• Title/Summary/Keyword: Litter

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Relationship between Stress Gene Polymorphisms and Litter Size by AI in Pigs

  • Jin, H.J.;Kim, I.C.;Wee, M.S.;Yeon, S.H.;Kim, C.D.;Lee, S.S.;Cho, C.Y.;Cho, S.R.;Son, D.S.;Park, C.K.;Li, Z.D.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.257-263
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    • 2007
  • This study was performed to investigate the relationship between PSS-HSP70 gene polymorphism and artificial insemination (AI) reproductivity in the pigs. The RFLP polymorphism of PSS and the SSCP polymorphisms of HSP70 K1, K3 and K4 PCR product were detected different patterns. In the experiment for AI of fresh semen, spring and fall season showed higher litter size born of 10.89 head than 10.47 head of summer season. Landrace was showed higher litter size of 9.96 head than that of Duroc and Yorkshire (p<0.05). Stress relating PSS and HSP70 polymorphism of PSS-Normal, HSP70 K1-BB, K3-AB, K4-AA showd a highest litter size born of 10.97 head and litter size born alive of 10.69 head than that of the other polymorphisms(p<0.05). In the experiment for AI of frozen semen, effects of season and pig breeds were not showed for litter size born. The stress relating polymorphism of PSS-Carrier, HSP70 K1-BB, K3-BB, K4-AB showed highest litter size born of 11.29 head and litter size born alive of 10.82 head and PSS-Normal, HSP70 K1-BB, K3-AB, K4-AA showed the lowest litter size born of 8.48 head and litter size born alive of 7.33 head than that of the other polymorphisms(p<0.05). These results suggest that AI litter size born for the stress of forzen thawed semen may be affected by PSS and HSP70 polymorphism in pigs.

World Interest and Activities on Marine Litter (해양쓰레기의 전 지구적 관심과 실행)

  • Jung, Rho-Taek
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.173-180
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    • 2009
  • After the UN General Assembly on 2006, Interest on the marine litter has rapidly increased internationally. The UN sub-organizations, UNEP/Regional Seas, FAO(Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) and OC(Ocean Conservancy) as a one of world NGO had been tackled to collect information and prepared world reports related on marine litter, recently, those are published. Through the 10years experience of Korea's policy on marine litter since 1999, it is re-evaluated as a roll model internationally. In this paper, brief introduction of structure and function of Korea's authorities which are responsible for or are involved in the marine litter issue as well as the National Marine Litter Management Basic Plan which is established in 2008, has been provided. This paper also included the structure and roll of the marine litter initiative center in the plan. Change of the paradigm of action plan on marine litter in Korea already had been started.

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Decomposition and, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Dynamics of Pinus thundbergii Needle Litter (해송엽(海松葉) Litter의 분해(分解)와 N, P 및 K의 동태(動態))

  • Yi, Myong-Jong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.80 no.3
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    • pp.303-310
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    • 1991
  • Seasonal patterns of decomposition and nutrient release from the needle litter were examined using litter-bags in coastal Pinus thunbergii forests in nothern Kyushu, Japan. Dry matter losses from decomposing needle litter were smillar in all standsover a experimental period. Mass loss in dry weight is lost rapidly during the first year, and thereafter the rate of loss slows. Litter lost approximately 40% of initial mass in 1 yr. The predicted decay constant, k values ranged from 0.5 to 0.6 Decomposition half-times($t_{0.50}$) ranged from 1.1 to 1.4 year. In the decomposing needle litter, the concentrations of N and P generally increased with time while the concentration of K decreased. A decrease in absolute amount was noted for K during decomposition while in an increase was found for N. The order of mobility of elements was K>P>N. Mineralization phase of N had not appeared during the experiment.

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Statistical Analysis of Stillbirths in Different Genotypes of Sows

  • Chu, M.X.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.1475-1478
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    • 2005
  • Statistical analysis was conducted on sow stillbirth traits of three genotypes with 2,400 litters including the Erhualian, Large White and the $F_1$ cross of these two breeds. Number of stillborn piglets per litter in the Erhualian, Large White and the $F_1$ averaged 0.85, 0.31 and 0.70, and percentage born alive averaged 95.0%, 97.0% and 95.5%, respectively. Erhualian sows with a greater litter size also had a higher stillbirth rate. Results of analysis of variance indicated that genotype, parity, farrowing year${\times}$farrowing season interaction and total number born had highly significant effects on both number of stillborn piglets per litter and percentage born alive in sows (p<0.0001). Farrowing year had no significant effect on number of stillborn piglets per litter (p>0.05), and highly significant effect on percentage born alive (p<0.01). Farrowing season had highly significant effects on both number of stillborn piglets per litter and percentage born alive (p<0.01). From parity one to parity ten, least squares means for number of stillborn piglets per litter progressively increased with increasing parity and least squares means for percentage born alive progressively decreased with increasing parity. Sows that farrowed in winter had the highest number of stillborn piglets per litter and the lowest percentage born alive, sows that farrowed in autumn had the lowest number of stillborn piglets per litter and the highest percentage born alive. With increasing total number born, least squares means for number of stillborn piglets per litter markedly increased and least squares means for percentage born alive markedly decreased. Results from analysis of paternal half sibs indicated that the heritabilities for number of stillborn piglets per litter and percentage born alive were 0.110 and 0.124, and the genetic, phenotypic and environmental correlations between them were -0.989, -0.951 and -0.948, respectively. These results indicated that number of stillborn piglets per litter and percentage born alive were traits with the similar genetic background.

Carbon-13 NMR Analysis of Organic Carbons from a Nothern Hardwood Litter and Leachates, Central Maine, U.S.A. (미국(美國) 북부(北部) 활엽수림 litter로부터 발생(發生)되는 유기산(有機酸)의 탄소-13 NMR 분석(分析))

  • Choi, In-Gyu
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.81-90
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    • 1993
  • 나무로부터 발생되는 유기물질이 자연상태에서 어떻게 변화되는가를 탄소-13 핵자기 공명 스펙트럼에 의하여 분석하였다. Litter를 구성하는 주요탄소의 형태는 지방족 탄화수소, 탄수화물, 그리고 방향족 탄소들이었으며, 메톡실, 카르복실과 카르보닐형 탄소들은 부후의 정도가 커짐에 따라 리그닌의 농도가 litter 중에서 증가하므로 점차 증가한다. Hydrophobic과 hydrophilic형 유기탄소가 litter의 자연 여과액(leachates)에 많이 존재하며, 그들의 탄소의 구조는 산성, 염기성 그리고 중성으로 분류되었을 때 서로 특이한 탄소의 형태를 갖는다.

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Studies on Factors affecting on Reproductive traits of the Pig Farms managed by EDP System (전산관리 양돈농가의 번식성적에 미치는 요인에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, H.S.;Kim, B.W.;Kim, H.C.;Lee, K.W.;Ha, J.K.;Jeon, J.T.;Lee, J.G.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.917-922
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to investigate effects of farm, type of sow Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire, LY; Yorkshire${\times}$ Landrace, YL; Yorkshire${\times}$Yorkshire, YY and multi-cross bred sow, MBS), parity, farrowing year, farrowing season and mating method on reproductive traits such as total number born per litter, number of born alive per litter, number of weaned per litter, number of mummified per litter, number of stillbirth. The Reproductive Records of 3,387 litters from January, 1999 to September, 2002 were obtained from four pig farms managed by Electronic Data Processing(EDP) system. Reproductive performances for two types of F1 Sows(YL and LY) were estimated as 11.34${\pm}$0.266 and 11.57${\pm}$0.263 heads for total number of born per litter, 10.56${\pm}$0.216 and 11.81${\pm}$0.251 heads for number of born alive per litter, and 10.05${\pm}$0.131 and 9.96${\pm}$0.153 heads for number of weaned per litter, respectively. These records are significantly higher(P〈0.05) than those of YY and MBS. However, number of mummified per litter, number of stillborn per litter, number of dead by diarrhea per litter, number of dead by other reasons during lactating period per litter and estrus interval did not show significant difference between types of sows. There were more total number of born per litter and number of weaned per litter in year 2001 than other year. As year passed, number of dead by crush per litter, number of dead by diarrhea per litter and number of dead by other reasons during lactating period per litter reduced from 0.18${\pm}$0.023 to 0.07${\pm}$0.022 head, 0.12${\pm}$0.21 to 0.02${\pm}$0.020 head and 0.43${\pm}$0.041 to 0.22${\pm}$0.040 head, respectively and weaning rate increased from 0.94${\pm}$0.005% to 0.97${\pm}$0.005%. The total number of born per litter and number of born alive per litter were higher(P〈0.05) in the case of mating twice than mating once. The number of weaned per litter, number of mummified per litter and number of stillborn per litter were not significant(P〈0.05) between mating methods. Estrus interval was shorter on the occasion of twice artificial insemination(5.24${\pm}$0.153days) than twice natural mating(6.51${\pm}$0.466days).

EFFECT OF FEEDING BROILER LITTER ON GROWTH AND NUTRIENT UTILIZATION BY BARBARI GOAT

  • Nadeem, M.A.;Ali, A.;Azim, A.;Khan, A.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.73-77
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    • 1993
  • Four isocaloric (68.71, 67.07, 66.68 and 66.25% TDN) and isonitrogenous (12.96, 13.36, 13.36 and 12.96% CP) diets without or with 20, 25 and 30% broiler litter were fed to 20 male kids for 90 days. Weight gain and feed efficiency were higher (p < 0.05) for kids offered control diets as compared to kids fed diets containing broiler litter. There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the feed intake with increasing level of broiler litter in the diets. Digestibility for organic matter, crude protein and crude fibre were not affected (p > 0.05) by the inclusion of broiler litter in the diets, whereas inclusion of broiler litter depressed (p < 0.05) the digestibility of dry matter and ash. Nitrogen balance was positive for all diets, however, nitrogen retention decreased (p < 0.01) with the increased level of broiler litter. Blood Na, K, Ca, P and urea-N were within normal range.

Wood and Leaf Litter Decomposition and Nutrient Release from Tectona grandis Linn. f. in a Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest of Rajasthan, Western India

  • Kumar, J.I. Nirmal;Sajish, P.R.;Kumar, Rita.N.;Bhoi, Rohit Kumar
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.17-23
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    • 2010
  • The present study was conducted to quantify wood and leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release of a dominant tree species, Tectona grandis Linn. F. in a tropical dry deciduous forest of Rajasthan, Western India. The mean relative decomposition rate was maximum in the wet summer and minimum during dry summer. Rainfall and its associated variables exhibited greater control over litter decomposition than temperature. The concentrations of N and P increased in decomposing litter with increasing retrieval days. Mass loss was negatively correlated with N and P concentrations. The monthly weight loss was significantly correlated (P < 0.05) with soil moisture and rainfall in both wood and leaf litter. Tectona grandis was found to be most suitable tree species for plantation programmes in dry tropical regions as it has high litter deposition and decomposition rates and thus it has advantages in degraded soil restoration and sustainable land management.

Effects of Dietary Hermetia illucens Powder on Duck Litter Quality and Livestock Environment (동애등에(Hermetia illucens) 분말을 오리 사료에 첨가 시 오리 깔짚 특성과 축산환경에 미치는 영향)

  • Chung, Tae-Ho
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.713-717
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary Hermetia illucens powder on duck litter quality. One hundred twenty Pekin ducks (0 day old) were assigned to 2 groups (0% and 0.5% Hermetia illucens powder) with 3 replicates (20 ducks per replicate) for 42 days. Duck litter quality included moisture, pH, VBN, total nitrogen, ammonia, and temperature. Litter pH and VBN values were significantly affected by Hermetia illucens powder (p<0.05). However, moisture and total nitrogen values were not greatly influenced by the addition of 0.5% Hermetia illucens powder (p>0.05). At 21, 28 and 35 days, both 0.5% Hermetia illucens powder and controls had a great effect (p<0.05) on ammonia contents, except at 7, 14 and 42 days. In comparison to control, ammonia contents in groups with 0.5% Hermetia illucens powder were reduced from 16.9 to 41.8% as the days increased. Duck litter showed lower temperature by 0.5% Hermetia illucens powder compare to control. In terms of environmental managements, these results suggest that using 0.5% Hermetia illucens powder as feed additives improved litter quality and decreased ammonia contents.

Effects of Chemical Additives Containing Al and Ca on Volatile Fatty Acids and Nitrogen Contents of Litter (Al과 Ca을 함유한 화학제재의 첨가가 깔짚내 휘발성 지방산과 질소 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, In-Hag;Choi, Jung-Hoon
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.225-232
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    • 2008
  • The objectives of this study were conducted to determine the effects of two chemical amendments on volatile fatty acids (VFA) and nitrogen contents in poultry litter after broiler chicks were raised in poultry houses for 6 weeks. Two different additives were applied as a top dressing to the litter at a rate of $AlCl_3{\cdot}6H_2O$ (200 g)+$CaCO_3$ (50 g) or Alum (200 g)+$CaCO_3$ (50 g)/kg of rice bran; untreated litter served as controls. Application of $AlCl_3+CaCO_3$ and Alum+$CaCO_3$ reduced total VFA contents by 67% and 51% at 6 weeks, respectively, compard to the control groups. The decrease in litter pH with two chemical treatments results in decreased proportion of VFA and increased nitrogen contents of the litter. These results indicate that treating $AlCl_3+CaCO_3$ and Alum+$CaCO_3$ to poultry litter offers the potential for reducing an environmental impact.