• Title, Summary, Keyword: Litter quality

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Microbial Inactivation of Chicken Cage Litter by Aqueous Chloride Dioxide (이산화염소수를 이용한 계사 내 깔짚의 미생물 수 저감화)

  • Yu, Dong-Jin;Kim, Hyun-Jin;Song, Hyeon-Jeong;Shin, Yoon-Ji;Chae, Hyun-Seok;Song, Kyung-Bin
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.98-102
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    • 2011
  • We evaluated microbial inactivation in chicken cage litter, to ensure microbial safety, using aqueous chloride dioxide. Contamination by coliforms, Escherichia coli, Listeria spp., yeasts and molds, total aerobic bacteria, and Salmonella spp. was detected in fresh cage litter, and microbial populations increased if litters were repeatedly used. Aqueous $ClO_2$ treatment (500 ppm) significantly decreased the populations of coliforms, E. coli, Listeria spp., yeasts and molds, total aerobic bacteria, and Salmonella spp. in all litter samples tested. In particular, aqueous $ClO_2$ treatment on fresh litter reduced the initial populations of coliform, E. coli, Listeria spp., yeasts and molds, and total aerobic bacteria by 4.47, 1.29, 1.23, 3.24, and 5.2 log CFU/g, respectively. In addition, when litters used for 1 and 5 weeks were tested, treatment significantly reduced microbial populations. The results suggest that aqueous $ClO_2$ treatment is useful to reduce microbial hazards in chicken cage litter and to improve the microbial safety of slaughtered chickens.

Early Stage Decomposition of Emergent Macrophytes (대형 수생식물의 초기 분해에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Jin-Ho;Choi, Sang-Kyu;Yeon, Myung-Hun;Kim, Jeong-Myung;Shim, Jae-Kuk
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.565-572
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    • 2006
  • This study examined the decomposition of blades and culms of aquatic emergent plant species, Zizania latifolia, Phragmites communis and Typha angustata, which were the most frequent in Lake Paldang. The experiment was carried out from July to December, 2005 in fresh water of lake Paldang using litter bag method. The litter bags had 1.2 mm mesh size and were suspended at 1 m depth of water surface. Remaining mass of blades and culms of each species after 97 days was 21.2% and 22.6% of initial mass in Z. latifolia, 32.5% and 56.4% in P. communis and 44.7% and 38.1 % in T. angustata, respectively. The plant tissue having high N concentration and low C/N exhibited the faster decay rate than the others. However, the tissue of high content of lignin, cellulose, lignin:N, and cullulose:N showed a slow decomposition rate. Water temperature was the most effective environmental factor on the emergent macrophyte litter decomposition in aquatic ecosystems. According to the water temperature, DO, $NO_3^-$-N, and total phosphate concentration were changed in the linear way. The mass loss of plant tissue of emergent macrophytes showed positive relationship with P concentration in water. The experiments on the decomposition of the litter using different mesh sized litter bag did not show significant differences between them. The results suggest that the decomposition of emergent macrophytes in fresh water of lake Paldang, which showed features of lentic and lower part of a stream, was affected by microbial activities better than the micro-invertebrates such as shredders.

REVIEW: Footpad dermatitis (FPD) in chickens

  • AMER, Mohamed M.
    • The Korean Journal of Food & Health Convergence
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.11-16
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    • 2020
  • Footpad dermatitis (FPD) can be considered as a threat for poultry production due to it causes losses due to condemnation in slaughterhouse. The prevalence and the severity of FPD in broiler breeders increase over time with development of poultry industry. The condition is produced by multifactorial including include drinker design and management, diet composition, house (temperature and humidity levels), litter (type, quality, and quantity) and gut health. Bacterial infections can be associated. FPD lesions can develop in less than a week. FPD is a variable size of inflammatory lesion of the footpad in commercial poultry characterized by necrotic lesions on the plantar surface of the footpad of poultry. These lesions can be exposed after removal of fecal mass and litter stuck on it. There are considerable and numerous interactions between the environment and the genetic traits. Prevention depends mainly on improvement of litter condition. Genetic selection against footpad dermatitis must be contributed to reduce pain and suffering for particular bird experiencing contact dermatitis as well as to avoid economic losses. The objective of this review is to collect different literature written about FPD to be available to students, researchers and veterinarian in poultry practical.

Correlations between Sperm Motility, SCSA (Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay), Reproductive Performance and Heterospermic Fertility in Boars

  • Kim, In-Cheul;Ryu, Jae-Weon;Cho, Kyu-Ho;Hong, Joon-Ki;Choi, Eun-Ji;Choi, Bong-Hwan;Park, Jun-Cheol;Moon, Hong-Kil;Son, Jung-Ho
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.127-133
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this study was two folds: to investigate the relationship between paternal identification rate and sperm quality parameters such as motility and sperm chromatin structure assay after heterospermic insemination; to see if mutual complement between tests and development of useful technique to enhance the fertility in artificial insemination. In individual boar's fertilizing ability, 3 high fertility boars showed significantly high fertility (p<0.05) compared to 3 low fertility boars, but there was no difference in litter size between two groups. Sperm motility test in pooled and individual semen using computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) revealed that no significant difference among boars. The high fertile boar showed tendency of low %Red (High red fluorescence/green+red fluorescence) in sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) but paternal identification rate from piglets did not differ after heterospermic insemination. The correlation coefficient between individual or pooled semen function test and farrowing rates were well correlated as follows: %Red with litter size (r= - 0.53, p=0.03); %Red with paternal identification rates (r=-0.51, p=0.03); paternal identification rates with litter size (r=0.57, p=0.02). These results indicate that sperm chromatin structure assay and sperm quality parameter test in pooled semen are useful method to predict and evaluate the fertilizing capacity after heterospermic insemination in boars.

Effects of Barley Malt Sprouts Addition and Processing Methods on Ruminant Feed and Nutritional Properties of Broiler Litter (맥아근 첨가와 가공처리방법이 육계분 발효물의 반추동물 사료영양적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 곽완섭;정근기
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.35-44
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to determine effects of and a proper level of barley malt sprouts(BMS) addition as well as to develop an effective fermentation method when broiler litter(BL) was ensiled or deepstacked with 0 to 10% levels of BMS. Mixtures were ensiled or deepstacked for one month and physico-chemical analyses were made between before and after treatments. Addition of BMS up to 10% enhanced nutritional quality of either of ensiled or deepstacked BL mixtures. Especially, the quantity and quality of protein were improved with the addition of BMS to BL. However, the still high pH values after ensiling of various mixtures indicated that anaerobic fermentation did not effectively occur with the addition of up to 10% of BMS to BL and consideration of fermentation aids appeared to be necessary. For deepstacking, addition of BMS to BL increased internal peak temperature(from 56 to $70^{\circ}C$) of the stack, indicating that the added BMS to BL stimulated the degradative activity of fermentative microorganisms. The deepstacking method was more effective than the ensiling method for the manufacture of hygienical fred mixture with BL and BMS.

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Effects of Sire Breed on the Subsequent Reproductive Performances of Landrace Sows

  • Huang, Y.H.;Yang, T.S.;Lee, Y.P.;Roan, S.W.;Liu, S.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.489-493
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    • 2003
  • Reproductive traits of sows are determined chiefly by the genetic background of the dam herself. Whether the breed of the serviced boars also contributes is not yet clear. A total of 8,946 litters of Landrace (L) sows from 68 farms were examined. Of these, 876, 1,260, and 6,810 litters were produced from natural mating with L, Yorkshire (Y), and Duroc (D) breeds, respectively. The birth litter size (BLS), weaning litter size (WLS), live born piglets (LBP), and survival rate % (SR), of every litter were recorded. A general linear-model procedure was followed to estimate the effects of boars' breed (B), parity (P) and B${\times}$P interaction on the reproductive traits of the sows. Results show that BLS, WLS, and LBP were all significantly (p<0.001) affected by B and P. SR% was significantly influenced by B but not by P. L sows crossbred with Y or purebred with L produced litters with higher BLS, WLS, and LBP values than those bred with D. Pure L breeding yielded litters with lower SR% than did crossbreeding with D, while the difference between SR% due to LY and that due to LD crossbreeding was not significant. The interaction of B with P was significant with respect to BLS, WLS, and LBP (p<0.001), but not SR%. No significant B effect on reproductive traits was measured in sows at their first parity; but at latter parities, LL or LY produced litters with similarly high BLS, WLS and LBP, which values were all significantly greater than those of LD litters. The breed of boar evidently affected the subsequent reproductive performance of L sows and this effect may be further manipulated by the parity effect. Breed differences in semen quality and the success of fetus development with different interactions of the genetic background with the uterus function of the sow that may contribute to these effects are discussed.

Study on Linking a Submerged Marine Litter Collection Project to a Marine Environment and Resources Investigation Project (침적 해양폐기물 수거사업과 자원 및 해양환경 조사사업의 연계방안에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, Jeong-Hyop;Jang, Cheol-Ho;Kim, Gwang-Tae
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.54-65
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    • 2012
  • While fishery has been continuously suffering from deteriorating economic feasibility, the amount of the deposited marine litter has been increasing due to an increased number of marine leisure tourists which are caused by an improved quality of life and five-day work week. In addition, the fishery area has been reduced by the reclamation projects and it is being destroyed by marine pollution with a variety of contaminants coming from land and sea. To protect and improve fisheries in these poor conditions, Korean governments have implemented the submerged marine litter collection projects. However, previous research results on the marine environment and resources indicate that it requires a lot of time investment to achieve tangible results of such improvement. The 300 billion won marine environment and resource investigation project has been executed since July 2004 by Korean governments, which demands strategic approaches to obtain more effective and satisfactory results before the project expires in 2013. Ocean environment research institutes and governments need to cooperate each other to gain efficient and reasonable achievement by identifying and linking related projects. This study suggests that the marine environment and resources investigation projects should run parallel with the submerged marine litter collection projects on mutually agreed research items in the identical area of the ocean to obtain cost-effective improvement of marine environment and fishery conditions.

Effects of Soil Nitrogen Addition on Microbial Activities and Litter Decomposition (토양 내 질소 증가가 미생물 활성 및 식물체의 분해에 미치는 영향)

  • Chae, Hee Myung;Lee, Sang Hoon;Cha, Sang Sub;Shim, Jae Kuk
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.276-288
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    • 2013
  • The present study investigates the effects of elevated soil nitrogen on growth and decomposition of Oryza sativa shoots. The plants were cultivated in greenhouse until leaf senescence and the total biomass of the plant increased 1.9 times at nitrogen addition plot. Total C and N content in shoot increased; however, lignin, C/N, and lignin/N levels decreased in the N-treated soil. The shoot litters collected from the control and N-treated soil were tested for decay and microbial biomass, $CO_2$ evolution, and enzyme activities during decomposition on the control and N-treated soil at $25^{\circ}C$ microcosm. The remaining mass of the shoot litter was approximately 6% higher in the litter collected from the control soil (53.0%) than the litter collected from high N-treated soil (47.1%). However, the high N-containing litter exhibited faster decay in the control soil than in the N-treated soil. The litter containing high N, low C/N, and low lignin/N showed a higher decomposition rate than that of low quality litter. The N-addition showed decreased microbial biomass C and dehydrogenase activity in soil; however, it exhibited high microbial biomass N and urease activity in soil. When the high N-containing litter decays on the N-treated soil, the microbial biomass C increased rapidly at the initial phase of decomposition and decreased thereafter, and dehydrogenase activity was less that of other treatment; however, there was no effect on the microbial biomass N. The urease in the decomposing litter was highest during the early decomposition stage and dramatically decreased thereafter. The present findings suggested that the N-addition increased N content in litter, but inhibited the decomposition process of above-ground biomass in terrestrial ecosystems.

Effect of Feeding Broiler Litter and Bakery By-product Ration on Production, Economy and Meat Quality of Growing Hanwoo Steers (육계분-제과부산물 혼합사료 급여가 육성 거세 한우의 생산성, 경제성 및 육 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwak, W.S.;Yoon, J.S.;Jung, K.K.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.797-804
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding a mixture of broiler litter and bakery by-product on production, economy and meat characteristics of growing ‘Hanwoo’ steers. A control diet (conventional formulated feed and rice straw) and a treatment diet(90% mixture of broiler litter 64% and bakery by-product 36% and 10% rice straw on DM basis) were prepared on an isoenergetic basis and fed to 20 steers for 12 weeks. Palatability of TMR by ‘Hanwoo’ was fair. Compared with feeding a control diet, feeding a treatment diet resulted in increased(P〈0.05) DM intake, similar OM intake, similar daily weight gain(0.75 vs 0.64 kg/d) and feed efficiency of DM(10.1 vs 12.5) and OM(9.0 vs 10.6), considerably(45%) reduced(P〈0.05) feed cost/gain, and similar meat characteristics. These results show that a mixed ration manufactured with broiler litter and bakery by-product may be potentially used for growing ‘Hanwoo’ steers.

Application of AGNPS Water Quality Computer Simulation Model to a Cattle Grazing Pasture

  • Jeon, Woo-Jeong;Parajuli, P.;Yoo, K.-H.
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.45 no.7
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    • pp.83-93
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    • 2003
  • This research compared the observed and model predicted results that include; runoff, sediment yield, and nutrient losses from a 2.71 ha cattle grazing pasture field in North Alabama. Application of water quality computer simulation models can inexpensively and quickly assess the impact of pasture management practices on water quality. AGNPS single storm based model was applied to the three pasture species; Bermudagrass, fescue, and Ryegrass. While comparing model predicted results with observed data, it showed that model can reasonably predict the runoff, sediment yield and nutrient losses from the watershed. Over-prediction and under-prediction by the model occurred during very high and low rainfall events, respectively. The study concluded that AGNPS model can be reasonably applied to assess the impacts of pasture management practices and chicken litter application on water quality.