• Title, Summary, Keyword: Litter

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Chytrid Distribution in Diverse Boreal Manitoba Sites

  • Lee, Eun-Ju
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.57-62
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    • 2000
  • Soil samples were collected in thirteen Manitoba boreal forest sites. Spatial distribution of chytrids from diverse boreal forest microhabitats was investigated by baiting with jack pine pollen. After baiting, the pollen was surveyed for chytrids for 8 ten day period and individual species were counted. Total infestations of pollen by chytrids ranged from 5.8% to 90.2% from various soils. Each site with high infestation was characterized by litter with high needle content while mineral soil or soil with limited organic matter yielded low levels of pollen infestation. Species diversity tended to be higher in soils with higher pollen infestation and lower in soils with lower pollen infestation. Lower diversity was generally observed in mineral soils or soils with a limited organic horizon comprised, in part, of broad leaf litter. Based on coefficients of association and species in common among species across the collection sites, it was possible to relate dominant species assemblages in site groups. These species assemblages in the site groups suggest that the chytrids are distributed by litter and soil types. It can be concluded that the substratum characteristics of litter types and availability of litter may be important in describing chytrid distribution in boreal forest sites.

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Litterfall and Nutrient Dynamics in Pine (Pinus rigida) and Larch (Larix leptolepis) Plantations

  • Kim, Choonsig;Koo, Kyo-Sang;Byun, Jae-Kyung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.94 no.5
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    • pp.302-306
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    • 2005
  • Litterfall and nutrient inputs were measured in even-aged coniferous plantations (a 31-year-old Pinus rigida and a 31-year-old Larix leptolepis) on a similar site condition in the Forest Practice Research Center, Gyeonggi Province. Litterfall was collected monthly from circular littertraps (collecting area: $0.50m^2$) for three years between April 1997 and February 2000. Average total annual litterfall was significantly higher for pine (5,802 kg/ha/yr) than for larch (4,562 kg/ha/yr) plantations. Needle litter in both plantations accounted for about 63% of total litterfall. Litterfall in the larch was distributed as follows: needle > other leaf > branch > miscellaneous > bark, while it was needle > miscellaneous > other leaf > branch > bark in the pine plantation. There was no temporal variation in needle litter, other leaf and bark during the 3 year study period. The concentrations of all nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) in needle litter were significantly higher in the larch than in the pine plantations. The annual nutrient concentration of needle litter in the larch varied among the years, whereas no year variation of needle litter was in the pine except for phosphorus (P). Nitrogen (N) and P inputs by needle litter were significantly higher for larch than for pine plantations established on a similar soil. The differences in N and P inputs were attributed to lower nutrient concentration in pine needle litter compared with larch needle litter, not to total needle litter mass. Annual inputs of nutrient in both plantations were not significantly different among years except for K of the larch although there was yearly different in needlefall mass and nutrient concentration during the 3-year observed period. The results indicate that the mechanisms of litterfall and nutrient inputs vary considerably between pine and larch plantations established on a similar site condition.

Distribution Characteristics of Bottom Litter in Chinhae Bay, Korea

  • Kim Jong-Hwa;Kim Sam-Kon;Kim Jong-Kyu
    • Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.150-158
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    • 2001
  • A study on the amount, distribution and item of bottom litter on the sea-bed was conducted by the bottom trawl net at 5 sections in Chinhae Bay over a year. The number and weight of litter found per unit of swept area (1 hectare) in each section were estimated as the range of 8.76-80.63 pieces, 3.51-108.39kg, respectively. The seasonal variation of high (Aug., '97) and low season (Feb., '98) in quantity was small, and it was about 2 times as the range of 24.58- 52.61 pieces/ha between them. But the weight variation between high (Apr., '98) and low season (Aug., '97) was very large, about 30 times as the range of 4.06-119.64kg/ha. The largest and second composition on the weight of bottom litter in Chinhae Bay are $76\%$ in other-litter with compound and bulky materials, and $93\%$ in fishing gear, respectively. The relationship between quantity and weight of bottom litter was not occurred due to the variety of specific gravity. Of the fishing gear, fishing nets was portioned to be 2.571kg/ha in weight and $84.9\%$ in composition. So these results prove that fishing nets were discarded as the most part of fishing gear during fishing activity in the bay. The largest composition of the soiled state classified into 3 styles in overall bottom litter was $69\%$ in very soiled state, and the second one of $28\%$ in the soiled state. On the other hand, new state is very small and portioned in $3.0\%$ of all. Chinhae Bay was estimated to be about 10 times in quantity and about 36 times in weight of Tokyo Bay. Therefore, these suggest that Chinhae Bay is a very serious polluted estuary caused by the bottom litter such as heavy and bulky wastes, fishing gear.

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Litterfall, decomposition, and nutrient dynamics of litter in red pine (pinus densiflora) and chinese thuja (thuja orientalis) stands in the limestone area (石灰巖地域 소나무림과 측백나무림의 落葉生産, 分解 및 窒素와 燐의 動態)

  • Mun, Hyeong-Tae;Kim, Joon-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.147-155
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    • 1992
  • Litterfall, decomposition, and dynamics of n and p in decomposing litter were investigated for 2 years in red pine ( pinus densiflora) and chinese thuja( thuja orientalis)stands in the limestone area. Average litterfall in red pine and chinese thuja stands were 4, 535kgDM ha-1 yr-1 and 5, 010 kgDM ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Seasonal litterfall in red pine and chinese thuja stands showed peaks in November. concentrations of N and P in the needle litter were lowest in the winter when the greast litterfall occurred, and highest in the summer when the least litterfall occurred. However, those in chinese thuja scale leaf litter showed litter seasonal variation.amount of N and P returned to the forest floor through litterfall were 29.02kgN ha-1 yr-1 , 2.81 kg P ha-1 yr-1 for red pine stand, and 31.06 kg N ha-1 yr-1 , 2.86kgP ha-1 yr-1 for chinese thuja stand, respectively. After 21 mounts elapsed, needle and chinese thuja scale leaf litterbags lost 34.8% and 32.5% of the initial weight, respectively. N concentrations in the docomposing needle and chines thuja scale leaf litter decreased by 19% and 30%, respectively, after 1 month elapsed, and then gradually increased to exceed the initial concentration after 9 months elapsed and then gradually increased to exceed the initial concentration after 9 months elapsed in both of them, P in needle and chines thuja scale leaf litter decreased by 54% and 57% of the initial concentration, respectively, after 1 month elapsed. unlike N, P concentration in the decomposing litter did not exceed that of initial ones. Neyt immobilization period of N and P in decomposing litter did not occur over the study period.

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Estimating Litter Carbon Stock and Change on Forest in Gangwon Province from the National Forestry Inventory Data (국가산림자원조사 자료를 활용한 강원도 산림내 낙엽층의 탄소저장량 및 변화량 추정)

  • Lee, Sun Jeoung;Kim, Raehyun;Son, Yeong Mo;Yim, Jong Su
    • Journal of Climate Change Research
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.385-391
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to estimate litter carbon stock change from the National Forest Inventory (NFI) data for national greenhouse gas inventory report. Litter carbon stocks were calculated from the NFI dataset in NFI5 (2008) and NFI6 (2013) in Gangwon province. Total carbon stock change of litter was $0.68{\pm}0.71\;t\;C/ha$ from NFI5 (2008) to NFI6 (2013), however, there was no significant difference between the both dataset at 2008 and 2013 year. Litter carbon stock of coniferous stands was higher than deciduous stands in NFI5 (2008) and NFI6 (2013) (P<0.05). This study was limited to pilot study, so we will assess litter carbon stock using more complete data from NFI systems. It can be used as data sources for national greenhouse gas inventory report on forest sector.

Utilization of Chemical Blends to Increase Nitrogen and Decrease Pathogens in Duck Litter

  • Choi, In-Hag
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.26 no.10
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    • pp.1181-1184
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    • 2017
  • This study examined the effects of chemical blends (a combination of alum and aluminum chloride) on pH, N, and pathogens in duck litter during a six-week experiment. In total, 240 Pekin ducks (160 males and 80 females) were individually distributed into 16 pens, in a randomized experimental design consisting of four treatments and four replicate pens per treatment. Our treatments included a control, T1 (75 g alum + 75 g aluminum chloride/kg duck litter), T2 (100 g alum + 100 g aluminum chloride/kg duck litter), and T3 (150 g alum + 150 g aluminum chloride/kg duck litter). There was no difference among treatments in pH and Total N (TN) at weeks 2, 4, and 6 and weeks 1, 4, 5, and 6, respectively. However, there were significant differences in both pH and TN among treatments at weeks 1, 3, and 5 and weeks 2 and 3, respectively. Regarding pathogens, we found small differences in all treatments in Escherichia coli populations from weeks 1 to 5 and in Salmonella enterica populations from weeks 1 to 3. In conclusion, the addition of chemical blends to duck litter increased TN, which resulted in a lower litter pH, but did not significantly affect pathogen populations.

Changes in Ammonia Fluxes, pH and Total Nitrogen in Liquid Ferrous Sulfate-treated Litter (액상 황산철(liquid ferrous sulfate)을 육계 깔짚에 처리시 암모니아 발생량, pH및 총 질소 함량 변화)

  • Chung, Tae-Ho
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.287-290
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    • 2019
  • This study investigates the changes in ammonia fluxes, pH and total nitrogen of liquid ferrous sulfate-treated litter over 5 weeks. A total of 200 broiler chicks (Arbor Acres, 1 d old) was separated into two treatment groups (0 g and 100 g liquid ferrous sulfate/kg litter) with four replications of 25 birds in each group. Liquid ferrous sulfate was sprayed on the litter by using a small sprayer. There was no difference (p>0.05) in the ammonia fluxes observed between the control and liquid ferrous sulfate treatment groups at 0, 1, and 5 weeks, except for 2, 3 and 4 weeks. At 5 weeks, the litter pH and total nitrogen content did not show any difference (p>0.05) between the control and liquid ferrous sulfate treatment groups. In conclusion, the use of liquid ferrous sulfate is not a suitable for use in poultry litter to reduce ammonia and pH or improve the total nitrogen content.

Seasonal Difference in Macroinvertebrate Contribution to the Leaf Litter Breakdown in a Headwater Stream at Mt. Jumbong (점봉산 소하천의 낙엽분쇄에 대한 대형무척추동물 기여도의 계정간 차이)

  • Chung, Keun
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.563-573
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    • 1996
  • Macroinvertebrate contribution to the leaf litter breakdown of Carpinus cordata was estimated at headwater streams at Mt. Jumbong (38°03'N, 128°25'E) during spring and winter spring by using two types of litter bag. Coarse-mesh bags with 10 g of leaf letter were placed in a 1st-order stream in April (the spring experiment) and December 1995 (the winter-spring experiment). Fine-mesh bags with 5 g of leaf letter were placed in a nearby 3ed-order steam. The breakdown of Carpinus in coarse-mesh bags was rapid, and, in terms of season, leaf litter processed rapidly during spring. daily mass loss rates of leaf litter (-k±1 SE) were highest for coarse-mesh bags in the spring experiment (-0.0429±0.0048), followed by coarse-mesh bags in the winter-spring (-0.0146±0.0014), fine-mesh bags in the spring (-0.0078±0.0004), fine-mesh bags in the winter-spring experiment (-0.0054±0.0005). Macroinvertebrate contribution to the litter breakdown was estimated by the difference of % leaf letter remaining between coarse -mesh bage and fine-mesh bags. Although shredders were more abundant during the winter-spring, their contribution was greater during the spring (50%) than the winter-spring (22∼33%). This result appeared to be due to the change in the chemical composition of leaf letter during processing, and to the seasonal growth patterns of major shredder taxa.

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Soil Microarthropod Fauna at Mt. Jumbong, Nature Researve Area (점봉산 천연보호림의 토양과 낙엽에서의 토양미소절지동물상)

  • 강방훈;이준호
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.329-337
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    • 1997
  • Study of population density and biomass of soil microarthropods in soil, herbaceous leaf litter and wood leaf litter was conducted at 4 sites with different flora in Mt. Jumbong, a nature reserve area, in Korea from Aug. 1994 to May 1996. Total 47, 849 individuals of soil microarthropods in soil were collected and identified into 6 different classes, and 16 orders. The composition, densities, and dominant group of soil microarthropods were different among 4 sampling sites. Collembola was the most abundant group with 50.7% at South-facing slope and 50.6% at the North-facing slope. But Acari was the most abundant group with 49.8% at Altitude 900m site and 47.7% at Altitude 1100m site. Two group ranged 87-95% of total individuals. A/C ratio was less than 1.0 at 4 sampling sites during the all sampling seasons. As a result of biomass evaluation, rato of Acari was decreased but ratio of Diplopoda, coleoptera, Araneae, Diptera and Chilopoda was increased. About 70% of total orders and densities were found in less than 5cm soil depth. The composition, densities, and dominant group of soil microarthropods were different among soil, herbaceous litter and wood litter. Collembola was the most abundant group in herbaceous and wood litter. A/C ratio was less than 1.0 in litter during the sampling seasons. As a result of biomass evaluation in litter, ration of Araneae and Collembola was very high, but ratio of Acari was low.

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Correlations of Litter Size and Maternal Serum Progesterone Concentration during Pregnancy with Mammary Gland Growth and Development Indices at Parturition in Javanese Thin-Tail Sheep

  • Manalu, W.;Sumaryadi, M.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.300-306
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    • 1998
  • An experiment was conducted to investigate correlations of litter size and average serum progesterone concentrations during pregnancy with mammary gland growth and development at parturition. Twenty ewes (5, 9, 4, and 2 ewes carrying 0, 1, 2, and 3 lambs, respectively) were used to measure weekly serum progesterone concentration during pregnancy. At parturition, the experimental ewes were slaughtered for determination of mammary gland growth and development at parturition (mammary dry fat-free tissue [DFFT], DNA, RNA, collagen, protein, and glycogen). Correlation of mammary DFFT with litter size and averages serum progesterone concentrations were 0.75 and 0.72, respectively. Litter size or maternal serum progesterone concentrations did not correlate with the mammary DNA concentration. However, litter size or maternal serum progesterone concentrations positively correlated (p < 0.01) with the mammary RNA and protein concentrations, but negatively correlated with the mammary collagen (p < 0.01) and. glycogen (p < 0.05) concentrations. Litter size or maternal serum progesterone positively correlated (p < 0.01) with the total mammary DNA, RNA, collagen, protein and glycogen contents. These results implied that the increased concentrations of progesterone with the increased litter size during pregnancy improved mammary gland growth and development at parturition.