• Title, Summary, Keyword: Litter quality

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Effects of Supplementing Different Combinations of Nitrogen Supplements on Digestibility and Performance in Sheep Fed Wheat Straw Diets

  • Li, Yong;Li, Defa;Xing, Jianjun;Li, Shengli;Han, Yang;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.10
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    • pp.1428-1432
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    • 2002
  • Thirty-six (20 wethers and 16 rams) adult Gansu highland finewool sheep with an average liveweight of $19.42{\pm}1.83kg$ were used. The sheep were allocated to 4 treatments and confined in individual feeding stalls. The 80 day feeding trial was divided into 2 periods of 38 and 42 days. The sheep had access to clean water and were fed chopped wheat straw ad libitum. Daily supplemented diets of 150 g for the first period and 200 g for the later period were provided. The 4 types of supplements were: Wheat bran type (I), which is the traditional feeding practice in the area and the control group; Linseed cake type (II); Linseed cake+poultry litter type (III); Poultry litter+distiller grains type (IV). The digestibility trial was conducted using a total collection method at the end of the first period in the feeding trial. The results showed that the digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, CF, NDF and ADF in group II and III were increased to more than 50%. CP and NDF digestibility in group II were significantly increased by 23.6% and 25.5% respectively over group I (p<0.01) and by 10.1% and 13.1% respectively over group III (p<0.05). The digestibility of DM, OM, CP, CF, NDF and ADF in group IV was lower than group I by 4.4 to 8.4% (p>0.05). Compared to group I, group II and III increased straw intake by 17.6% (p<0.01) and 10.8% (p<0.05). The ADG increased from 16.2 g in group I to 45.3 g and 32.8 g (p<0.01) in group II and III respectively. The ratio of supplement intake to gain decreased from 10.7 in group I to 3.9 and 5.4 (p<0.01) in group II and III respectively. The ratio of supplement cost to gain also decreased by 60.0% and 64.3%, respectively. The wool growth rate and wool strength in these 2 groups were noticeably improved. This significantly enhanced the wool's textile value. The above parameters in group IV were lower than in group I, except the ratio of supplement cost to gain. This research indicates that local low quality nitrogen resources could be used effectively and economically to improve the utilization of wheat straw fed to sheep on smallholder farms under harsh loess plateau conditions in the winter.

Water Quality Improvement by Natural Wetland (습지에 의한 수질개선 효과)

  • Kim, Bom-Chul;Kim, Ho-Sub;Jun, Man-Sig;Hwang, Gil-Son
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.295-303
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    • 2000
  • The water clarification efficiency was examined in a shallow wetland where dense vegetation was formed naturally in an abandoned paddy field. And, also two enclosure experiments were carried out to measure the effects of materials exchange between sediment and the overlying water with the existence of vegetation and accumulated litter. The hydraulic retention time of wetland was regulated in 1.2 day. The removal rates of SS (56%) and $NO_3-N$ (61%) were high, considering its short retention time. However, removal efficiencies of VSS (28%), COD (14%), DOC (1%),and TP (0.2%) were relatively lower. This low removal efficiencies were thought to be due to the release of dissolved form of organic matter and phosphorus from the sediment. Most of constituents except nitrate were higher in the enclosure at the beginning of enclosure installation than that of the outflowing water from wetland. And then, it has fluctuated and decreased with time. The wetland was in equilibrium state of settling, accumulation of organic debris, and regeneration of dissolved material from sediment. So ultimately high primary production by dense vegetation in the wetland may be the reason of unfavorable or low treatment efficiency of wetland after many years of operation for wastewater treatment. However, the water quality of effluent from the wetland showed smaller variation and better condition than that of inflow, especially during storm events. It can be concluded that this wetland is suitable for the improvement of water quality from nonpoint sources.

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The Yield and Composition of Milk from Transgenic Rabbits

  • Chrenek, P.;Chrastinova, L.;Kirchnerova, K.;Makarevich, A.V.;Foltys, V.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.482-486
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    • 2007
  • Basic objective of this research was to compare the milk yield and composition of New Zealand White transgenic rabbit females expressing recombinant human factor VIII (hFVIII) in mammary gland during lactation with that of non-transgenic rabbit females of the same age during 30 days of lactation. Transgenic founders were generated by the microinjection of foreign DNA (mWAP-hFVIII gene construct) into the egg. F1, F2 and F3 generations of transgenic rabbits were obtained after mating of transgenic founder rabbits with non-transgenic rabbits. The amount of milk rejected was measured by weight-suckle-weight method at $10^{th}$, $20^{th}$and $30^{th}$ day of lactation. Quality of milk (content of fat, protein, lactose, dry ash, and some minerals) from transgenic and non-transgenic rabbit was also determined. Comparison of milk yield, determined by weight-suckle-weight method, showed significantly higher (p<0.05) milk production at day 20 of first lactation in non-transgenic females, but on the same day of second lactation higher milk yield was measured in transgenic ones. Significantly higher (p<0.05) content of milk fat and protein was determined in transgenic milk whilst higher content of lactose was found in non-transgenic milk. The content of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium) did not differ in both experimental and control groups. Our results showed that milk yield and composition of transgenic rabbit females (mammary specific transgenic over-expression of hFVIII) over several generations is only slightly and transiently different from milk yield of non-transgenic females, which had no significant consequence on the litter size and viability.

Evaluation of prooxidant-antioxidant balance in in vitro fertilization-conceived mice

  • Ahmadi, Hamid;Fathi, Fardin;Moeini, Ashraf;Amidi, Fardin;Sobhani, Aligholi
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.82-87
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Concerns about the safety of assisted reproductive technology (ART) have been raised, as some studies have shown elevated incidence rates of childhood cancer, asthma, allergies, and other diseases in ART-conceived babies. Findings regarding the health of ART-conceived babies are controversial. The present study was conducted to evaluate the prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) in in vitro fertilization (IVF)-conceived mice in comparison to naturally conceived offspring. Methods: Mice (6-8 weeks) were divided into two groups (IVF-conceived and naturally conceived) matched by sex, age, weight, and litter size. A 1-mL blood sample was taken and the sera were separated. The oxidant-antioxidant balance was evaluated using a fast and reliable PAB assay. The results were expressed as $mean{\pm}standard$ deviation. Results: The mean PAB values (HK units) in the IVF-conceived and naturally conceived groups were $59.70{\pm}22.30$ and $54.70{\pm}18.22$, respectively (p= 0.82). Conclusion: Since free radicals contribute to several pathological conditions and antioxidants play an important protective role against oxidative stress, evaluating the oxidant-antioxidant balance is very important. Although the results of this study showed that the quality of the defense mechanism against free radicals was not significantly different between the IVF-conceived and naturally conceived mice, other parameters of metabolic dysfunction need to be measured.

Effect of increasing levels of apparent metabolizable energy on laying hens in barn system

  • Kang, Hwan Ku;Park, Seong Bok;Jeon, Jin Joo;Kim, Hyun Soo;Park, Ki Tae;Kim, Sang Ho;Hong, Eui Chul;Kim, Chan Ho
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.11
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    • pp.1766-1772
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    • 2018
  • Objective: This experiment was to investigate the effect of increasing levels of apparent metabolizable energy ($AME_n$) on the laying performance, egg quality, blood parameters, blood biochemistry, intestinal morphology, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients in diets fed to laying hens. Methods: A total of three-hundred twenty 33-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens (Gallus domesticus) were evenly assigned to four experimental diets of 2,750, 2,850, 2,950, and 3,050 kcal $AME_n/kg$ in pens with floors covered with deep litter of rice hulls. There were four replicates of each treatment, each consisting of 20 birds in a pen. Results: $AME_n$ intake was increased (linear, p<0.05) with inclusion level of $AME_n$ in diets increased. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were improved (linear, p<0.01), but hen-day egg production tended to be increased with an increasing level of $AME_n$ in diets. During the experiment, leukocyte concentration and blood biochemistry (total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, total protein, calcium, asparate aminotransferase, and alanine transferase were not influenced by increasing level of $AME_n$ in diets. Gross energy and ether extract were increased (linear, p<0.01) as the inclusion level of $AME_n$ in diets increased. Conclusion: Laying hens fed high $AME_n$ diet (i.e., 3,050 kcal/kg in the current experiment) tended to overconsume energy with a positive effect on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology but not on egg production and egg mass.

Pentoxifylline treatment of frozen pig sperm affects sperm motility and fetal numbers

  • Baek, Sun Young;Chung, Hak Jae;Hong, Joon Ki;Cho, Eun Seok;Choi, Inchul
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.657-665
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    • 2020
  • The objective of this study was to investigate whether supplementation of pentoxifylline (PTX; phosphodiesterase inhibitor) to thawed boar semen improves the post-thaw motility of sperm and affects the efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) and further development. To determine the concentration of PTX for AI, frozen-thawed semen was incubated with 0, 5, 10, and 20 mM PTX in an extender freezing medium, respectively, after thawing. Kinematic properties of sperm were examined with a computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) system. In addition, viability and mitochondrial activity were also tested by LIVE/DEAD and a MitoTracker kit. There were no significant differences in the kinetic parameters of thawed sperm between control and treatment groups, but overall assessment parameters such as motility and rapid progressive were higher in the 10 mM PTX group. In the viability and mitochondrial assay, there were no significant differences observed in the PTX treatment, compared to the control. For further analysis, artificial inseminations were performed using frozen semen and 10 mM PTX treated cryopreserved semen, respectively. There were no differences in pregnancy rates and fetus weights among the groups until 30 and 40 days, but litter size was reduced and relatively low-birth weight was observed in the PTX group. In summary, our findings suggest that enhancement of in vitro sperm quality or non-toxicity supplemented by PTX may have detrimental effects on fetus development.

Nitrate Removal Rate in Cattail Wetland Cells of a Pond-Wetland System for Stream Water Treatment (하천수정화 연못-습지 시스템 부들 습지셀의 초기 질산성질소 제거)

  • Yang, Hongmo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.5 no.6
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    • pp.24-29
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    • 2002
  • Nitrate removal rate in three cattail wetland cells was investigated. They were a part of a pond-wetland system for stream water treatment demonstration. The system was composed of two ponds and six wetland cells. The acreage of each cell was approximately $150m^2$. The earth works for the system were finished from April 2000 to May 2000 and cattails were planted in the three cells in June 2000. Waters of Sinyang Stream flowing into Kohung Estuarine Lake were pumped into a primary pond, whose effluent was discharged into a secondary pond. The reservoir was formed by a tidal marsh reclamation project and located in southern coastal area of Korean Peninsula. Effluents from the secondary pond were funneled into the three cells. Volumes and water quality of inflow and outflow were analyzed from July 2000 through January 2001. Inflow and outflow averaged $20.2m^3/day$ and $19.8m^3/day$, respectively. Hydraulic retention time was about 1.6 days. Average influent and effluent nitrate concentration was $1.98mg/{\ell}$, $1.38mg/{\ell}$, respectively. Nitrate removal rate averaged $82.6mg\;m^{-2}\;day^{-1}$. Seasonal changes of nitrate retention rates were closely related to those of wetland cell temperatures. The average nitrate removal rate in the cells was a little lower, compared with that of $125.0mg\;m^{-2}\;day^{-1}$ for the wetlands operating in North America. This could be attributed to the initial stage of the cells and inclusion of three cold months into the seven-month study period. Root rhizosphere in wetland soils and litter-soil layers on cell bottoms could not developed. Increase of standing density of cattails within a few years will establish both root zones suitable for the nitrification of ammonia to nitrates and substrates beneficial to the denitrification of nitrates into nitrogen gases, which may lead to increase of the nitrate retention rate.

A Review of Footpad Dermatitis Characteristics, Causes, and Scoring System for Broiler Chickens (육계 발바닥 피부염의 발생원인, 점수 시스템 및 관련 연구 동향에 대한 총설)

  • Jeon, Jin-Joo;Hong, Eui-Chul;Kang, Hwan-Ku;Kim, Hyun-Soo;Son, Jiseon;You, Are-Sun;Kim, Hee-Jin;Kang, Bo-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.199-210
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    • 2020
  • Footpad dermatitis (plantar surface footpad lesions) is an increasing problem in the global poultry industry, affecting foot quality, overall welfare, and production performance. The growing consumer demand for chicken feet in Asian markets has given poultry companies interest in reducing footpad dermatitis. The lesions are multiply associated with various factors affecting the moisture content of litter such as nutrition, drinker type and management, environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, ammonia levels, ventilation rate), and flock health. This review addresses footpad dermatitis characteristics, causes, and the assessment system to provide a guide for future research.

Ensiled Banana Wastes with Molasses or Whey for Lactating Buffaloes during Early Lactation

  • Khattab, H.M.;Kholif, A.M.;EI-Alamy, H.A.;Salem, F.A.;EI-Shewy, A.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.619-624
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    • 2000
  • Low-quality roughages [banana wastes (B), wheat straw (WS) and dried broiler litter (BL)] were ensiled using either sweet whey (W) or diluted molasses (M) as rehydration media to study their effects on milk yield, milk composition and some parameters of blood plasma. The feeding trial involved 25 lactating buffaloes in five groups (five animals each). Buffaloes as control animals received diets of concentrate feed mixture, rice straw and wastelages (70:30:00). In the other 4 treatments, the wastelages replaced 50% of rice straw in the control diets. The wastelages were BL:B:M(3:2:10) (T1), BL:WS:M (3:2:10) (T2), BL:B:W (3:2:10) (T3) and BL:WS:W (3:2:10) (T4) on a fresh matter basis, during the 1st 17 weeks of lactation period. Results indicated that feeding lactating buffaloes on wastelages resulted in slightly higher (p>0.05) milk yield, 4% fat-corrected-milk yield and feed efficiency, and slightly lowered (p>0.05) contents of milk total solids, fat and protein. Wastelages, especially BL-B-M, increased (p<0.05) milk non-protein-nitrogen and ash contents and plasma urea, GOT and GPT. The results demonstrate that banana plant wastes with some additives in silage form may be good untraditional roughage for lactating buffaloes without any adverse effect on milk production.

Phosphorous Removal Rate of a Surface-Flow Treatment Wetland System Constructed on Floodplain During Its Initial Operating Stage (하천고수부지 수질정화 자유수면인공습지의 초기운영단계 인제거)

  • Yang, Hong-Mo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.251-254
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    • 2003
  • Phosphorous removal rate and emergent plant growth were examined of a surface-flow constructed treatment wetland system, whose dimensions were 31 meter in length and 12 meter in width. The system was established on floodplain in the down reach of the Kwangju Stream in Korea in one and half months from May to June 2001. Cattails(Typha angustiflora) were transplanted in the system. They were dug out of natural wetlands and stems were cut at about 40 cm height from their bottom ends. Water of the Kwangju Stream were funneled into it via a pipe by gravity flow and its effluent were discharged back into it. The stems of cattails grew from 45.2 cm in July 2001 up to 186 cm in September 2001 and the number of cattail stems per square meter increased from 22 in July 2001 to 53 in September 2001. The early establishment of cattails was good. Volume and water quality of inflow and outflow were analyzed from July 2001 through December 2001. Inflow averaged $40\;m^3/day$ and hydraulic retention time was about 1.5 days. The concentration of total phosphorous in influent and effluent was 0.85 mg/L, 0.41 mg/L, respectively. The average removal rate of total phosphorous in the system was about 52%. The retention efficiency was slightly lower, compared with that in surface-flow wetlands operating in North America, whose retention efficiency was reported to be about 57%. The lower abatement rate could result from the initial stage of the system and inclusion of two cold months into the six-month monitoring period. Root rhizosphere in wetland soils and litter-soil layers on bottoms were not properly developed. Increase of standing density of cattails within a few years will establish both root zones and substrates beneficial to the removal of phosphorous, which may lead to increase of the phosphorous retention rate. The system was submerged one time by heavy storm during the monitoring period. The inundation, however, scarcely disturb its environment.