• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Litter quality

검색결과 71건 처리시간 0.026초

동애등에(Hermetia illucens) 분말을 오리 사료에 첨가 시 오리 깔짚 특성과 축산환경에 미치는 영향 (Effects of Dietary Hermetia illucens Powder on Duck Litter Quality and Livestock Environment)

  • 정태호
    • 한국환경과학회지
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.713-717
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary Hermetia illucens powder on duck litter quality. One hundred twenty Pekin ducks (0 day old) were assigned to 2 groups (0% and 0.5% Hermetia illucens powder) with 3 replicates (20 ducks per replicate) for 42 days. Duck litter quality included moisture, pH, VBN, total nitrogen, ammonia, and temperature. Litter pH and VBN values were significantly affected by Hermetia illucens powder (p<0.05). However, moisture and total nitrogen values were not greatly influenced by the addition of 0.5% Hermetia illucens powder (p>0.05). At 21, 28 and 35 days, both 0.5% Hermetia illucens powder and controls had a great effect (p<0.05) on ammonia contents, except at 7, 14 and 42 days. In comparison to control, ammonia contents in groups with 0.5% Hermetia illucens powder were reduced from 16.9 to 41.8% as the days increased. Duck litter showed lower temperature by 0.5% Hermetia illucens powder compare to control. In terms of environmental managements, these results suggest that using 0.5% Hermetia illucens powder as feed additives improved litter quality and decreased ammonia contents.

액상 과망간산칼륨 적용시 육계 깔짚의 특성 평가 (Assessing the Impact of Liquid Potassium Permanganate on Litter Quality of Poultry)

  • 최인학
    • 한국환경과학회지
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.119-122
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    • 2020
  • The effects of liquid potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on the litter quality of poultry were investigated. Two-hundred-forty 0-day-old broiler chickens (Arbor Acres) were randomly assigned to two treatments with four replicated pens of 30 chickens each. Treatment liquid KMnO4 at a rate of 50 g of liquid KMnO4/kg of poultry litter was sprayed onto the litter surface using a small hand pump; others served as a control that was applied without liquid KMnO4 additions. Compared with controls, the treatment liquid KMnO4 showed no differences in pH, total nitrogen and ammonia concentration. It was concluded that liquid KMnO4 did not significantly increase poultry litter quality. Mechanisms relating to increasing litter pH and ammonia using liquid KMnO4 are an oxidant agent (not acid-foaming agents).

Evaluation of the Effects of a Combination of Silicate Minerals in Duck Diets on Growth Performance and Litter Quality

  • Chung, Tae-Ho
    • 한국환경과학회지
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.933-936
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    • 2018
  • An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a mixture of bentonite and illite as feed additives on the growth performance and litter quality of 90 Pekin ducks. The ducks were individually weighed and randomly divided into two treatments (control and 1% combination of silicate minerals), with three replicate pens per treatment, and 15 ducks per pen. Growth performance was not significantly affected (p>0.05) by the combination of bentonite and illite, but a trend of increased growth performance was observed in the control groups. Total nitrogen content and pH in the litter decreased following supplementation with the combination of bentonite and illite (p<0.05) when compared with the control group. This data indicates that the dietary supplementation with the combination of bentonite and illite (1% level) has no positive effect on the growth performance and litter quality of Pekin ducks.

Optimal Poultry Litter Management through GIS-based Transportation Analysis System

  • Kang, M.S.;Srivastava, P.;Fulton, J.P.;Tyson, T.;Owsley, W.F.;Yoo, K.H.
    • 한국농공학회논문집
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    • v.48 no.7
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    • pp.73-86
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    • 2006
  • Concentrated poultry production in the State of Alabama, U.S.A. results in excessive poultry litter. Application of poultry litter to pastures and row crops serves as a cheap alternative to commercial fertilizer. However, over the years, poultry litter application to perennial forage crops in the Appalachian Plateau region of North Alabama has resulted in phosphorus (P) buildup in soils. Phosphorus index (P-index) and comprehensive nutrient management plans (CNMP) are often used as a best management practice (BMP) for proper land application of litter. Because nutrient management planning is often not done for small animal feeding operations (AFOs), and also because, in case of excess litter, litter transportation infrastructure has not been developed, over application of poultry litter to near by area is a common practice. To alleviate this problem, optimal poultry litter management and transportation infrastructure needs to be developed. This paper presents a methodology to optimize poultry litter application and transportation through efficient nutrient management planning and transportation network analysis. The goal was accomplished through implementation of three important modules, a P-Index module, a CNMP module, and a transportation network analysis module within ArcGIS, a Geographic Information System (GIS). The CNMP and P-Index modules assist with land application of poultry litter at a rate that is protective of water quality, while the transportation network analysis module helps transport excess litter to areas requiring litter in the Appalachian Plateau and Black Belt (a nutrient-deficient area) regions. Once fully developed and implemented, such a system will help alleviate water quality problems in the Appalachian Plateau region and poor soil fertility problems in the Black Belt region by optimizing land application and transportation. The utility of the methodology is illustrated through a hypothetical case study.

강우로 인해 고속도로로부터 유출되는 폐기물의 성상, 부하량 및 유출 특성 (Loading Rates and Characteristics of Litter from Highway Stormwater Runoff)

  • 김이형;강주현
    • 한국물환경학회지
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.415-421
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    • 2004
  • Litter wastes on highway runoff are gradually being considered one of the major pollutants of concern in protecting the integrity of receiving waters for beneficial use. The California State Water Resources Control Board has identified in their 303(d) list at least 36 water bodies where trash or litter is considered a pollutant of concern. The first TMDL adopted by the Region 4 (Los Angeles area) of the California State Water Quality Control Board was for trash in the Los Angeles River. The first flush characteristic study was developed to obtain first flush water quality and litter data from representative stormwater runoff from standard highway drainage outfalls in the Los Angeles area. Total captured gross pollutants in stormwater runoff were monitored at six Southern California highway sites over two years. The gross pollutants were 90% vegetation and 10% litter. Approximately 50% of the litter was composed of biodegradable materials. The event mean concentrations show an increasing trend with antecedent dry days and a decreasing trend with total runoff volume or total rainfall. Event mean concentrations were ranged 0.0021 to 0.259g/L for wet gross pollutants and 0.0001 to 0.027g/L for wet litters. The first flush phenomenon was evaluated and the impacts of various parameters such as rainfall intensity, drainage area, peak flow rate, and antecedent dry period on litter volume and loading rates were evaluated. First flush phenomenon was generally observed for litter concentrations, but was not apparent with litter mass loading rates. Litter volume and loading rates appear to be directly related to peak storm intensity, antecedent dry days and total flow volume.

광릉 천연활엽수림의 낙엽낙지와 낙엽분해에 따른 양분동태 (Nutrient Dynamics in Litterfall and Decomposing Leaf Litter at the Kwangneung Deciduous Broad-Leaved Natural Forest)

  • Choonsig Kim;Jong-Hwan Lim;Joon Hwan Shin
    • 한국농림기상학회지
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.87-93
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    • 2003
  • 산림생태계에서 낙엽낙지의 유입과 유입된 낙엽낙지의 분해는 산림의 주요한 탄소 및 양분의 공급원이다. 본 연구는 온대중부지역에 속하는 경기도 광릉의 천연 활엽수림에 위치한 DK-site를 대상으로 2년 동안 연 낙엽낙지 유입량과 낙엽분해율을 측정하였다. 낙엽낙지량은 원형의 낙엽수집기(수집면적 0.25$m^2$)를 낙엽분해 율은 10${\times}$30 cm 크기의 낙엽분해주머니(메쉬 1.5 mm)를 이용하였다. 광릉 장기생태연구조사구의 연 낙엽낙지량은 5,627 kg/ha/yr로 이중 순수한 엽량은 총 낙엽낙지량의 61%를 차지하였다. 수종별 유입량은 본 조사구의 우점종인 졸참나무 잎이 가장 많은 양을 보였으며 서어나무, 까치박달 순이었다. 낙엽분해율은 서어나무, 까치박달 낙엽이 졸참나무 낙엽에 비해 분해속도가 빨라 2년의 조사기간 동안 까치박달 낙엽 84%, 서어나무 낙엽 77%, 졸참나무 낙엽 48%가 분해되었다. 졸참나무 낙엽의 분해가 느리게 진행된 것은 타수종의 낙엽에 비해 졸참나무 낙엽내 낮은 양분함량 같은 기질의 차가 원인인 것으로 나타났다. 칼륨을 제외한 양분(N, P, Mg)함량은 분해 초기함량에 비해 낙엽분해과정동안 증가하였다. 또한 낙엽분해과정동안 양분(N, P, K, Ca, Mg)의 방출량은 까치박달과 서어나무낙엽이 졸참나무낙엽에 비해 신속한 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구결과에 따르면 광릉장기생태연구 조사구내 우점종의 낙엽분해와 양분의 동태는 동일한 입지에 있어서도 수종간에 상당한 차이를 나타내었다.

The Effect of a Natural Zeolite (Clinoptilolite) on the Performance of Broiler Chickens and the Quality of Their Litter

  • Karamanlis, X.;Fortomaris, P.;Arsenos, G.;Dosis, I.;Papaioannou, D.;Batzios, C.;Kamarianos, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.11
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    • pp.1642-1650
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this study was to assess the effect of clinoptilolite (a natural zeolite) on growth and performance of broilers as well as on the quality of their litter. A total of 5,200 one-day old broiler chickens (Cobb 500) were used in two consecutive rounds lasting 42 days each. The broilers were given free and continuous access to a nutritionally non-limiting diet (in meal form) that was either a basal diet (B) or a 'zeolite diet' (Z; the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 2%). A $2{\times}2$ factorial design consisted of two feeding treatments (B and Z) and two bedding types, sawdust (S) and sawdust with zeolite (Sz, which was the result of adding $2kg\;zeolite/m^2$), was used. In each round the broilers were randomly assigned to one of four (n = 650), treatment groups: two fed on the basal diet (B) and had bedding of either sawdust (group BS) or sawdust and zeolite (group BSz) and two fed on the Z diet and had as bedding either sawdust (ZS) or sawdust and zeolite (ZSz). Average growth rates were significantly (p<0.05) different between broilers of different groups; broilers that were fed on the 'zeolite diet' (Z) and were placed either in a compartment with sawdust bedding or sawdust bedding and zeolite (ZS and ZSz) as well those that were fed on the basal diet in a compartment with sawdust bedding and zeolite (BSz) grew at a faster rate (p<0.05) compared with those of the control group (BS). The incorporation of NZ in broilers diets and in their bedding material decreased the organic content in litter samples throughout the experimental period. The lowest organic content was recorded in group ZSz where NZ was added in both feed and litter. Mean ammonia concentration (ppm) was significantly higher in group ZS in comparison to groups BSz and ZSz (27.00 vs. 20.55 and 21.71 respectively). The results of this study showed that the incorporation of the clinoptilolite both in feed and into the litter had a positive effect on broiler growth and also on the quality of their litter.

EPIC Simulation of Water Quality from Land Application of Poultry Litter

  • Yoon, Kwang-Sik
    • 한국농공학회지
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    • v.42
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    • pp.38-49
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    • 2000
  • Two application rates (9 and 18 t/ha) of poultry litter and a recommended rate of commercial fertilizer were studied to determine their effects on nutrient (N and P) losses in surface and subsurface runoff and loadings in soil layers from conventionally-tilled com by the treatments. The model predicted higher sediment losses than observed data from all treatments. The overpredicted sediment losses resulted in overprediction of organic-N and sediment-P losses in surface runoff. Simulated soluble-P losses in surface runoff were close to observed data, while NO3-N losses in surface runoff were underpredicted from all treatments. Observed NO3-N concentrations in leachate at 1.0-m depth from commercial fertilizer treatment were fairly well predicted. But the concentratins were overpredicted from poultry litter treatments due to high simulation of organic-N mineralization simulated by the model.

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자유수면습지의 잔재물층에 의한 하천수 질소제거 비교 (Comparison of Nitrogen Removal in Free Water Surface Wetlands Purifying Stream Water with and without Litter Layer on its Bottom)

  • 양홍모
    • 한국환경복원기술학회지
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.120-129
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    • 2008
  • Removal rate of $NO_3-N$ and TN in a free water surface wetland system with litter layer on its bottom was compared with that without one. The system was established on floodplain in the down reach of the Gwangju Stream in 2001. Its dimensions were 31 meters in length and 12 meters in width. Water of the stream was funneled into it and its effluent was discharged back into the channel. Average litter layer of 9.6 cm was formed on its bottom in 2007. The layer and above-ground parts of reeds and cattails on the system were eliminated in Spring 2008. Volumes and water quality of inflow and outflow of the system were analyzed from May to November in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Inflow into the system both in 2007 and 2008 averaged approximately $40m^3/day$ and hydraulic residence time both in 2007 and 2008 was about 1.5 days. Average influent $NO_3-N$ concentration in 2007 and 2008 was 2.16 and 2.05 mg/L, respectively and influent TN concentration in 2007 and 2008 averaged 3.98 and 3.89 mg/L, respectively. With a 0.05 significance level, effluent temperatures, influent concentrations of $NO_3-N$ and TN, and stem numbers per square meter and height of the emergent plants showed no difference between the system with litter layer and without one. $NO_3-N$ removal in the system with litter layer and without it averaged 55.59 and 46.06%, respectively and TN retention averaged 57.24 and 48.97%, respectively. Both $NO_3-N$ and TN abatement rates in the system with litter layer were significantly high (p < 0.001) when compared with those without one. The wetland system having litter layer on its bottom was more efficient for $NO_3-N$ and TN retention than that without one.

산지(山地) 물순환(循環) 소과정(素過程)에 있어서 수질변화(水質變化)의 추적분석(追跡分析)에 의한 산림(山林)의 환경적(環境的) 정화기능(淨化機能)의 계량화(計量化) 연구(硏究) (Estimations on the Water Purification of Forest by Analyzing Water Quality Variations in Forest Hydrological Processes)

  • 이헌호
    • 한국산림과학회지
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    • v.86 no.1
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    • pp.56-68
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    • 1997
  • 본 연구는 산지 물순환 과정별 수질변화를 추적하여 계류수질의 형성 과정 및 산림의 환경적 정화기능을 평가하고자 실시하였다. 팔공, 용성 및 대동의 3개 조사지에서 한 단위강우에 대한 임외우, 수관통과우, 수간류, 낙엽층류 및 계류수, 그리고 장기 계류수를 대상으로 하여 각각의 유출수량과 pH, 전기전도도, 용존산소량 및 용존원소의 농도변화를 분석한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 계류수의 pH, 용존산소량은 유출수량의 증가에 따라 값이 상승하였으나, 전기전도도는 값이 낮아지는 것으로 나타났다. 2. 수간류 및 수관통과우의 pH는 임외우에 비해 경시적으로 낮은 값을 나타내며, EC는 강우초기에 높은 값, 그 이후는 강우시간의 경과와 함께 값이 낮아지는 경시적 변화를 보였다. 낙엽층류의 pH는 임외우에 비해 낮은 값, EC는 높은 값을 나타냈다. 계류수에 있어서 pH 동태는 강우초기에 높은 값을 나타내고 강우시간이 경과함에 따라 큰 폭으로 떨어지다가 강우종료 및 그 이후에는 초기 수준 또는 그 이상의 값으로 회복하였으나, EC는 거의 반대의 경향이 있었다. 낙엽층류 및 계류수의 DO는 강우시간의 경과에 따라 값이 점차 낮아졌으나, 임외우, 수간류 및 수관통과우에서는 경시적으로 뚜렷한 경향이 없었다. 3. 수간류 및 수관통과우에 있어서 pH는 소나무에 비해 상수리나무가 높았으나, EC는 낮은 값을 나타내었다. 양이온 총량은 상수리나무에 비해 소나무의 수간류에서 높은 값을 나타냈다. 4. 물순환의 각 과정에 있어서 pH는 낙엽층류<임내우(수간류+수관통과우)<임외우<계류수의 순으로, DO는 낙엽층류<임내우<임외강우<계류수, 그리고 EC는 임외우<계류수<임내우<낙엽층류의 크기 순으로 나타났다. 양이온 총량은 임외우<임내우<낙엽층<계류수의 크기 순으로 나타났다. 5. EC는 팔공조사지에 비해 용성조사지에서 전체적으로 높은 값을 나타내어 팔공계류수가 수질이 더 깨끗한 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 장기 계류수에 있어서 pH, DO, EC 및 양이온 총량은 월별로 각각 독특한 경시적 변화를 보였다.

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