• Title, Summary, Keyword: M-matrix

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On Fast M-Gold Hadamard Sequence Transform (고속 M-Gold-Hadamard 시퀀스 트랜스폼)

  • Lee, Mi-Sung;Lee, Moon-Ho;Park, Ju-Yong
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea TC
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    • v.47 no.7
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    • pp.93-101
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    • 2010
  • In this paper we generate Gold-sequence by using M-sequence which is made by two primitive polynomial of GF(2). Generally M-sequence is generated by linear feedback shift register code generator. Here we show that this matrix of appropriate permutation has Hadamard matrix property. This matrix proves that Gold-sequence through two M-sequence and additive matrix of one column has one of major properties of Hadamard matrix, orthogonal. and this matrix show another property that multiplication with one matrix and transpose matrix of this matrix have the result of unit matrix. Also M-sequence which is made by linear feedback shift register gets Hadamard matrix property mentioned above by adding matrices of one column and one row. And high-speed conversion is possible through L-matrix and the S-matrix.

Purification of Mitochondrial Matrix Aldehyde Dehydrogenase from Pig Brain

  • Kim, Kyu-Tae;Lee, Young-Don
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.177-183
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    • 1995
  • The activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in the cerebrum, cerebellum, striatum, and medulla oblongata was examined and mitochondrial matrix ALDH was purified prior to immunohistochemical study on the localization of ALDH isozymes in pig brain. Relatively high enzyme activity was found in the striatum and medulla oblongata when using indole-3-acetaldehyde as substrate, and in the striatum when using 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL). The main part of mitochondrial ALDH activities with both acetaldehyde and DOPAL existed in the matrix fraction. The ratio of activity of the matrix to the membrane fraction in the cerebrum was higher than in the cerebellum, suggesting that the distribution pattern of ALDH isozymes was different according to the brain regions. The 276-fold purified mitochondrial matrix ALDH from pig brain was identified to be homologous tetramers with 53 KD subunits. The enzyme showed maximal activity at pH 9.0 and was stable in the temperature range from $25^{\circ}C$ to $37^{\circ}C$. The mitochondrial matrix ALDH activity was considerably inhibited by acetaldehyde in vitro. The $K_m$ values of the enzyme for acetaldehyde and propionaldehyde were 5.8 mM and 4.9 mM, respectively, whereas $K_m$ values for indole-3-acetaldehyde and DOPAL were 44 ${\mu}M$ and 1.6 ${\mu}M$, respectively. The $V_{max}/K_{m}$ ratio was the highest with DOPAL as compared with other substrates. These results suggested that mitochondrial matrix ALDH in the present work might be a low Km isozyme involved in biogenic aldehyde oxidation in pig brain.

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LEAST SQUARES SOLUTIONS OF THE MATRIX EQUATION AXB = D OVER GENERALIZED REFLEXIVE X

  • Yuan, Yongxin
    • Journal of applied mathematics & informatics
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    • v.26 no.3_4
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    • pp.471-479
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    • 2008
  • Let $R\;{\in}\;C^{m{\times}m}$ and $S\;{\in}\;C^{n{\times}n}$ be nontrivial unitary involutions, i.e., $R^*\;=\;R\;=\;R^{-1}\;{\neq}\;I_m$ and $S^*\;=\;S\;=\;S^{-1}\;{\neq}\;I_m$. We say that $G\;{\in}\;C^{m{\times}n}$ is a generalized reflexive matrix if RGS = G. The set of all m ${\times}$ n generalized reflexive matrices is denoted by $GRC^{m{\times}n}$. In this paper, an efficient method for the least squares solution $X\;{\in}\;GRC^{m{\times}n}$ of the matrix equation AXB = D with arbitrary coefficient matrices $A\;{\in}\;C^{p{\times}m}$, $B\;{\in}\;C^{n{\times}q}$and the right-hand side $D\;{\in}\;C^{p{\times}q}$ is developed based on the canonical correlation decomposition(CCD) and, an explicit formula for the general solution is presented.

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Heat and Wear Resistance Characterization of SiCp Reinforced Al Matrix Composites (SiCp입자강화 Al 복합재료의 내열 및 마모특성)

  • Kim, Sug-Won;Kim, Wan-Ki;Woo, Kee-Do;Ahn, Haeng-Keun
    • Journal of Korea Foundry Society
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.377-385
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    • 2000
  • Al matrix composites as the most promising MMCs can be expected to be excellent engineering materials in the nearest future. So as to improve material properties of composite, many manufacturing processes have been developed. Among them, squeeze casting process which offers fine microstructure and near-net-shape is one of the most successful MMCs manufacturing processes. But, in case of with subsieve size particles (under 44 ${\mu}m$), it is very difficult to homogeneously distribute particles in matrix of Al matrix composite by various casting processes, including squeeze casting used so far. Duplex process which was developed in previous study was used to distribute the particle of subsieve size more homogeneously in matrix of Al matrix composite. Microstructures, wear and heat resistance characterization of Al-Si-Cu-Mg-(Ni)/SiCp manufactured by duplex process were examined to clarify the effect of manufacturing conditions, particle size of reinforcement and alloying elements. Al matrix composites reinforced with SiCp(10 ${\mu}m$) have the lowest wear amount among composites reinforced with 3 ${\mu}m$, 5 ${\mu}m$ and 10 ${\mu}m$ SiCp. The wear amount of Al matrix composites with 10 wt.% SiCp(3, 5, 10 ${\mu}m$) was decreased according to the increase of the sliding speed because abrasive wear takes place at high sliding speed of 4m/s and worn debris with block type occurs at low sliding speed of 1m/s. As for heat resistance, it is made clear that remarkable heat resistance property can be obtained by addition of Ni element in Al matrix composites.

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COMPACT MATRIX OPERATORS BETWEEN THE SPACES m(ϕ), n(ϕ) AND ℓp

  • Malkowsky, Eberhard;Mursaleen, Mohammad
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.1093-1103
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    • 2011
  • We give the characterizations of the classes of matrix trans-formations ($m(\phi),{\ell}_p$), ($n(\phi),{\ell}_p$) ([5, Theorem 2]), (${\ell}_p,m(\phi)$) ([5, Theorem 1]) and (${\ell}_p,n(\phi)$) for $1{\leq}p{\leq}{\infty}$, establish estimates for the norms of the bounded linear operators defined by those matrix transformations and characterize the corresponding subclasses of compact matrix operators.

On a sign-pattern matrix and it's related algorithms for L-matrix

  • Seol, Han-Guk;Kim, Yu-Hyuk;Lee, Sang-Gu
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.43-53
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    • 1999
  • A real $m{\times}n$ matrix A is called an L-matrix if every matrix in its qualitative class has linearly independent rows. Since the number of the sign pattern matrices of the given size is finite, we can list all patterns lexicographically. In [2], a necessary and sufficient condition for a matrix to be an L-matrix was given. We presented an algorithm which decides whether the given matrix is an L-matrix or not. In this paper, we develope an algorithm and C-program which will determine whether a given matrix is an L-matrix or not, or an SNS-matrix or not. In addition, we have extended our algorithm to be able to classify sign-pattern matrices, and to find barely L-matrices from a given matrix and to list all $m{\times}n$ L-matrices.

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LINEAR PRESERVERS OF BOOLEAN RANK BETWEEN DIFFERENT MATRIX SPACES

  • Beasley, LeRoy B.;Kang, Kyung-Tae;Song, Seok-Zun
    • Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.625-636
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    • 2015
  • The Boolean rank of a nonzero $m{\times}n$ Boolean matrix A is the least integer k such that there are an $m{\times}k$ Boolean matrix B and a $k{\times}n$ Boolean matrix C with A = BC. We investigate the structure of linear transformations T : $\mathbb{M}_{m,n}{\rightarrow}\mathbb{M}_{p,q}$ which preserve Boolean rank. We also show that if a linear transformation preserves the set of Boolean rank 1 matrices and the set of Boolean rank k matrices for any k, $2{\leq}k{\leq}$ min{m, n} (or if T strongly preserves the set of Boolean rank 1 matrices), then T preserves all Boolean ranks.

NEWTON'S METHOD FOR SYMMETRIC AND BISYMMETRIC SOLVENTS OF THE NONLINEAR MATRIX EQUATIONS

  • Han, Yin-Huan;Kim, Hyun-Min
    • Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.755-770
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    • 2013
  • One of the interesting nonlinear matrix equations is the quadratic matrix equation defined by $$Q(X)=AX^2+BX+C=0$$, where X is a $n{\times}n$ unknown real matrix, and A, B and C are $n{\times}n$ given matrices with real elements. Another one is the matrix polynomial $$P(X)=A_0X^m+A_1X^{m-1}+{\cdots}+A_m=0,\;X,\;A_i{\in}\mathbb{R}^{n{\times}n}$$. Newton's method is used to find the symmetric and bisymmetric solvents of the nonlinear matrix equations Q(X) and P(X). The method does not depend on the singularity of the Fr$\acute{e}$chet derivative. Finally, we give some numerical examples.

Comparison of Activity Capacity Change and GFR Value Change According to Matrix Size during 99mTc-DTPA Renal Dynamic Scan (99mTc-DTPA 신장 동적 검사(Renal Dynamic Scan) 시 동위원소 용량 변화와 Matrix Size 변경에 따른 사구체 여과율(Glomerular Filtration Rate, GFR) 수치 변화 비교)

  • Kim, Hyeon;Do, Yong-Ho;Kim, Jae-Il;Choi, Hyeon-Jun;Woo, Jae-Ryong;Bak, Chan-Rok;Ha, Tae-Hwan
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.27-32
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    • 2020
  • Purpose Glomerular Filtration Rate(GFR) is an important indicator for evaluating renal function and monitoring the progress of renal disease. Currently, the method of measuring GFR in clinical trials by using serum creatinine value and 99mTc-DTPA(diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid) renal dynamic scan is still useful. After the Gates method of formula was announced, when 99mTc-DTPA Renal dynamic scan is taken, it is applied the GFR is measured using a gamma camera. The purpose of this paper is to measure the GFR by applying the Gates method of formula. It is according to effect activity and matrix size that is related in the GFR. Materials and Methods Data from 5 adult patients (patient age = 62 ± 5, 3 males, 2 females) who had been examined 99mTc-DTPA Renal dynamic scan were analyzed. A dynamic image was obtained for 21 minutes after instantaneous injection of 99mTc-DTPA 15 mCi into the patient's vein. To evaluate the glomerular filtration rate according to changes in activity and matrix size, total counts were measured after setting regions of interest in both kidneys and tissues in 2-3 minutes. The distance from detector to the table was maintained at 30cm, and the capacity of the pre-syringe (PR) was set to 15, 20, 25, 30 mCi, and each the capacity of post-syringe (PO) was 1, 5, 10, 15 mCi is set to evaluate the activity change. And then, each matrix size was changed to 32 × 32, 64 × 64, 128 × 128, 256 × 256, 512 × 512, and 1024 × 1024 to compare and to evaluate the values. Results As the activity increased in matrix size, the difference in GFR gradually decreased from 52.95% at the maximum to 16.67% at the minimum. The GFR value according to the change of matrix size was similar to 2.4%, 0.2%, 0.2% of difference when changing from 128 to 256, 256 to 512, and 512 to 1024, but 54.3% of difference when changing from 32 to 64 and 39.43% of difference when changing from 64 to 128. Finally, based on the presently used protocol, 256 × 256, PR 15 mCi and PO 1 mCi, the GFR value was the largest difference with 82% in PR 15 mCi and PO 1 mCi. conditions, and at the least difference is 0.2% in the conditions of PR 30 mCi and PO 15 mCi. Conclusion Through this paper, it was confirmed that when measuring the GFR using the gate method in the 99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic scan. The GFR was affected by activity and matrix size changes. Therefore, it is considered that when taking the 99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic scan, is should be careful by applying appropriate parameters when calculating GFR in the every hospital.

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Characterization of SiC-SiC Whisker Matrix Retaining Electrolyte in Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (인산형 연료전지용 SiC-SiC Whisker 전해질 매트릭스의 특성)

  • 윤기현;이현임;이근행;김창수
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.587-592
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    • 1992
  • Sheets of SiC-SiC whisker maxed matrix were prepared from the mixed slurry of SiC whisker and SiC matrix by the rolling method. With the increase of SiC whisker, the pore size, the porosity and the phosphoric acid absorbency of the matrix were increased, while the bubble pressure was decreased. The activation energy for the transfer of H+ ion was decreased with the increase of mixing ratio of SiC whisker to the SiC matrix from the measurement of hydrogen ion conductivity. The activation energy was evaluated as 0.25 eV when the mixing ratio of SiC whisker to the SiC matrix was 1 : 2 and the activation energy was 0.16 eV for the 2 : 1 matrix. It means that SiC whisker matrix contributes to attain a better microstructure for the diffusion of hydrogen ion. From the measurement of single cell performance of matrix with various mixing ratio, it is concluded that if SiC-SiC whisker maxed matrix has a sufficient bubble pressure to prevent the crossover of H2 gas, the current density of a fuel cell is increased with the increase of acid absorbency of the matrix. Current density was improved from 140 mA/$\textrm{cm}^2$ for 0.25 mm thickness of matrix to 170 mA/$\textrm{cm}^2$ for the 0.20 mm one at 700 mV.

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