• Title, Summary, Keyword: Litter

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Studies on the Decomposition of Leaf Litter Containing Heavy Metals in Andong Serpentine Area, Korea I. Microcosm Experiment (사문암지대의 중금속 함유 낙엽의 분해에 관한 연구 I. Microcosm 실험)

  • Ryou, Sae-Han;Kim, Jeong-Myeong;Shim, Jae-Kuk
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.353-362
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    • 2009
  • This study attempted to compare the litter decomposition rate of Arundinella hirta and Miscanthus sinensis var. purpurascens which collected from serpentine soil acting potentially toxic concentration of heavy metals and non-serpentine soil by using the microcosm method for 192 days under constant humidity and $23^{\circ}C$. The contents of Ni, Fe, Mg and Cr in the serpentine and nonserpentine soil originated litter showed high differences between them. The litter samples from serpentine site have lower C/N than non-serpentine litter, but the soluble carbohydrate content was shown almost similar between two plant litter. The mass loss rates of leaf litter from serpentine area were slower than those from non-serpentine site. During the experimental period, the remained dry weight of A. hirta and M. sinensis var. purpurascens litter collected from serpentine site were 64.7%, 65.0% of initial dry weight and litter samples from non-serpentine site showed 54.2%, 50.7%, respectively. K and Na were leached rapidly at the initial decomposition periods, but Ca showed immobilization and other metal elements reserved at the decomposing litter for a long time. The decomposing A. hirta litter from non-serpentine soil showed higher values of $CO_2$ evolution, microbial biomass-C, and microbial biomass-N than those in serpentine soil originated litter acting nutrient stresses and exhibited rapid decay rate. The microbial biomass and microbial respiration of decaying litter were positively correlated with litter decomposition rate, and these relationships showed more rapid slope in non-serpentine soil originated litter than that in serpentine soil.

The Decomposition of Leaf Litters of Some Tree Species in Temperate Deciduous Forest in Korea I. Losses in Dry Weight of Leaf Litter

  • Yang, Keum-Chul;Shim, Jae-Kuk
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.203-208
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    • 2003
  • Losses in the dry weight of leaf litter from six tree species were studied during 16 months on the forest floor in temperate deciduous forest of Mt. Cheonma in the vicinity of Seoul in Korea by using litter bag method. The decomposition rate of each leaf litter varies with each species. After 16 months elapsed, the leaf litter of Acer pseudo-sieboidianum showed the highest decomposition constant (0.82) as Olson´s decomposition constant, while that of Pinus densiflora showed the lowest decomposition constant (0.33). The decomposition constant of Quercus mongolica, Q. serrata, Betula ermani and Carpinus laxiflora showed 0.43, 0.37, 0.66 and 0.75, respectively. The decomposition constant of leaf litter was considered with temperature and precipitation which accumulated daily during each term of litter bag collection. The decomposition constant of leaf litter showed closely positive correlation with daily accumulative temperature and precipitation. The relationships between decomposition constant and the daily accumulative temperature and precipitation at each period of litter bag collection were analyzed through multi-regression analysis. The correlation coefficients as a result of multi-regression analysis in Q. mongolica, Q. serrata, P densiflora, B. ermani, C. laxiflorais and A. pseudo-sieboldianum were 0.83, 0.81, 0.69, 0.77, 0.77 and 0.62, respectively. The precipitation showed higher effect, about 10 times, on the leaf litter decomposition than the daily accumulative temperature.

The Decomposition of Leaf Litters of Some Tree Species in Temperate Deciduous Forest in Korea II. Changes in Nutrient Content During Litter Decomposition

  • Yang, Keum-Chul;Shim, Jae-Kuk
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.313-319
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    • 2003
  • Dry weight loss and nutrient release from leaf litter for six tree species were studied using litter bag methods. The litter bags were incubated for f6 months on the forest floor in temperate deciduous forest in Mt. Cheonma, located at the middle part of Korean Peninsula. The changes in nutrient content and the rate of dry weight loss in leaf litter varied with litter types. The litter of Pinus densiflora showed the lowest rate of mass loss (k=0.33), nitrogen concentration (0.89%) and ash concentration (2.50%), while showed the highest C/N ratio (63.40). On the other hand, the litter of Acer pseudo-sieboldianum showed the fastest rate of mass loss (k=0.82), the highest nitrogen concentration (1.11%), and the lowest C/N ratio (49.40). During the decomposition, nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium in the leaf litters showed relatively slow decreasing pattern compared to other elements (carbon, potassium, magnesium, manganese and sodium), but potassium and sodium decreased at early stage of the decomposition for all leaf litters. Differences in annual decomposition rates of litter among species were consistent with the particular chemical characteristics of their leaf litters. The initial concentration of nitrogen was positively correlated with litter decomposition rate for six species, while litter decomposition rate of six species was negatively correlated with C:N ratio of initial leaf litters.

Optimal Poultry Litter Management through GIS-based Transportation Analysis System

  • Kang, M.S.;Srivastava, P.;Fulton, J.P.;Tyson, T.;Owsley, W.F.;Yoo, K.H.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.48 no.7
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    • pp.73-86
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    • 2006
  • Concentrated poultry production in the State of Alabama, U.S.A. results in excessive poultry litter. Application of poultry litter to pastures and row crops serves as a cheap alternative to commercial fertilizer. However, over the years, poultry litter application to perennial forage crops in the Appalachian Plateau region of North Alabama has resulted in phosphorus (P) buildup in soils. Phosphorus index (P-index) and comprehensive nutrient management plans (CNMP) are often used as a best management practice (BMP) for proper land application of litter. Because nutrient management planning is often not done for small animal feeding operations (AFOs), and also because, in case of excess litter, litter transportation infrastructure has not been developed, over application of poultry litter to near by area is a common practice. To alleviate this problem, optimal poultry litter management and transportation infrastructure needs to be developed. This paper presents a methodology to optimize poultry litter application and transportation through efficient nutrient management planning and transportation network analysis. The goal was accomplished through implementation of three important modules, a P-Index module, a CNMP module, and a transportation network analysis module within ArcGIS, a Geographic Information System (GIS). The CNMP and P-Index modules assist with land application of poultry litter at a rate that is protective of water quality, while the transportation network analysis module helps transport excess litter to areas requiring litter in the Appalachian Plateau and Black Belt (a nutrient-deficient area) regions. Once fully developed and implemented, such a system will help alleviate water quality problems in the Appalachian Plateau region and poor soil fertility problems in the Black Belt region by optimizing land application and transportation. The utility of the methodology is illustrated through a hypothetical case study.

Genetic and Non-genetic Causes of Variation in Gestation Length, Litter Size and Litter Weight in Goats

  • Hoque, M.A.;Amin, M.R.;Baik, D.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.772-776
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    • 2002
  • This study was made with 631 does of 3 genetic groups and 1,112 of their kids allocated into 3 different locations to examine gestation length, litter size and litter weight in goats. Attributes studied were genetic group, parity, age of dam at kidding, weight of dam at breeding, season and location. Genetic group of dam affected significantly (p<0.01) size of litter but not gestation length and weight of litter. Selected Black Bengal (SBB) genetic group performed better in litter size and litter weight than random bred Black Bengal (RBB) and its crossbreds with Jamunapari ♂ (JBB). Litter size and weight were significantly affected by age of dam at kidding (p<0.01), weight of dam at service (p<0.001) and parity (p<0001). Size and weight of litter were found highest in SBB does, or does having 35-40 months of age at kidding, or does with 19-20 kg live weight at service, or at 4th parity. Season, location and parity also affected significantly (p<0.05) gestation length. Shortest gestation length was found in 5th parity or in summer season, whereas the longest was in 2nd parity or in winter season.

Influence of Depth of Rice Husk Litter on Broiler Performance, Litter Dampness and its Coccidial Oocyst Population During Winter

  • Mizu, M.M.R.;Chowdhury, S.D.;Karim, M.J.;Debnath, S.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.450-454
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    • 1998
  • Four groups each containing 48 seven-day-old broiler chicks were reared for 7 weeks during winter on rice husk litter spread to depths of 20, 30, 40 or 50 mm. Broiler performance was evaluated in terms of weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency and production number. Litter dampness was determined and coccidial oocyst populations were counted at different weeks of age. The depth of litter did not significantly affect live weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, liveability or production number. Variation in moisture contents of litter was observed but the coccidial oocysts count per gramme of litter was within the safety level and therefore, there was no outbreak of coccidiosis in any group. Use of rice husk litter at different depths (20 to 50 mm) did not cause any breast blisters or leg abnormalities. It was concluded that rice husk can be used as litter at depths of between 20 and 50 mm during winter to raise broilers without affecting performance characteristics and health of birds.

A Study on the Origination of Backcountry Litter in Moaksan Provincial Park (모악산도립공원의 산쓰레기 발생특성)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Huh, Joon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.64-72
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    • 2007
  • This study investigated the types, forms, and origination of litter found along one hiking course in Moaksan Provincial Park, 'Jungin-ri Course'(entrance-ridge-valley-peak). In addition, a survey was conducted to understand hikers' litter control awareness in order to determine possible backcountry litter control measures. The following are the results of this study: 1. For the litter Sequency investigation, 199 recyclable pieces of litter were found on the mid-slope(61.6%), 89 by the entrance(27.6%), 19 in the valley(5.9%) and 16 on the peak(4.9%). A total of 323 pieces of litter were found. Paper materials were the most common, followed by plastic containers such as PET bottles and yogurt containers. Of particular interest, 288 papers and cans were found on the mid-slope(46.9%). By the entrance, more plastics and bottles were found. 2. There were 614 pieces of flammable litter collected and only 19 pieces of non-flammable. Most of the flammable litter, including snack pacts, plastic bags, processed lumber, cigarette butts, tissues, cigarette boxes, and fabric was found on the mid-slope. 3. Very little food waste was found throughout the whole site proving that the policy prohibiting hikers from cooking and eating at the designated sites has been effective. However, food waste is difficult to find because it naturally decays with time. 4. $X^2$-test was used to find different types of litter and their verified origination frequency. It was found that recyclable litter, and food waste took about 1%. In addition, recyclable litter, especially bottles, was found relatively frequently by the entrance. Flammable litter was found most often at the peak. 5. The questionnaire results showed that 48.2% of the respondents "shorten their hiking journey and purchase food outside the entrance" and 29.6% said that they "bring a packed meal from home". Only 8.2% said that they "cook something when an appropriate location is found". At the Jungin-ri course, a few hikers brought their own food to eat or cook, but most hikers purchased something to eat onsite. 6. The results of the question about having experience littering while hiking showed that 19.3% litter and 79.2% do not. Those that responded "yes" gave various reasons for littering. 63.6% claimed, "there are no designated trash containers". 15.9% said they litter subconsciously. Finally, 3.2% insist that they litter "because food naturally decomposes". 7. As a result of the overall satisfaction according to the Likert scale and the analysis with an average of 14 variables, it was found that the average "toxic litter control convenience" was 2.41 with very low satisfaction. Thus, the results indicate the importance of providing appropriate back country litter control facilities.

Nutrient Dynamics in Litterfall and Decomposing Leaf Litter at the Kwangneung Deciduous Broad-Leaved Natural Forest (광릉 천연활엽수림의 낙엽낙지와 낙엽분해에 따른 양분동태)

  • Choonsig Kim;Jong-Hwan Lim;Joon Hwan Shin
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.87-93
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    • 2003
  • Litterfall and litter decomposition represent a major contribution to the carbon and nutrient inputs in a forest ecosystem. We measured litterfall quantity and nutrient dynamics in decomposing litter for two years at the Kwangneung broadleaf natural forest (DK site) in Korea. Litterfall was collected in circular littertraps (collecting area : 0.25 $m^2$) and mass loss rates and nutrient release patterns in decomposing litter were estimated using the litterbag technique employing 30 cm ${\times}$ 30 cm nylon bags with 1.5 mm mesh size. Total annual litterfall was 5,627 kg/ha/yr and leaf litter accounted for 61 % of the litterfall. The leaf litter quantity was highest in Quercus serrata, fallowed by Carpinus laxiflora and C. cordata, etc., which are dominant tree species in the site. Mass loss from decomposing leaf litter was more rapid in C. laxiflora and C. cordata than in Q. serrata litter. About 77% of C. laxiflora and 84% of C. cordata litter disappeared, while about 48% in Q. serrata litter lost over two years. Lower mass loss rates of Q. serrata litter may be attributed to the difference of substrate quality such as lower nutrient concentrations compared with the other litter types. Nutrient concentrations (N, P, Mg) of three litter types except for potassium (K) increased compared with initial nutrient concentrations of litter over the study period. Compared with Q. serrata litter, nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) in C. laxiflora and C. cordata litter were released rapidly. The results suggest that litter mass loss and nutrient dynamic processes among tree species vary considerably in the same site conditions.

Weight Loss and Nutrient Dynamics during Leaf Litter Decomposition of Quercus mongolica in Mt. Worak National Park

  • Mun, Hyeong-Tae
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.123-127
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    • 2009
  • Weight loss and nutrient dynamics of Quercus mongolica leaf litter during decomposition were investigated from December 2005 through August 2008 in Mt. Worak National Park as a part of National Long-Term Ecological Research Program in Korea. The decay constant (k) of Q. mongolica litter was 0.26. After 33 months decomposition, remaining weight of Q. mongolica litter was 49.3$\pm$4.4%. Initial C/N and C/P ratios of Q. mongolica litter were 43.3 and 2,032, respectively. C/N ratio in decomposing litter decreased rapidly from the beginning to nine months decomposition, and then showed more or less constant. C/P ratio increased to 2,407 after three months decomposition, and then decreased steadily thereafter. N and P concentration increased significantly during decomposition. N immobilization occurred from the beginning through 18 months decomposition, and mineralization occurred afterwards in decomposing litter. P immobilized significantly from fifteen months during decomposition. K concentration decreased rapidly from the beginning to six months decomposition. However it showed an increasing pattern during later stage of decomposition. Remaining K decreased rapidly during early stage of decomposition. There was no net K immobilization. Ca concentration increased from the beginning to twelve months decomposition, and then decreased rapidly till twenty one months elapsed. However, it increased again thereafter. Ca mineralization occurred from fifteen months. Mg concentration increased during decomposition. There was no Mg immobilization during litter decomposition. After 33 months decomposition, remaining N, P, K, Ca and Mg in Q. mongolica litter were 79.2, 110.9, 36.2, 52.7 and 74.4%, respectively.

Estimation of Genetic Parameters and Trends for Weaning-to-first Service Interval and Litter Traits in a Commercial Landrace-Large White Swine Population in Northern Thailand

  • Chansomboon, C.;Elzo, M.A.;Suwanasopee, T.;Koonawootrittriron, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.543-555
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    • 2010
  • The objectives of this research were the estimation of genetic parameters and trends for weaning-to-first service interval (WSI), and litter traits in a commercial swine population composed of Landrace (L), Large White (T), LT, and TL animals in Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand. The dataset contained 4,399 records of WSI, number of piglets born alive (NBA), litter weight of live piglets at birth (LBW), number of piglets at weaning (NPW), and litter weight at weaning (LWW). Variance and covariance components were estimated with REML using 2-trait analyses. An animal model was used for WSI and a sire-dam model for litter traits. Fixed effects were farrowing year-season, breed group of sow, breed group of boar (litter traits), parity, heterosis (litter traits), sow age, and lactation length (NPW and LWW). Random effects were boar (litter traits), sow, permanent environment, and residual. Heritabilities for direct genetic effects were low for WSI (0.04${\pm}$0.02) and litter traits (0.05${\pm}$0.02 to 0.06${\pm}$0.02). Most heritabilities for maternal litter trait effects were 20% to 50% lower than their direct counterparts. Repeatability for WSI was similar to its heritability. Repeatabilities for litter traits ranged from 0.15${\pm}$0.02 to 0.18${\pm}$F0.02. Direct genetic, permanent environment, and phenotypic correlations between WSI and litter traits were near zero. Direct genetic correlations among litter traits ranged from 0.56${\pm}$0.20 to 0.95${\pm}$0.05, except for near zero estimates between NBA and LWW, and LBW and LWW. Maternal, permanent environment, and phenotypic correlations among litter traits had similar patterns of values to direct genetic correlations. Boar genetic trends were small and significant only for NBA (-0.015${\pm}$0.005 piglets/yr, p<0.004). Sow genetic trends were small, negative, and significant (-0.036${\pm}$0.013 d/yr, p<0.01 for WSI; -0.017${\pm}$0.005 piglets/yr, p<0.007, for NBA; -0.015${\pm}$0.005 kg/yr, p<0.01, for LBW; -0.019${\pm}$0.008 piglets/yr, p<0.02, for NPW; and -0.022${\pm}$0.006 kg/yr, p<0.003, for LWW). Permanent environmental correlations were small, negative, and significant only for WSI (-0.028${\pm}$0.011 d/yr, p<0.02). Environmental trends were positive and significant only for litter traits (p<0.01 to p<0.0003). Selection based on predicted genetic values rather than phenotypes could be advantageous in this population. A single trait analysis could be used for WSI and a multiple trait analysis could be implemented for litter traits.