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Development of a Simultaneous Analytical Method for Determination of Insecticide Broflanilide and Its Metabolite Residues in Agricultural Products Using LC-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS를 이용한 농산물 중 살충제 Broflanilide 및 대사물질 동시시험법 개발)

  • Park, Ji-Su;Do, Jung-Ah;Lee, Han Sol;Park, Shin-min;Cho, Sung Min;Kim, Ji-Young;Shin, Hye-Sun;Jang, Dong Eun;Jung, Yong-hyun;Lee, Kangbong
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.124-134
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    • 2019
  • An analytical method was developed for the determination of broflanilide and its metabolites in agricultural products. Sample preparation was conducted using the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method and LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer). The analytes were extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned up using d-SPE (dispersive solid phase extraction) sorbents such as anhydrous magnesium sulfate, primary secondary amine (PSA) and octadecyl ($C_{18}$). The limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.004 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. The recovery results for broflanilide, DM-8007 and S(PFP-OH)-8007 ranged between 90.7 to 113.7%, 88.2 to 109.7% and 79.8 to 97.8% at different concentration levels (LOQ, 10LOQ, 50LOQ) with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 8.8%. The inter-laboratory study recovery results for broflanilide and DM-8007 and S (PFP-OH)-8007 ranged between 86.3 to 109.1%, 87.8 to 109.7% and 78.8 to 102.1%, and RSD values were also below 21%. All values were consistent with the criteria ranges requested in the Codex guidelines (CAC/GL 40-1993, 2003) and the Food and Drug Safety Evaluation guidelines (2016). Therefore, the proposed analytical method was accurate, effective and sensitive for broflanilide determination in agricultural commodities.

Development and Validation of the Analytical Method for Oxytetracycline in Agricultural Products using QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS (QuEChERS법 및 LC-MS/MS를 이용한 농산물 중 Oxytetracycline의 잔류시험법 개발 및 검증)

  • Cho, Sung Min;Do, Jung-Ah;Lee, Han Sol;Park, Ji-Su;Shin, Hye-Sun;Jang, Dong Eun;Cho, Myong-Shik;Jung, ong-hyun;Lee, Kangbong
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.227-234
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    • 2019
  • An analytical method was developed for the determination of oxytetracycline in agricultural products using the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). After the samples were extracted with methanol, the extracts were adjusted to pH 4 by formic acid and sodium chloride was added to remove water. Dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) cleanup was carried out using $MgSO_4$ (anhydrous magnesium sulfate), PSA (primary secondary amine), $C_{18}$ (octadecyl) and GCB (graphitized carbon black). The analytes were quantified and confirmed with LC-MS/MS using ESI (electrospray ionization) in positive ion MRM (multiple reaction monitoring) mode. The matrix-matched calibration curves were constructed using six levels ($0.001{\sim}0.25{\mu}g/mL$) and coefficient of determination ($r^2$) was above 0.99. Recovery results at three concentrations (LOQ, $10{\times}LOQ$, and $50{\times}LOQ$, n=5) were from 80.0 to 108.2% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than of 11.4%. For inter-laboratory validation, the average recovery was in the range of 83.5~103.2% and the coefficient of variation (CV) was below 14.1%. All results satisfied the criteria ranges requested in the Codex guidelines (CAC/GL 40-1993, 2003) and the Food Safety Evaluation Department guidelines (2016). The proposed analytical method was accurate, effective and sensitive for oxytetracycline determination in agricultural commodities. This study could be useful for safety management of oxytetracycline residues in agricultural products.

Radiation Therapy Using M3 Wax Bolus in Patients with Malignant Scalp Tumors (악성 두피 종양(Scalp) 환자의 M3 Wax Bolus를 이용한 방사선치료)

  • Kwon, Da Eun;Hwang, Ji Hye;Park, In Seo;Yang, Jun Cheol;Kim, Su Jin;You, Ah Young;Won, Young Jinn;Kwon, Kyung Tae
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.75-81
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: Helmet type bolus for 3D printer is being manufactured because of the disadvantages of Bolus materials when photon beam is used for the treatment of scalp malignancy. However, PLA, which is a used material, has a higher density than a tissue equivalent material and inconveniences occur when the patient wears PLA. In this study, we try to treat malignant scalp tumors by using M3 wax helmet with 3D printer. Methods and materials: For the modeling of the helmet type M3 wax, the head phantom was photographed by CT, which was acquired with a DICOM file. The part for helmet on the scalp was made with Helmet contour. The M3 Wax helmet was made by dissolving paraffin wax, mixing magnesium oxide and calcium carbonate, solidifying it in a PLA 3D helmet, and then eliminated PLA 3D Helmet of the surface. The treatment plan was based on Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) of 10 Portals, and the therapeutic dose was 200 cGy, using Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA) of Eclipse. Then, the dose was verified by using EBT3 film and Mosfet (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor: USA), and the IMRT plan was measured 3 times in 3 parts by reproducing the phantom of the head human model under the same condition with the CT simulation room. Results: The Hounsfield unit (HU) of the bolus measured by CT was $52{\pm}37.1$. The dose of TPS was 186.6 cGy, 193.2 cGy and 190.6 cGy at the M3 Wax bolus measurement points of A, B and C, and the dose measured three times at Mostet was $179.66{\pm}2.62cGy$, $184.33{\pm}1.24cGy$ and $195.33{\pm}1.69cGy$. And the error rates were -3.71 %, -4.59 %, and 2.48 %. The dose measured with EBT3 film was $182.00{\pm}1.63cGy$, $193.66{\pm}2.05cGy$ and $196{\pm}2.16cGy$. The error rates were -2.46 %, 0.23 % and 2.83 %. Conclusions: The thickness of the M3 wax bolus was 2 cm, which could help the treatment plan to be established by easily lowering the dose of the brain part. The maximum error rate of the scalp surface dose was measured within 5 % and generally within 3 %, even in the A, B, C measurements of dosimeters of EBT3 film and Mosfet in the treatment dose verification. The making period of M3 wax bolus is shorter, cheaper than that of 3D printer, can be reused and is very useful for the treatment of scalp malignancies as human tissue equivalent material. Therefore, we think that the use of casting type M3 wax bolus, which will complement the making period and cost of high capacity Bolus and Compensator in 3D printer, will increase later.

Physiological and Ecological Studies on the Low Temperature Damages of Rice (Oryza sativia L.) (수도의 저온장해에 관한 생리 생태학적 연구)

  • 오윤진
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.1-31
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    • 1981
  • Experiments were conducted to investigate rice varietal response to low water and air temperatures at different growth stages from 1975 to 1980 in a phytotron in Suweon and in a cold water nursery in Chooncheon. Germination ability, seedling growth, sterility of laspikelets, panicle exertion, discoloration of leaves, and delay of heading of recently developed indica/japonica cross(I/J), japonica, and indica varieties at low air temperature or cold water were compared to those at normal temperature or natural conditions. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Practically acceptable germination rate of 70% was obtained in 10 days after initiation of germination test at 15\circ_C for japonica varieties, but 15 days for IxJ varieties. Varietal differences in germination ability at suboptimal temperature was greatest at 16\circ_C for 6 days. 2. Cold injury of rice seedlings was most severe at the 3.0-and 3.5-leaf stage and it was reduced as growth stage advanced. A significant positive correlation was observed between cold injury at 3-leaf stage and 6-leaf stage. 3. At day/night temperatures of 15/10\circ_C seedlings of both japonica and I/J varieties were dead in 42 days. At 20/15\circ_C japonica varieties produced tillers actively, but tillering of I/J varieties was retarded a little. At 25/15\circ_C, both japonica and I/J varieties produced tillers most actively. Increase in plant height was proportional to the increase in all varieties. 4. In I/J varieties the number of differentiated panicle rachis branches and spikelets was reduced at a day-night temperature of 20-15\circ_C compared to 25-20 or 30-25\circ_C, but not in japonica varieties although panicle exertion was retarded at 20-15\circ_C. The number of spikelets was not correlated with the number of primary rachis branches, but positively correlated with that of secondary rachis branches. 5. Heading of rice varieties treated with 15\circ_C air temperature at meiotic stage was delayed compared to that at tillering stage by 1-3 days and heading was delayed as duration of low temperature treatment increased. 6. At cold water treatment of 17\circ_C from tillering to heading stage, heading of japonica, I/J, and cold tolerant indica varieties was delayed 2-6, 3-9, and 4-5 days, respectively, Growth stage sensitive to delay of heading delay at water treatment were tillering stage, meiotic stage, and booting tage in that order, delay of heading was greater in indica corssed japonica(Suweon 264), japonica(Suweon 235), and cold tolerant indica(Lengkwang) varieties in that order. Delay of heading due to cold water treatment was positively correlated with culm length reduction and spikelet sterility. 7. Elongation of culms and exertion of panicles of rice varieties treated with low air temperature 17\circ_C. Culm length reduction rate of tall varieties was lower than that of short statured varieties at low temperature. Panicle exertion was most severaly retarded with low temperature treatment at heading stage. Generally, retardation of panicle exertion of 1/1 varieties was more severe than that of japonica varieties at low temperature. There was a positive correlation between panicle exertion and culm length at low temperature. 8. The number of panicles was increased with cold water treatment at tillering stage, but reduced at meiotic stage. As time of cold water treatment was conducted at earlier growth stage, culm length was shorter and panicle exertion poorer. 9. Sterility of all rice varieties was negligible at 17\circ_C for three days but 30.3-85.2% of strility was observed for nine-day treatment at 17\circ_C. Among the tested varieties, sterility of Suweon 264 and Milyang 42 was highest and that of Suweon 290 and Suweon 287 was lowest. The most sensitive growth stage to low temperature induced sterility was from 15 to 5 days before heading. There was positive correlation between sterility of rice plants treated with low temperature at meiotic and heading stage. 10. Percentage of spikelet sterility was greatest at cold water treatment at meiotic stage (auricle distance -15~-10cm) and it was higher in 1/1 (Suweon 264, Joseng tongil), japonica (Nongbaek, Towada), and cold tolerance indica(Lengkwang) varieties in the order. Level of cold water and position of young-ear affected on the sterility of varieties at meiotic stage; percentage of spikelet sterility of variety, Lengkwang, of which young-ear was located above the cold water level was high, but that of short statured variety, Suweon 264, of which young-ear was located in the cold water was lower. 11. Percentage of ripened grains was not reducted at 15\circ_C air temperature for three days at full heading stage in all varieties. However, at six-day low temperature treatment Suweon 287, Suweon 264 showed percentage of ripended grains lower than 60%, but at nine-day low temperature treatment all varieties showed percentage of ripened grains lower than 60%. Low temperature treatment of 17\circ_C from 10 days after heading for 20 days did not affect on the ripening of all varieties. 12. Uptake of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in whole plants was higher at average air temperature of 25\circ_C, but concentration of the elements was lower compared to those at 19\circ_C. However, both total uptake and concentration of manganese were higher at 19\circ_C compared to 25\circ_C. 13. Higher application of nitrogen, phosphorus, silicate, and compost increased yield of rice due to increased number of panicles and spike let fertility in cold water irrigated paddy.

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Potassium Physiology of Upland Crops (밭 작물(作物)의 가리(加里) 생리(生理))

  • Park, Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.103-134
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    • 1977
  • The physiological and biochemical role of potassium for upland crops according to recent research reports and the nutritional status of potassium in Korea were reviewed. Since physical and chemical characteristics of potassium ion are different from those of sodium, potassium can not completely be replaced by sodium and replacement must be limited to minimum possible functional area. Specific roles of potassium seem to keep fine structure of biological membranes such as thylacoid membrane of chloroplast in the most efficient form and to be allosteric effector and conformation controller of various enzymes principally in carbohydrate and protein metabolism. Potassium is essential to improve the efficiency of phoro- and oxidative- phosphorylation and involve deeply in all energy required metabolisms especially synthesis of organic matter and their translocation. Potassium has many important, physiological functions such as maintenance of osmotic pressure and optimum hydration of cell colloids, consequently uptake and translocation of water resulting in higher water use efficiency and of better subcellular environment for various physiological and biochemical activities. Potassium affects uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients and quality of products. potassium itself in products may become a quality criteria due to potassium essentiality for human beings. Potassium uptake is greatly decreased by low temperature and controlled by unknown feed back mechanism of potassium in plants. Thus the luxury absorption should be reconsidered. Total potassium content of upland soil in Korea is about 3% but the exchangeable one is about 0.3 me/100g soil. All upland crops require much potassium probably due to freezing and cold weather and also due to wet damage and drought caused by uneven rainfall pattern. In barley, potassium should be high at just before freezing and just after thawing and move into grain from heading for higher yield. Use efficiency of potassium was 27% for barley and 58% in old uplands, 46% in newly opened hilly lands for soybean. Soybean plant showed potassium deficiency symptom in various fields especially in newly opened hilly lands. Potassium criteria for normal growth appear 2% $K_2O$ and 1.0 K/(Ca+Mg) (content ratio) at flower bud initiation stage for soybean. Potassium requirement in plant was high in carrot, egg plant, chinese cabbage, red pepper, raddish and tomato. Potassium content in leaves was significantly correlated with yield in chinese cabbage. Sweet potato. greatly absorbed potassium subsequently affected potassium nutrition of the following crop. In the case of potassium deficiency, root showed the greatest difference in potassium content from that of normal indicating that deficiency damages root first. Potatoes and corn showed much higher potassium content in comparison with calcium and magnesium. Forage crops from ranges showed relatively high potassium content which was significantly and positively correlated with nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium content. Percentage of orchards (apple, pear, peach, grape, and orange) insufficient in potassium ranged from 16 to 25. The leaves and soils from the good apple and pear orchards showed higher potassium content than those from the poor ones. Critical ratio of $K_2O/(CaO+MgO)$ in mulberry leaves to escape from winter death of branch tip was 0.95. In the multiple croping system, exchangeable potassium in soils after one crop was affected by the previous crops and potassium uptake seemed to be related with soil organic matter providing soil moisture and aeration. Thus, the long term and quantitative investigation of various forms of potassium including total one are needed in relation to soil, weather and croping system. Potassium uptake and efficiency may be increased by topdressing, deep placement, slow-releasing or granular fertilizer application with the consideration of rainfall pattern. In all researches for nutritional explanation including potassium of crop yield reasonable and practicable nutritional indices will most easily be obtained through multifactor analysis.

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Food Components of Wild and Cultured Fresh Water Fishes (천연 및 양식산 담수어의 식품성분)

  • KIM Kyung-Sam;LEE Eung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.195-211
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    • 1986
  • The object of this study is to obtain fundamental data on cultured fishes produced in Korea to improve their food components. For this purpose, the food components of cultured fresh water fishes such as eel, Anguilla japonica, snakehead, Channa argus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were investigated and compared with those of the wild ones. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Common characteristics in the proximate composition were that wild fish was higher in crude protein content and lower in crude lipid content than those of cultured one. 2. Among the 9 kinds of minerals analyzed in all the samples, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium contents were absolutely predominant being more than $99.52\%$. These four elements in feedstuff also occupied $99.68{\sim}99.92%$ of total minerals. 3. The neutral lipids of wild and cultured eel, snakehead and common carp occupied $55.7{\sim}95.8%$ of lipid fractions, while the content of the phospholipids in snakehead was particularly higher than those of others. 4. The neutral lipids of wild and cultured eel, snakehead and common carp mainly consisted of triglycerides ($85{\sim}95%$), and a little quantity of diglycerides, monoglycerides, free sterol ester and hydrocarbon were also identified in the neutral lipid. 5. The phospolipids of eel and common carp were mainly occupied by phosphatidyl choline ($71.3{\sim}83.9%$), followed by phosphatidyl ethanolamine ($12.1{\sim}23.5%$) and phosphatidyl serine ($7.5{\sim}13.8%$). The phospholipids of snakhead consisted of phosphatidyl choline ($50.7{\sim}64.5%$), phosphatidyl ethanolamine ($28.0{\sim}35.5%$) and phosphatidyl serine ($7.5{\sim}13.8%$). Generally, phosphatidyl choline content was higher in wild fish than in cultured one, while phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl serine contents were higher in cultured one. 6. The major fatty acids in total lipid of wild eel, snakehead and common carp were $C_{16:0}\;and\;C_{20:5}$, while those in cultured ones were $C_{18:1},\;C_{18:2}\;and\;C_{22:6}$. The fatty acid composition of neutral lipids showed similar tendency to that of total lipid, and the main fatty acids in phospholipids of cultured fishes were $C_{18:1}\;and\;C_{18:2}$. In glycolipids, $C_{20:5}\;and\;C_{22:6}$ were higher in wild fishes, while $C_{18:2}$ were higher in cultured ones. 7. Total amino acids contents of wild and cultured eel were nearly the same, being $16.65\%$ ana $15.99\%$ respectively. The major amino acids of wild and cultured fish were glutamic acid, leucine, aspartic acid and lysine in order. In snakehead, the contents of aspartic acid and proline in cultured fish were higher than those in wild one, while the contents of glutamic acid, alanine, glycine were higher in the wild one. Total amino acid content of cultured common carp was $21.7\%$ compared with $17.08\%$ in wild one. The contents of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glycine, proline and alanine occupied higher quantities in cultured common carp compared with those in wild one while the other amino acids revealed no significant difference. 8. Aspartic acid in free amino acids of cultured eel held $1.0\%$ of total free amino acids, while that in wild eel held $2.9\%$. Histidine, arginine and tyrosine content of cultured fish were two times higher than those of wild one. But free amino acid composition of samples seemed to be no marked differences according to cultured places. The contents of arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, methionine and phenylalanine of snakehead ware higher in wild one than in cultured one, while the contents of lysine, histidine, glycine, and alanine ware higher in cultured one. In free amino acids content of wild common carp, histidine, glycine and lysine occupied $76.9\%$ of total free amino acids. Lysine, histidine, aspartic acid, alanine, valine and leucine were higher in wild one compared with those of cultured one, while glycine and tyrosine contents were higher in cultured fish.

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The Chemical Composition of the Nagdong River Downstream Water (낙동강 하류수의 수질조성에 대하여)

  • WON Jong Hun;LEE Bae Jung
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.47-58
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    • 1981
  • Relationships between the electrical conductivity and the contents of the chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and total major inorganic ions, and between each, chemical conservative constituents were calculated with the data which sampled at the lesions of Mulgeum and between Namji and Wondong from March 1974 to April 1980. Semilogarithmic relations were found between the electrical conductivity and the contents of monovalent ions, and logarithmic relations were found between the electrical conductivity and the contents of divalent ions at the both regions. The relational equations between the electrical conductivity $\lambda_{25}$and the contents of the major inorganic ions at Mulgeum are as follows: $log\;Cl(ppm)\;=\;2.37{\cdot}\lambda_{25}(m{\mho}/cm)+0.733{\pm}0.141$, $log\;SO_4(ppm)=1.12{\cdot}log\lambda_{25}(m{\mho}/cm)+2.14{\pm}0.18$, $log\;Ca(ppm)=0.615{\cdot}log\lambda_{25}(m{\mho}/cm)+1.67{\pm}0.12$, $log\;Mg(ppm)=0.756{\cdot}log\lambda_{25}(m{\mho}/cm)+1.27{\pm}0.11$, $log\;Na(ppm)=2.82{\cdot}\lambda_{25}(m{\mho}/cm)+0.551{\pm}0.133$, $log\;K(ppm)=1.33{\cdot}\lambda_{25}(m{\mho}/cm)+0.136{\pm}0.095$, and total inorganic ions $C(ppm)=399{\cdot}\lambda_{25}(m{\mho}/cm)-0.9{\pm}14.6$. The relational equations between the electrical conductivity ($\lambda_{25}$) and the contents of the major inorganic ions at the region between Namji and Wondong a.e as follows: $log\;Cl(ppm)=4.27{\cdot}\lambda_{25}(m{\mho}/cm)+0.380{\pm}0.138$, $log\;SO_4(ppm)=0.915{\cdot}log\lambda_{25}(m{\mho}/cm)+1.95{\pm}0.18$, $log\;Ca(ppm)=0.756{\cdot}log\lambda_{25}(m{\mho}/cm)+1.74{\pm}0.12$, $log\;Mg(ppm)=1.00{\cdot}log\lambda_{25}(m{\mho}/cm)+1.41{\pm}0.10$. $log\;Na(ppm)=2.47{\cdot}\lambda_{25}(m{\mho}/cm)+0.614{\pm}0.065$, $log\;K(ppm)=1.62{\cdot}\lambda_{25}(m{\mho}/cm)+0.030{\pm}0.060$, and total inorganic ions $C(ppm)=323{\cdot}\lambda_{25}(m{\mho}/cm)+11.7{\pm}9.3$. Logarithmic relations were found between each chemical conservative constituents at Mulgeum and the equations are as follows: $log\;Cl(ppm)=0.711{\cdot}log\;SO_4(ppm)+0.488{\pm}0.206$, $log\;Cl(ppm)=0.337{\cdot}log\;Ca(ppm)+0.822{\pm}0.130$, $log\;Cl(ppm)=0.605{\cdot}log\;Mg(ppm)-0.017{\pm}0.154$, $Cl(ppm)=0.676{\cdot}Na(ppm)+2.31{\pm}4.67$, $log\;Cl(ppm)=0.406{\cdot}log\;K(ppm)-0.092{\pm}0.112$, $log\;SO_4(ppm)=0.378{\cdot}log\;Ca(ppm)+0.721{\pm}0.125$, $log\;SO_4(ppm)=0.462{\cdot}log\;Mg(ppm)+0.107{\pm}0.118$, $log\;SO_4(ppm)=0.592{\cdot}log\;Na(ppm)+0.313{\pm}0.191$, $log\;SO_4(ppm)=0.308{\cdot}log\;K(ppm)-0.019{\pm}0.120$, $Ca(ppm)=0.262{\cdot}Mg(ppm)+0.74{\pm}1.71$. $log\;Ca(ppm)=1.10{\cdot}log\;Na(ppm)-0.243{\pm}0.239$, $Ca(ppm)=0.0737{\cdot}K(ppm)+1.26{\pm}0.73$, $log\;Mg(ppm)=0.0950{\cdot}Na(ppm)+0.587{\pm}0.159$, $log\;Mg(ppm)=0.0518{\cdot}K(ppm)+0.111{\pm}0.102$, and $Na(ppm)=0.0771{\cdot}K(ppm)+1.49{\pm}0.59$. Logarithmic relations were found between each chemical conservative constituents except a relationship between the chloride and calcium contents at the region between Namji and Wondong, and the equations are as follows : $log\;Cl(ppm)=0.312{\cdot}log\;SO_4(ppm)+0.907{\pm}0.210$, $log\;Cl(ppm)=0.458{\cdot}log\;Mg(ppm)+0.135{\pm}0.130$, $Cl(ppm)=0.484{\cdot}logNa(ppm)+0.507{\pm}0.081$, $Cl(ppm)=0.0476{\cdot}K(ppm)+1.41{\pm}0.34$, $log\;SO_4(ppm)=0.886{\cdot}log\;Ca(ppm)+0.046{\pm}0.050$, $log\;SO_4(ppm)=0.422{\cdot}log\;Mg(ppm)+0.139{\pm}0.161$, $log\;SO_4(ppm)=0.374{\cdot}log\;Na(ppm)+0.603{\pm}0.140$, $log\;SO_4(ppm)=0.245{\cdot}log\;K(ppm)+0.023{\pm}0.102$, $log\;Ca(ppm)=0.587{\cdot}log\;Mg(ppm)+0.003{\pm}0.088$, $log\;Ca(ppm)=0.892{\cdot}log\;Na(ppm)+0.028{\pm}0.109$, $log\;Ca(ppm)=0.294{\cdot}log\;K(ppm)-0.001{\pm}0.085$, $log\;Mg(ppm)=0.600{\cdot}log\;Na(ppm)+0.674{\pm}0.120$, $log\;Mg(ppm)=0.440{\cdot}log\;K(ppm)+0.038{\pm}0.081$, and $log\;Na(ppm)=0.522{\cdot}log\;K(ppm)-0.260{\pm}0.072$.

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Studies on the Varietal Difference in the Physiology of Ripening in Rice with Special Reference to Raising the Percentage of Ripened Grains (수도 등숙의 품종간차이와 그 향상에 관한 연구)

  • Su-Bong Ahn
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.14
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    • pp.1-40
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    • 1973
  • There is a general tendency to increase nitrogen level in rice production to insure an increased yield. On the other hand, percentage of ripened grains is getting decreased with such an increased fertilizer level. Decreasing of the percentage is one of the important yield limiting factors. Especially the newly developed rice variety, 'Tongil' is characterized by a relatively low percentage of ripened grains as compared with the other leading varieties. Therefore, these studies were aimed to finding out of some measures for the improvement of ripening in rice. The studies had been carried out in the field and in the phytotron during the period of three years from 1970 to 1972 at the Crop Experiment Station in Suwon. The results obtained from the experiments could be summarized as follows: 1. The spikelet of Tongil was longer in length, more narrow in width, thinner in thickness, smaller in the volume of grains and lighter in grain weight than those of Jinheung. The specific gravity of grain was closely correlated with grain weight and the relationship with thickness, width and length was getting smaller in Jinheung. On the other hand, Tongil showed a different pattern from Jinheung. The relationship of the specific gravity with grain weight was the greatest and followed by that with the width, thickness and length, in order. 2. The distribution of grain weight selected by specific gravity was different from one variety to another. Most of grains of Jinheung were distributed over the specific gravity of 1.12 with its peak at 1.18, but many of grains of Tongil were distributed below 1.12 with its peak at 1.16. The brown/rough rice ratio was sharply declined below the specific gravity of 1.06 in Jinheung, but that of Tongil was not declined from the 1.20 to the 0.96. Accordingly, it seemed to be unfair to make the specific gravity criterion for ripened grains at 1.06 in the Tongil variety. 3. The increasing tendency of grain weight after flowering was different depending on varieties. Generally speaking, rice varieties originated from cold area showed a slow grain weight increase while Tongil was rapid except at lower temperature in late ripening stage. 4. In the late-tillered culms or weak culms, the number of spikelets was small and the percentage of ripened grains was low. Tongil produced more late-tillered culms and had a longer flowering duration especially at lower temperature, resulting in a lower percentage of ripened grains. 5. The leaf blade of Tongil was short, broad and errect, having light receiving status for photosynthesis was better. The photosynthetic activity of Tongil per unit leaf area was higher than that of Jinheung at higher temperature, but lower at lower temperature. 6. Tongil was highly resistant to lodging because of short culm length, and thick lower-internodes. Before flowering, Tongil had a relatively higher amount of sugars, phosphate, silicate, calcium, manganese and magnesium. 7. The number of spikelets of Tongil was much more than that of Jinheung. The negative correlation was observed between the number of spikelets and percentage of ripened grains in Jinheung, but no correlation was found in Tongil grown at higher temperature. Therefore, grain yield was increased with increased number of spikelets in Tongil. Anthesis was not occurred below 21$^{\circ}C$ in Tongil, so sterile spikelets were increased at lower temperature during flowering stage. 8. The root distribution of Jinheung was deeper than that of Tongil. The root activity of Tongil evaluated by $\alpha$-naphthylamine oxidation method, was higher than that of Jinheung at higher temperature, but lower at lower temperature. It is seemed to be related with discoloration of leaf blades. 9. Tongil had a better light receiving status for photosynthesis and a better productive structure with balance between photosynthesis and respiration, so it is seemed that tongil has more ideal plant type for getting of a higher grain yield as compared with Jinheung. 10. Solar radiation during the 10 days before to 30 days after flowering seemed enough for ripening in suwon, but the air temperature dropped down below 22$^{\circ}C$ beyond August 25. Therefore, it was believed that air temperature is one of ripening limiting factors in this case. 11. The optimum temperature for ripening in Jinheung was relatively lower than that of Tongil requriing more than $25^{\circ}C$. Air temperature below 21$^{\circ}C$ was one of limiting factors for ripening in Tongil. 12. It seemed that Jinheung has relatively high photosensitivity and moderate thermosensitivity, while Tongil has a low photosensitivity, high thermosensitivity and longer basic vegetative phase. 13. Under a condition of higher nitrogen application at late growing stage, the grain yield of Jinheung was increased with improvement of percentage of ripened grains, while grain yield of Tongil decreased due to decreasing the number of spikelets although photosynthetic activity after flowering was. increased. 14. The grain yield of Jinheung was decreased slightly in the late transplanting culture since its photosynthetic activity was relatively high at lower temperature, but that of Tonil was decreased due to its inactive photosynthetic activity at lower temperature. The highest yield of Tongil was obtained in the early transplanting culture. 15. Tongil was adapted to a higher fertilizer and dense transplanting, and the percentage of ripened grains was improved by shortening of the flowering duration with increased number of seedlings per hill. 16. The percentage of vigorous tillers was increased with a denser transplanting and increasing in number of seedlings per hill. 17. The possibility to improve percentage of ripened grains was shown with phosphate application at lower temperature. The above mentioned results are again summarized below. The Japonica type leading varieties should be flowered before August 20 to insure a satisfactory ripening of grains. Nitrogen applied should not be more than 7.5kg/10a as the basal-dressing and the remained nitrogen should be applied at the later growing stage to increase their photosynthetic activity. The morphological and physiological characteristics of Tongil, a semi-dwarf, Indica $\times$ Japonica hybrid variety, are very different from those of other leading rice varieties, requring changes in seed selection by specific gravity method, in milling and in the cultural practices. Considering the peculiar distribution of grains selected by the method and the brown/rough rice ratio, the specific gravity criterion for seed selection should be changed from the currently employed 1.06 to about 0.96 for Tongil. In milling process, it would be advisable to bear in mind the specific traits of Tongil grain appearance. Tongil is a variety with many weak tillers and under lower temperature condition flowering is delayed. Such characteristics result in inactivation of roots and leaf blades which affects substantially lowering of the percentage of ripened grains due to increased unfertilized spikelets. In addition, Tongil is adapted well to higher nitrogen application. Therefore, it would be recommended to transplant Tongil variety earlier in season under the condition of higer nitrogen, phosphate and silicate. A dense planting-space with three vigorous seedlings per hill should be practiced in this case. In order to manifest fully the capability of Tongil, several aspects such as the varietal improvement, culural practices and milling process should be more intensively considered in the future.he future.

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Studies on the physio-chemical properties and the cultivation of oyster mushroom(Pleurotus ostreatus) (느타리버섯의 생리화학적성질(生理化學的性質) 및 재배(栽培)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Hong, Jai-Sik
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.150-184
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    • 1978
  • Nutritional characteristics and physio-chemical properties of mycelial growth and fruitbody formation of oyster mushroom(Pleurotus ostreatus)in synthetic media, the curtural condition for the commerical production in the rice straw and poplar sawdust media, and the changes of the chemical components of the media and mushroom during the cultivation were investigated. The results can be summarized as follows: 1. Among the carbon sources mannitol and sucrose gave rapid mycelial growth and rapid formation of fruit-body with higher yield, while lactose and rhamnose gave no mycelial growth. Also, citric acid, succinic acid, ethyl alcohol and glycerol gave poor fruit-body formation, and acetic acid, formic acid, fumaric acid, n-butyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol and iso-butyl alcohol inhibited mycelial growth. 2. Among the nitrogen sources peptone gave rapid mycelial growth and rapid formation of fruit-body with higher yield, while D,L-alanine, asparatic acid, glycine and serine gave very poor fruit-body formation, and nitrite nitrogens, L-tryptophan and L-tyrosine inhibited mycelial growth. Inorganic nitrogens and amino acids added to peptone were effective for fruit-body growth, and thus addition of ammonium sulfate, ammonium tartarate, D,L-alanine and L-leucine resulted in about 10% increase fruit-body yield. L-asparic acid about 15%, L-arginine about 20%, L-glutamic acid, and L-lysine about 25%. 3. At C/N ratio of 15.23 fruit-body formation was fast, but the yield decreased, and at C/N ratio of 11.42 fruit-body formation was slow, but the yield increased. Also, at the same C/N ratio the higher the concentration of mannitol and petone, the higher yield was produced. Thus, from the view point of both yield of fruit-body and time required for fruiting the optimum C/N ratio would be 30. 46. 4. Thiamine, potassium dihydrogen phosphate and magnecium sulfate at the concentration of $50{\mu}g%$. 0.2% and 0.02-0.03%, respectively, gave excellent mycelial and fruit-body growth. Among the micronutrients ferrous sulfate, zinc sulfate and manganese sulfate showed synergetic growth promoting effect but lack of manganese resulted in a little reduction in mycelial and fruit-body growth. The optimum concentrati on of each these nutrients was 0.02mg%. 5. Cytosine and indole acetic acid at 0.2-1mg% and 0.01mg%, respectively, increased amount of mycelia, but had no effect on yield of fruit-body. The other purine and pyrimidine bases and plant hormones also had no effect on mycelial and fruit-belly yield. 6. Illumination inhibited mycelial growth, but illumination during the latter part of vegetative growth induced primordia formation. The optimum light intensity and exposure time was 100 to 500 lux and 6-12 hours per day, respectively. Higher intensity of light was injurous, and in darkness only vegetative growth without primordia formation was continued. 7. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth was $25^{\circ}C$ and for fruit-body formation 10 to $15^{\circi}C$. The optimum pH range was from 5.0 to 6.5. The most excellent fry it-body formation were produced from the mycelium grown for 7 to 10 days. The lesser the volume of media, the more rapid the formation of fruit-body; and the lower the yield of fruit-body; and the more the volume of media, the slower the formation of fruit-body, and the higher the yield of fruit-body. The primordia formation was inhibited by $CO_2$. 8. The optimum moisture content for mycelial growth was over 70% in the bottle media of rice straw and poplar sawdust. 10% addition of rice bran to the media exhibited excellent mycelial growth and fruit-body formation, and the addition of calciumcarbonate alone was effective, but the addition of calcium carbonate was ineffective in the presence of rice bran. 9. In the cultivation experiments the total yield of mushroom from the rice straw media was $14.99kg/m^2$, and from the sawdust media $6.52kg/m^2$, 90% of which was produced from the first and second cropping period. The total yield from the rice straw media was about 2.3 times as high as that from the sawdust media. 10. Among the chemical components of the media little change was observed in the content of ash on the dry weight basis, and organic matter content decreased as the cultivation progressed. Moisture content, which was about 79% at the time of spawning, decreased a little during the period of mycelial propagation, after which no change was observed. 11. During the period from spawning to the fourth cropping about 16.7% of the dry matter, about 19.3% of organic matter, and about 40% of nitrogen were lost from the rice straw media; about 7.5% of dry mallet, about 7.6% of organic matter, and about 20% of nitrogen were lost from the sawdust media. For the production of 1kg of mushroom about 232g of organic matter and about 7.0g of nitrogen were consumed from the rice straw media; about 235g of organic matter and about 6.8g of nitrogen were consumed from the sawdust media, 1㎏ of mushroom from either of media contains 82.4 and 82.3g of organic matter and 5.6 and 5.4g of nitrogen, respectively. 12. Total nitrogen content of the two media decreased gradually as the cultivation progressed, and total loss of insoluble nitrogen was greater than that of soluble nitrogen. Content of amino nitrogen continued to increase up to the third cropping time, after which it decreased. 13. In the rice straw media 28.0 and 13.8% of the total pentosan and ${\alpha}$-cellulose, respectively, lost during the whole cultivation period was lost during the period of mycelial growth; in the sawdust media 24.1 and 11.9% of the total pentosan and ${\alpha}$-cellulose, respectively, was lost during the period of mycelial growth. Lignin content in the media began to decrease slightly from the second cropping time, while the content of reduced sugar, trehalose and mannitol continued to increase. C/N ratio of the rice straw media decreased from 33.2 at spawining to 30.0 at ending; that of the sawdust media decreased from 61.3 to 60.0. 14. In both media phosphorus, potassium, manganese and zinc decreased, at magnesium, calcium and copper showed irregular changes, and iron had a tendency to be increased. 15. Enzyme activities are much higher in the rice straw media than in the sawdust media. CMC saccharifying and liquefying activity gradually increased from after mycelial propagation to the second cropping, after which it decreased in both media. Xylanase activity rapidly and greatly increased during the second cropping period rather than the first period. At the start of the third cropping period the activity decreased rapidly in the rice straw media, which was not observed in the sawdust media. Protease activity was highest after mycelial propagation, after which it gradually decreased. The pH of the rice straw media decreased from 6.3 at spawning to 5.0 after fourth cropping; that of the sawdust media decreased from 5.7 to 4.9. 16. The contents of all the components except crude fibre of the mushroom from the rice straw media were higher than those from the sawdust media. Little change was observed in the content of the components of mushroom cropped from the first to the third period, but slight decrease was noticed at the fourth cropping.

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