• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Maize

검색결과 834건 처리시간 0.033초

Inhibitors Targeting ABA Biosynthesis and Catabolism Can Be Used to Accurately Discriminate between Haploid and Diploid Maize Kernels during Germination

  • Kwak, Jun Soo;Kim, Sung-Il;Song, Jong Tae;Ryu, Si Wan;Seo, Hak Soo
    • Plant Breeding and Biotechnology
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.204-212
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    • 2017
  • There is a growing preference for using doubled haploids (DHs) in maize breeding programs because they reduce the time required to generate and evaluate new lines to 2 years or less. However, there is an urgent need for efficient techniques that accurately discriminate between haploid and diploid maize kernels. Here, we investigate the effects of several hormones and chemicals on the germination of haploid and diploid maize kernels, including auxin, cytokinin, ethylene, abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis inhibitor (fluridone), ABA catabolism inhibitor (diniconazole), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and NaCl. Ethylene effectively stimulated the germination of both haploid and diploid maize kernels. The ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone, the ABA catabolism inhibitor diniconazole, and MeJA selectively stimulated the germination of haploid maize kernels. By contrast, gibberellin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), kinetin, and NaCl inhibited the germination of both haploid and diploid maize kernels. These results indicate that the germination of haploid maize kernels is selectively stimulated by fluridone and diniconazole, and suggest that ABA-mediated germination of haploid maize kernels differs from that of diploid maize kernels and other plant seeds.

Effect of continuous maize cultivation on soil condition and yield in Northern Laos

  • Fujisao, Kazuhiko;Khanthavong, Phanthasin;Oudthachit, Saythong;Matsumoto, Naruo;Homma, Koki;Asai, Hidetoshi;Shiraiwa, Tatsuhiko
    • 한국작물학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.346-346
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    • 2017
  • In Northern Laos, maize is cultivated in continuous cropping without fertilizer, fallowing nor any other soil conservation practice. It is expected that this inadequate management in maize cultivation will degrade soil and decrease yield. However, there is limited information about the change of soil condition and yield under continuous maize cultivation. We tried to evaluate the change of soil condition and yield under continuous maize cultivation in Northern Laos. Our study was conducted in farmer's flat and slope fields in Sainyabuli province where maize cultivation had been introduced earlier than the other provinces of Northern Laos. Our study was conducted in 21 fields in 2014, and in 19 fields in 2015. We analyzed grain yield and soil characteristic (total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (Av-P), exchangeable cation, pH, soil texture) at 3 places in each field. The 3 places were set at different elevation level (lower position, middle position, upper position) in slope fields. Further, the period of continuous maize cultivation and crop management practice were investigated. Then, by evaluating the relation between the period of continuous maize cultivation and yield and the soil characteristics, the effect of maize cultivation was estimated. Crop management practices were similar among the investigated fields. Maize was cultivated in rain season. Grain seed and cob were harvested on September or October, but shoot was left on the fields. No crop was cultivated during dry season. Fertilization and fallowing has never been conducted under continuous maize cultivation. On the other hand, the period of maize cultivation was different among the fields, and ranged from 2 years to 30 years. In the slope fields, as the period of continuous maize cultivation was longer, the contents of TC and TN were lower at all 3 positions, Av-P content was lower at the upper position, exchangeable potassium (Ex-K) content was lower at the middle and the upper positions. The other soil characteristics weren't related with the period of maize cultivation in the slope fields. In contrast, soil characteristics weren't related with the period of maize cultivation in the flat fields. Yield was lower as the period of maize cultivation was longer at the upper position of the slope fields. At middle position of slope fields, yield tended to be low with increase of the period of maize cultivation. In contrast, yield wasn't related with the period of continuous maize cultivation in flat fields. From the results about crop management, it was presumed that the period of maize cultivation was one of the main factors causing the difference of yield and soil characteristics among the fields. Therefore, from the result of yield and soil condition, it was considered that the continuous maize cultivation decreased soil productivity in the slope fields with decline of TC, TN, Av-P, Ex-K and yield at upper position of slope fields, and decline of TC and TN in the other positions in Sainyabuli province.

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Influence of Maize and Cowpea Intercropping on Fodder Production and Characteristics of Silage

  • Azim, A.;Khan, A.G.;Nadeem, M.A.;Muhammad, D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.781-784
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    • 2000
  • A study was conducted to examine the influence of maize (Zea mays) and cowpea (Vigna unguniculata) intercropping on fodder biomass production and silage characteristics. Maize fodder was cultivated alone and intercropped with cowpea at seed ratio of 85:15 and 70:30. Fodder was harvested at heading stage (at about 35% dry matter). The data indicated significant increase in biomass and crude protein production of maize intercropped with cowpea at seed ratio 70:30 followed by seed ratio 85:15 as compared to maize alone. However, no (p>0.05) difference was observed in TDN production among the three treatments. Four types of silages from, I) maize alone, II) maize and cowpea (85:15), III) maize and cowpea (70:30) and IV) maize supplemented with 2.5% urea were prepared. After 60 days of ensiling period, silage samples were analysed for proximate composition and fermentation characteristics. Crude protein and lactic acid values of silages I, II, III and IV were 8.52, 9.82, 14.90 and 13.96% and 9.00, 9.38, 10.86 and 7.43%; respectively. In situ dry matter digestibility was maximum in silage III followed by silages II, IV and I. The results suggested that intercropping of maize and cowpea at seed ratio 70:30 increased fodder production and produced quality silage.

THE SUBSTITUTABILITY OF MAIZE WITH CASSAVA ROOT AND LEAF MEAL MIXTURE IN BROILER DIETS

  • Ochetim, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.605-610
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    • 1992
  • Two experiments were conducted to investigate into the effects of replacing maize with a mixture of cassava root and leaf meal (CRLM) on the performance of broiler chickens. In experiment 1, CRLM replaced 50 or 100 percent of maize in the control diet. In experiment 2, the 100 percent CRLM based-diet was fortified at a further 3 percent level with coconut oil. A total of 180, one-day old Shaver Starbro chicks, raised up to 49 days of age, were used. There were no significant (p<0.05) differences in final body weights, feed intake and feed efficiency between the control group and the group fed the diet in which 50 percent of the maize was replaced with CRLM. At the 100 percent level of replacement of maize with CRLM, however, final body weights, feed efficiency and carcass yields, were significantly (p<0.05) reduced. Dressing percentage and feed intake were not affected (p>0.05) by level of substitution of maize with CRLM. In experiment 2, when the diet in which all of the maize was replaced with CRLM was fortified with coconut oil at an additional 3 percent level, broiler performance improved and equaled (p=0.05) that obtained on the control maize diet. It was concluded the CRLM can replace 50 percent of maize in broiler diet without adversely affecting performance. However, for the complete replacement of maize with CRLM, it is necessary to further supplement such a diet with a high energy density ingredient if broiler performance is to be maintained.

Effects of Ensiling Alfalfa with Whole-crop Maize on the Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Silage Mixtures

  • Ozturk, Durmus;Kizilsimsek, Mustafa;Kamalak, Adem;Canbolat, Onder;Ozkan, Cagri Ozgur
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.526-532
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    • 2006
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, in vitro DM degradability, ME and OMD of alfalfa-maize silage mixtures in comparison to pure maize and alfalfa silages, and to test the existence of associative effects of ensiling alfalfa forage with whole-crop maize using the in vitro gas production technique. Ensiling alfalfa with whole-crop maize had a significant (p<0.001) effect on chemical composition, pH, in vitro DM degradability, OMD and estimated ME values of mixtures. DM content of the resultant silages significantly increased with increasing proportion of whole-crop maize in the mixtures, whereas the pH value, crude protein (CP), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and ash contents of mixtures decreased due to the dilution effect of whole-crop maize which was low in CP, ADF and ash. The pH values of all alfalfa-maize silage mixtures were at the desired level for quality silage. Gas production of alfalfa-maize silage mixtures at all incubation times except 12 h increased with increasing proportion of whole-crop maize. When alfalfa was mixed with whole-crop maize in the ratio 40:60, ME and OMD values were significantly (p<0.001) higher than other silages. Maximum gas production ($A_{gas}$) ranged from 65.7 to 78.1 with alfalfa silage showing the lowest maximum gas production. The results obtained in this study clearly showed that maximum gas production increased with increased percentage of whole-crop maize in the silage mixtures (r = 0.940, p<0.001). It was concluded that ensiling alfalfa with whole-crop maize improved the pH, OMD and ME values. However, trials with animals are required to see how these differences in silage mixtures affect animal performance.

SSR 분자마커를 이용한 찰옥수수 및 종실용 옥수수 자식계통들의 핵심집단에 대한 유전적 다양성 및 집단구조 분석 (Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure for Core Set of Waxy and Normal Maize Inbred Lines using SSR Markers)

  • 사규진;김진아;박기진;박종열;고병대;이주경
    • 한국육종학회지
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.430-441
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    • 2011
  • 본 연구는 총 50개의 SSR 마커를 이용하여, 찰옥수수 및 종실용 옥수수 핵심집단(찰옥수수 40계통, 종실용 옥수수 40계통)의 자식계통들의 유전적 다양성, 집단구조 및 계통유연관계를 분석하였다. 1. 그 결과 65bp에서 225bp 크기의 범위로 총 242개의 대립단편들을 증폭시켰다. SSR primer들에서 증폭된 대립단편의 수는 최소 2개에서부터 최대 9개까지의 범위로 나타났고, 평균 4.84개가 증폭되었다. 그리고 GD값은 0.420에서 0.854의 범위로 나타났고, 평균 0.654의 값을 나타내었다. 2. 80개의 옥수수 자식계통들의 집단구조를 분석한 결과, 13개의 찰옥수수 자식계통은 group I에 포함되었고, Group II는 7개의 찰옥수수 자식계통과 38개의 종실용 옥수수 자식계통들이 포함되었다. 나머지 22개의 자식계통들은 admixed group에 포함되었으며, 20개 찰옥수수 자식계통과 2개의 종실용 옥수수 자식계통으로 구성되어있다. 3. UPGMA법에 의한 계통유연관계 분석 결과, 80개 옥수수 자식계통들은 유전적 유사성 31.7% 수준에서 크게 3개의 그룹으로 나누어졌다. Group I은 40개의 찰옥수수 자식계통과 11개의 종실용 옥수수 자식계통을 포함하고 있었고, Group II는 27개의 종실용 옥수수 자식계통을, 그리고 Group III은 단지 2개의 종실용 옥수수 자식계통을 포함하고 있었다. 따라서 본 연구의 결과는 앞으로 강원도 농업기술원 옥수수시험장에서 육성한 찰옥수수 및 종실용 옥수수 자식계통들에 대한 유전자원 관리 및 선발 그리고 교배조합 구성 및 예측 등에 유용한 정보를 제공할 것으로 기대된다.

분자마커를 활용한 옥수수 육종 (Genetic Improvement of Maize by Marker-Assisted Breeding)

  • 김재윤;문준철;백성범;권영업;송기태;이병무
    • 한국작물학회지
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    • v.59 no.2
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    • pp.109-127
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    • 2014
  • Maize is one of the most important food and feed crops in the world including Southeast Asia. In spite of numberous efforts with conventional breeding, the maize productions remain low and the loss of yields by drought and downy mildew are still severe in Asia. Genetic improvement of maize has been performed with molecular marker and genetic engineering. Because maize is one of the most widely studied crop for its own genome and has tremendous diversity and variant, maize is considered as a forefront crop in development and estimation of molecular markers for agricultural useful trait in genetics and breeding. Using QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) and MAS (Marker Assisted Breeding), molecular breeders are able to accelerate the development of drought tolerance or downy mildew resistance maize genotype. The present paper overviews QTL/MAS approaches towards improvement of maize production against drought and downy mildew. We also discuss here the trends and importance of molecular marker and mapping population in maize breeding.

Variation of Univariate Flow Karyotypes and Chromosomal DNA Contents in Maize (Zea mays L.)

  • Lee, Jai-Heon;Lee, Myoung-Hoon;Kim, Kyung-Je
    • 한국작물학회지
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.128-133
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    • 1998
  • Analyses of now karyotypes using different maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines have been performed. The accumulation and isolation of high quality and quantity metaphase chromosomes from root tips can be achieved from many kinds of maize lines. The chromosome suspensions were prepared by a simple slicing method from synchronized maize root tips and analyzed with a now cytometry. The variations of experimental now karyotypes were detected among inbred lines in terms of the positions and/or the numbers of chromosome peaks. The 2C DNA amount among 8 inbred lines ranged from 5.09 to 5.52 pg. The variability of DNA content in maize chromosome 1 was 9.1 % ranging from 0.685 to 0.747 pg. The selection of appropriate maize lines is critical for sorting specific single chromosome types. At least five different chromosome types can be discriminated and sorted from five maize lines.

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Utilization of Korean Maizes in Prodction of Alkaline Processed Snack Foods

  • Lee, Jae-Kwon
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.11-16
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    • 1997
  • Alkaline cooking and processing properties of domestic maize were evaluated by comparing to those of imported control maize(Asgrow 404). Domestric maize varieties were hydrated more rapidly and had lower dry matter losses during alkaline cooking than control maize due to softer endosperm texture and incomplete removal of pericarps. Domestic maize varieties produced masas with proper handling properties when nixtamals had 50~52% moisture. However, masas produced from domestic maizes were puffed dur-ing baking and frying process due to the release of more free starch granules in the masa than control masa. Tortilla chips prepared from domestic maizes absorbed more oil during frying and had slightly higher water content with darker color than tortilla chips prepared from control maize. Among the domestic maize hybrids, KS42/Fla2BT113 had more acceptable kernel characteristics of tortilla chips than other varieties.

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