• Title, Summary, Keyword: Litter quality

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Effects of dietary energy and protein levels on reproductive performance in gestating sows and growth of their progeny

  • Fang, Lin Hu;Jin, Ying Hai;Jeong, Jae Hark;Hong, Jin Su;Chung, Woo Lim;Kim, Yoo Yong
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.61 no.3
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    • pp.154-162
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    • 2019
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary energy and crude protein (CP) levels on reproductive performance, litter performance, milk quality, and blood profiles in gestating sows. A total of 59 multiparous sows (Yorkshire ${\times}$ Landrace) with similar body weights (BW), backfat thickness (BF), and parity were assigned to one of six treatments with 9 or 10 sows per treatment using a $2{\times}3$ factorial arrangement and completely randomized design. The first factor was two levels of dietary metabolizable energy (ME) density (13.40 or 13.82 MJ/kg) and the second factor was three dietary protein levels based from 35 day in gestating phases (10.5%, 12%, and 13.5%). Backfat thickness change in lactating sows decreased linearly as CP level increased (p = 0.03). Increased energy level in the gestating sow diet tended to increase the total number of piglets born (p = 0.07), but piglet weight decreased (p = 0.02). Dietary CP level had a negative effect on colostrum quality. Casein, protein, total solid, and solids-not-fat concentrations decreased linearly and lactose level increased linearly as CP level in the gestating sow diet increased (casein%: p = 0.03; protein%: p = 0.04; lactose%: p = 0.06; total solids: p = 0.03; solid-not-fat: p = 0.03, respectively). However, improving ME by 0.42 MJ/kg had no significant effect on the chemical composition of sow colostrum. There were no significant differences in blood glucose concentration in gestating sows when sows were fed different levels of energy during gestation, but blood glucose increased at 21 day of lactation when energy increased by 0.42 MJ/kg (p = 0.04). Blood urea nitrogen concentration increased linearly when dietary CP levels increased at 110 day in gestation, 24-hours postpartum, and 21 days of lactation (linear, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, and p < 0.05, respectively), and it also increased when dietary energy increased at 110 days of gestation and 24-hours postpartum (p < 0.01, and p < 0.01, respectively). A gestating sow diet containing 13.82 MJ/kg ME and 10.5% CP can improve reproductive performance, litter performance, and colostrum quality.

Effects of Habitat and Nutrient Content of Leaves on the Litter Decomposition of Larix kaempferi and Quercus serrata at Kwangnung (광릉의 잎갈나무(Larix kaempferi)와 졸참나무(Quercus serrata) 낙엽의 분해에 미치는 잎의 영양함량과 입지의 영향)

  • 박봉규
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.45-48
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    • 1980
  • Effects of habitat and substrate quality on decomposition rate of litters of Larix kaempferi and Quercus serrata were estimated in Kwangnung forest. The amount of organic matter under the canopy of Quercus serrata stand was higher than that under the canopy of Larix kaempferi. The loss constant of litters in the Larix kaempferi stand was higher than that in the Quercus serrata stand.

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Nutrient Recycling : The North American Experience - Review -

  • Fontenot, J.P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.642-650
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    • 1999
  • Options available for utilization of animal wastes include sources of plant nutrients, feed ingredients for farm animals, substrate for methane generation, and substrate for microbial and insect protein synthesis. The wastes have the most economic value for use as animal feed. Performance of animals fed diets containing animal wastes is similar to that of animals fed conventional diets. Processing of animal wastes to be used as animal feed is necessary for destruction of pathogens, improvement of handling and storage characteristics, and maintenance or enhancement of palatability. Feeding of animal waste has not adversely affected the quality and taste of animal products. In the USA copper toxicity has been reported in sheep fed high-copper poultry litter, but this is not a serious problem with cattle. Potential pathogenic microorganisms in animal wastes are destroyed by processing such as heat treatment, ensiling and deep stacking. Incidents of botulism, caused by Clostridium botulinum, have been reported in cattle in some countries, and this problem was caused by the presence of poultry carcasses in litter. This problem has not occurred in the USA. With appropriate withdrawal, heavy metal, pesticide or medicinal drug accumulation in edible tissues of animals fed animal wastes is not a problem. Feeding of animal wastes is regulated by individual states in the USA. The practice is regulated in Canada, also. With good management, animal wastes can be used safely as animal feed.

Genetic parameter estimation for reproductive traits in QingYu pigs and comparison of carcass and meat quality traits to Berkshire×QingYu crossbred pigs

  • Luo, Jia;Yang, Yiting;Liao, Kun;Liu, Bin;Chen, Ying;Shen, Linyuan;Chen, Lei;Jiang, An'an;Liu, Yihui;Li, Qiang;Wang, Jinyong;Li, Xuewei;Zhang, Shunhua;Zhu, Li
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.8
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    • pp.1224-1232
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    • 2020
  • Objective: The QingYu pig is well known for its excellent meat quality attributes in Sichuan province, China. In order to improve its production efficiency, the determination of genetic factors contributing to quantifiable economic traits of livestock is important. Moreover, the cross-breeding of QingYu pigs with western breeds possessing strong growth attributes is an efficient way to improve the performance of this breed. Methods: Here, the genetic parameters of several important reproductive traits of QingYu pigs were estimated, include total number born (TNB), number born alive, litter birth weight, individual birth weight, number of piglets weaned, litter weaning weight, and individual weaning weight. The data was analyzed using the ASReml 3.0 software (NSW Inc., Sydney, Australia). Furthermore, the effects of crossing Berkshire with QingYu (BQ) pigs on carcass and meat quality traits, as well as the effects of slaughter weight on carcass and meat quality of BQ were characterized. Results: QingYu pigs exhibited superior reproductive traits. The TNB available to QingYu pigs was more than 8 per parity. The observed repeatability of the reproductive traits of the QingYu pigs was between 0.10 and 0.23. The significantly correlated genetic and phenotypic of reproduction traits were consistent. Interestingly, the BQ pigs exhibited improved carcass quality, with a significant increase in loin muscle area, lean percentage and reduction in sebum percentage. As a result, BQ had higher L45min, lower cooking scores, and lower drip loss. In addition, the loin muscle area, body length, and sebum percentage were significantly higher in 90 and 100 kg animals. Cooking loss showed a significant increase at 80 kg, and marbling increased significantly from 90 kg. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that QingYu pigs exhibit excellent reproductive properties and heritability of these traits. Crossing with Berkshire is an efficient strategy to improve the carcass and meat quality of QingYu pigs for commercial operations. Furthermore, it appears as though the optimal slaughter weight of BQ pigs is at approximately 90 kg.

Quality assessment of mushroom (Agricus bisporus) composts during production using Near Infrared spectroscopy

  • Hss, Sharma;Kilpatrick, M;Lyons, G;Murray, J;Mellon, R
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Near Infrared Spectroscopy Conference
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    • pp.1517-1517
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    • 2001
  • Cultural conditions during production of compost, using wheat straw and chicken litter as raw materials, will affect the microbial and biochemical characteristics, leading to a wide variation in mushroom productivity. Over the past 10 years, chemical and instrumental methods, suitable for assessing compost quality have been studied in Northern Ireland. In addition, the use of near subject of investigation over the past 4 years. Previous studies have shown that NIRS can be used fer assessing quality of dried and milled composts. The aim of the current investigation is to develop NIR calibrations for key quality parameters such as dry matter, pH, nitrogen, carbon, ash, microbial population and fibre factions during the two stages of production using spectra of fresh composts. Near infrared reflectance measurements of fresh composts prepared by 6 producers were made during a two-year period. Although the spectra of fresh composts were dominated by two moisture peaks at 1450 nm and 1940 nm, good calibrations for determining moisture content, conductivity, pH, nitrogen, carbon and fibre fractions were developed. The results of quality assessment during commercial production using the calibrations will be presented and discussed.

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Denitrification potential of riparian sediments amended with organic substrates

  • Kim, Haryun
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.139-145
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    • 2014
  • Denitrification permanently removes nitrate from aquatic ecosystems, so construction of denitrification walls to enhance denitrification activity is often suggested to reduce the nitrate levels from tributary ecosystems. However, little information is available to guide the choice of appropriate organic materials for increasing denitrification rates in the walls. This study investigated how differences in organic substrates originating from litter and organic materials affected denitrification and carbon mineralization rates in riparian sediments. Potential denitrification rates were highest in riparian sediments that contained large quantities of extractable organic carbon (Ext. Org C) and that had high anaerobic carbon mineralization rates, but they were negatively correlated with C:N ratios. Therefore, this research suggested that the both carbon quantity and quality should be considered when assessing the efficiency of organic substrates to remove nitrate from tributary ecosystems.

Spatio-Temporal 3D Joint Noise Reduction Filter (시공간 3차원 결합 잡음제거 필터)

  • 홍성훈;홍성용
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.147-157
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    • 2002
  • Noise in image sequences is visually offensive and may mask important image detail. In addition to degradation of visual quality, the noise pattern increases the entropy of the image, and thus hinders effective compression. This paper proposes a spatial and a temporal joint filters to reduce the noise by jointly connecting two adaptive noise reducers with different characteristics, and we also propose an IIR-type 3D noise reduction litter scheme connecting the spatial and the temporal joint filters. The proposed 3D IIR filter not only strongly removes noise in uniform image regions while preserving edges and details but also effectively suppresses temporal flicker caused by noise. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme improves subjective quality as well as objective quality as compared with the various noise filtering techniques.

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Prediction of Nitrogen Loading from Forest Stands in Eutrophication of Lake (호소 부영양화에 있어서 산림임반으로부터 질소부하 평가를 위한 조사)

  • Chung, Doug-Young;Lee, Young-Han;Lee, Jin-Ho;Park, Mi-Suk
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.430-437
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    • 2010
  • The continuous release of nutrient sources into natural water resource can be a continuing problem in eutrophication, as well as severe reductions in water quality. However, any desirable measure is not developed yet even though so many researches and efforts have been done to solve this problem. Forest as one of troublesome nonpoint sources may contributes most to nutrient loading, but the loading of N and P from forest in order to grasp the eutrophication potential of nonpoint sources has not been evaluated. The nutrient sources from the organic litter accumulated on the surface of forest soils can be a critical factor in continuity of eutrophication of a lake. The decomposition rate of litter can be estimated to predict release of N and P from the forest stand. The loss rate of nitrogen is complicated but depends in part upon the physical matrix of the element. Therefore, long-term nutrient budget and flux estimates at stand would be useful tools in calculating potential nutrient fluxes into the watercourses in a sustainable way. The present investigation can give insight to the actual situation of the eutrophication potentials of forest as the practical nonpoint sources.

Acoustic and Stroboscopic Characteristics in Clergies (목사들의 음성발성에 대한 음향분석학적 특징)

  • 진성민;박상욱;강현국;이경철;이용배;김보형
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Laryngology, Phoniatrics and Logopedics
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.47-52
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    • 1998
  • Objectives : To compare the objective differences in voice quality and voice problems between clergies and normal male control group. Materials and Methods : The sustained vowel sound of 46 clergies and 40 normal persons were analyzed, using a videostroboscopy and acoustic analyzer. Together with these analyses, a questionnaire associated with current and past voice problems was handed over to the patients. Results : The most common symptom in subjective group was the voice fatigue. Stroboscopic findings in subjective group were as following 23 cases(50%) of pachydermia, 17 cases(37%) of phase difference, 12 cases(25%) of anterior-posterior contracture, 6 cases(13%) of vocal polyp and 3 cases(7%) of vocal nodule. The mean maximal phonation time in clergies was 17.8 seconds and in control group was 19 seconds. litter, pitch perturbation quotient and shimmer were significantly increased in subjective group than in control group(p<0.05), but there were no significant differences between two groups in fundamental frequency, vFo, amplitude perturbation quotient and noise to harmonic ratio. Conclusion : In the clergies using loud and forceful voice, vocal polyp and functional voice disorder findings were frequently noted in stroboscopic examination. litter and shimmer, reflecting the roughness of voice, were increased in acoustic analysis. Therefore, clergies, classified into untrained professional voice users, need professional career guidance and counseling.

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Effects of low-dose organic trace minerals on performance, mineral status, and fecal mineral excretion of sows

  • Ma, Lianxiang;He, Junna;Lu, Xintao;Qiu, Jialing;Hou, Chuanchuan;Liu, Bing;Lin, Gang;Yu, Dongyou
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.132-138
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    • 2020
  • Objective: To investigate the effects of low-dose trace mineral proteinates on reproductive performance, mineral status, milk immunoglobulin contents and fecal mineral excretion of sows. Methods: Eighty crossbred sows (Landrace×Large White) were randomly allocated to two groups in a 135-day trail, from breeding through 21 d postpartum. The two treatments were inorganic trace minerals (ITM): a basal diet+inorganic iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) at 90, 15, 25 and 90 mg/kg, respectively and organic trace minerals (OTM): a basal diet+proteinates of Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn at 72, 12, 20, and 72 mg/kg, respectively. Results: Compared with ITM, OTM significantly increased (p<0.05) the number of piglets with birthweight >1 kg, the litter weaning weight, and milk Fe, Cu contents. No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed on sow hair mineral contents or immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA contents in colostrum and milk. In comparsion to ITM, OTM decreased fecal Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn contents of gestating sows (p<0.01) and Fe, Mn, and Zn in lactating sows (p<0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that low-dose mineral proteinates can increase the number of piglets with birthweight >1 kg, the litter weaning weight and certain milk mineral concentrations while reducing fecal mineral excretion.