and nutrient content of maize fodder.

Price transmission in domestic agricultural markets: the case of retail and wholesale markets of maize in Rwanda

  • Ngango, Jules;Hong, Seungjee
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
    • /
    • v.47 no.3
    • /
    • pp.567-576
    • /
    • 2020
  • One of the main challenges receiving much attention in the Rwandan agriculture and food industry in recent decades is the increases in maize prices. Indeed, a rise in maize prices causes higher living expenses for households because maize, which is a major staple food crop, constitutes a significant share of total food consumption among households in Rwanda. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of integration and how prices are transmitted between retail and wholesale markets of domestic maize in Rwanda. This study used monthly data of retail and wholesale prices of maize from January 1995 to December 2019. This empirical investigation was based on a linear cointegration approach and an asymmetric error correction model framework. Using the augmented dickey-fuller residual-based test and the Johansen Maximum Likelihood cointegration test, the results revealed that the retail and wholesale markets of maize are integrated. Hence, prices in these markets do not drift apart in the long run. The results of the Granger causality test revealed that there is a unidirectional causal relationship flowing from wholesale prices to retail prices, i.e., wholesale prices influence retail prices. Accordingly, the results from the asymmetric error correction model confirmed the presence of a positive asymmetric price transmission between wholesale and retail prices of maize in Rwanda. Thus, we suggest that policymakers take a critical look at the causes and factors that may influence asymmetry price transmission.

THE FEEDING AND ECONOMIC VALUE OF MAIZE COB MEAL FOR BROILER CHICKENS

  • Ochetim, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.6 no.3
    • /
    • pp.367-371
    • /
    • 1993
  • The feeding value of maize cob meal was investigated in a trial involving one hundred and forty Arbor Acre day-old chicks raised to eight weeks of age. The maize cob meal which contained 32.5% fibre, 2.5% protein and had a gross energy value of 2,550 kcal/kg, was incorporated into the experimental diets at either 0, 2.9, 5.8, 11.6 or 23.2% level. All diets were formulated to contain 3,200 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy and approximately 22% protein by varying the proportions of maize and whole cooked soyabean meal in the diets. The inclusion of maize cob meal up to 11.6% in the diet did not significantly (p>0.05) affect body weight gains, feed consumption and utilization, as well as carcass yield and dressing percentage. However, at the 23.2% level of maize cob meal inclusion, body weight gains, feed utilization and carcass yields were significantly (p<0.05) reduced. The use of maize cob meal reduced feed cost for raising birds and either maintained or improved gross profit returns with up to 11.6% level of inclusion in the diet. It was concluded that maize cob meal can be included up to 11.6% in the diet of broiler chickens provided dietary energy concentration is maintained at 3,200 kcal of metabolisable energy per kilogramme of feed by using high energy density feed ingredient such as boiled whole seed soyabean meal.

The Properties of Yellow Layer Cakes Made by Different Substituting Levels of Waxy Maize Starch for Shortening (Waxy Maize Starch의 대체율을 달리하여 제조한 옐로우 레이어 케이크의 특성)

  • 송은승;강명화
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
    • /
    • v.14 no.1
    • /
    • pp.39-46
    • /
    • 2004
  • Waxy maize starches are inherently stable in soluble status and can be chemically modified to improve stability along with heat, acid and shear resistance. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of theological and sensory characteristics of the yellow layer cake made by adding different levels of waxy maize starch as a fat substitute for shortening. By increasing the substitution level of waxy maize starch for shortening, the specific gravity of cake batter increased and the viscosity decreased. The microstructures of cake crumb observed by the scanning electron microscope were not different significantly, and the size of air cells and fat particles also were not substantially decreased by increasing fat substitution level. The texture profile analysis using texture analyzer decreased by increasing the different substituting levels of waxy maize starch. Among various sensory properties, the color value of layer cake increased by increasing the level of waxy maize starch. However, the appearance, flavor, taste, texture and overall preference decreased.

  • PDF

Quality and Physicochemical Characteristics of Korean Maize Hybrids according to the Seed and Pollen Parent (종자친과 화분친을 달리한 옥수수의 품질 및 이화학 특성)

  • Woo, Koan Sik;Bae, Hwan Hee;Jung, Gun Ho;Son, Beom-Young;Kim, Hyun-Joo
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
    • /
    • v.34 no.4
    • /
    • pp.407-414
    • /
    • 2021
  • This study investigated on the chemical components, quality characteristics, antioxidant compounds, and activity of maize hybrids according to the cultivar, and breeding maize seeds crossed with seed and pollen parent. The moisture, crude fat, crude ash, crude protein, carbohydrate, and amylose contents of maize hybrids were significantly different among cultivars, and seeded and pollinated maize. The L-, a- and b-value of maize hybrids were 39.81~47.21, -0.01~0.55 and 5.85~18.47, respectively. Water binding capacity, water solubility index and swelling power were 123.29~153.32, 4.69~5.76 and 20.11~21.47%, respectively. The phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity of maize hybrids were significantly different among cultivars, and seeded and pollinated maize. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of maize hybrids were 1,335.41~1,876.29 ㎍/g and 184.24~453.95 ㎍ CE/g, respectively. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were 171.75~239.16 and 299.44~364.09 mg TE/100 g, respectively. As a result, it could be used as a basic data for cultivating phenol compounds and antioxidant activity in maize breeding.

Level of Knowledge and Utilization of Fortified Maize Flour by Primary Food Shoppers in Mathare, Nairobi County, Kenya

  • SAMIRA, Hussein;NJOGU, Eunice;MAKWORO, Drusilla
    • The Korean Journal of Food & Health Convergence
    • /
    • v.6 no.2
    • /
    • pp.1-8
    • /
    • 2020
  • Micronutrient malnutrition severely affects development and functioning of the body leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design; cluster sampling was used to target 318 households. The significance level was P < 0.05, the mean age of primary food shoppers was 33 years and the average income was 3,000-5,000 Kenya shillings. Slightly above half, 55% of the primary food shoppers knew about fortification but only 25% understood its meaning. Fortified maize flour was consumed by < 80% of primary food shoppers however utilization frequency was low. In conclusion factors that were significantly associated with utilization of fortified maize flour included; knowledge on fortified maize flour (p=0.00), household size (p=0.005), preference of fortified maize flour (p=0.000) and level of fortification knowledge (p=0.002). Availability and price were ranked as the most important factors that influence utilization of fortified maize flour at 58% and 55% contrary nutritional value was ranked least important at 37%. The ministry of health and concerned millers should make more emphasis on creating and sustaining awareness more so a steady supply and affordable prices should be ensured by millers so that more primary food shoppers can be able to utilize the fortified maize flour.