• Title/Summary/Keyword: Liquid Nitrogen

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Post-thaw Development of Rabbits Pronuclear Embryos by Cryopreservation (토끼 전핵배의 동결보존 후 배발달률)

  • 강다원;조성근;한재희;곽대오;이효종;최상용;박충생
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.75-84
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    • 1999
  • This study assessed development in vitro of pronuclear(PN) stage embryos cryopreserved by the method of either vitrification or slow freezing, by using of different cryoprotectants, and equilibration and cooling rate, in rabbit. Ethyleneglycol- ficoll- sucrose(EFS) or ethyleneglycol- polyvinylpyrrolidone - galactose- (EPG-I) for vitrification, and EPG- II for slow freezing as cryoprotectant were used. The pronuclear embryos were exposed to EFS for 0 to 5 min and diluted with D-PBS and/or pre-dilution with 0.5 M sucrose. To examine the viability of frozen-thawed embryos, PN embryos were co-cultured with bovine oviductal epitherial cell(BOEC) for 5 days to hatching blastocyst stage in 39 $^{\circ}C$ 5% $CO_2$incubator. The results obtained were as follows: The dilution with 0.5 M sucrose and D-PBS after the exposure to EFS for 1.0 min resulted in no significant(P<0.05) decrease in the development of PN embryos to hatching blastocyst(72.0%), compared with controls. The development of PN embryos cryopreserved to hatching blastocyst was not significantly (P<0.05) different between EFS for 1.0 min(72.0%), EPG-I for 1.0 min(72.0%) and EPG-II for 30 min(66. 7%). The post-thaw development of PN embryos to hatching blastocyst was similarly very low as 6.1% and 11.5% in vitrification with EFS and slow freezing with EPG-II, respectively. The incidence of post-thaw zona-crack in PN embryos cryopreserved by slow freezing with plunging to liquid nitrogen at -35$^{\circ}C$ was signicantly(P<0.05) higher(25.0%), compared with -85$^{\circ}C$ (1.9%). These results indicated that the rabbit PN embryos could be cryopreserved with either vitrification or slow freezing procedure, and frozen PN embryos could be successfully developed in vitro to haching blastocyst. but the post-thaw development of cryopreserved PN embryos was still very low under the present conditions.

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Combination Effect of Various Freezing and Thawing Techniques on Quality and Nutritional Attributes of Onions (다양한 냉·해동 방법에 따른 양파의 이화학적 특성 및 영양성분 변화)

  • Jung, You-Kyoung;Jang, Min-Young;Hwang, In-Guk;Yoo, Seon-Mi;Min, Sang-Gi;Jo, Yeon-Ji;Chun, Ji-Yeon;Choi, Mi-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.10
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    • pp.1492-1503
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    • 2015
  • This study evaluated the combination effect of various freezing and thawing techniques on the quality and nutritional aspects of onions. Onions were frozen by natural air convection freezing (NCF), air blast freezing (ABF), and liquid nitrogen freezing (LNF). Onions were frozen for 76 min by NCF, 9 min by ABF, and 9 min by LNF. The freezing treatment was stopped when the core temperature reached $-12^{\circ}C$ for NCF and ABF, and $-120^{\circ}C$ for LNF. Frozen samples were thawed through natural air convection thawing, running water thawing, sonication thawing (ST), or microwave thawing. The quality and nutritional aspects of frozen-thawed onions were evaluated by measuring thawing loss, pH, texture, water content, color, and SEM image. ST was found to cause the least loss in onion sample among the tested thawing methods, whereas the freezing methods did not cause any significant loss. In our experiment, thawing is found to be a more critical technique when compared to that of freezing. There were no clear quantifications or trends of pH and water content among different freezing and thawing techniques. The highest total color difference (${\Delta}E$) was observed in the NCF sample. For morphological observation, ABF gave the smallest ice crystal size, as well as minimum cell collapse. Loss of vitamin C, free sugar, and organic acid content was lower in the ABF and ST sample, when compared to other trials. In our study, we found that combination of ABF and ST could preserve the quality and nutritional aspects of frozen-thawed onions better than other methods.

Viability of Endothelial Cells in Preserved Human Saphenous Vein Allografts (보존된 사람 동종 복재정맥 이식편혈관 내피세포의 생활성에 관한 연구)

  • 지현근;김용진
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.229-241
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    • 2003
  • Background:Autogenous vein is the preferred vascular graft for patients who require coronary artery bypass surgery or peripheral arterial bypass surgery. When an autogenous vein is not available, an allograft saphenous vein can be used as an alternative conduit. Although arterial homograft has been under investigation since the beginning of this century, the viability of endothelial cells and the optimum mode of storage for the venous and arterial allografts is controversial. In addition, with the recently gained knowledge of vascular endothelial functions, such as the production of nitric oxide or thrombomodulin, the viability and antigenicity of endothelial cells are being studied again. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viability of endothelial cells in the preserved human saphenous veins. Material and Method: The veins were stored in a $4^{\circ}C$ RPMI (Roswell Park Memorial Institute) 1640 solution including 10% fetal calf serum, for one, three, five, seven or fourteen days. After the completion of the storage period, the veins were divided into two groups: Group I: studied immediately at $4^{\circ}C$ (cold) storage (I-1, I-3, I-5, I-7, I-14), and Group II: studied after storage at $-196^{\circ}C$ liquid nitrogen tank (cryopreservation) in an RPMI 1640 solution containing 10% DMSO for two weeks (II-1, II-3, II-5, II-7, II-14). Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), frypan blue exclusion testing, and thrombomodulin immunohistochemistry were performed. Result: In a morphometric study using SEM, there was statistically significant increase in Gundry Score in Groups I-7, I-14, II-5, II-7, and II-14 and showed cellular destruction (p<0.05). In the thrombomodulin immunohistochemistry study, there was reactivity in Groups I-1, I-3, and I-5, but the cryopreserved group revealed decreased reactivity (p<0.05). The trypan blue exclusion testing also showed superior viability in cold storage Group I. Conclusion: Venous allografts preserved in a $4^{\circ}C$ RPMI 1640 solution showed well preserved endothelial cellular integrity and thrombomodulin expression at up to seven days of preservation. Although cryopreservation of venous allografts stored in 10% DMSO -RPMI 1640 solution maintained the endothelial cellular structure on SEM, immunohistochemistry from the thrombomodulin and trypan blue exclusion testing showed decreased viability, It remains to be seen whether the decreased thrombomodulin reactivity could be restored, and what the nature to the relationship is between thrombomodulin and long-term patency of allografts.

Investigation of ground condition charges due to cryogenic conditions in an underground LNG storage plant (지하 LNG 저장 시험장에서 극저온 환경에 의한 지반상태 변화의 규명)

  • Yi Myeong-Jong;Kim Jung-Ho;Park Sam-Gyu;Son Jeong-Sul
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.67-72
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    • 2005
  • To investigate the feasibility of a new concept of storing Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in a lined hard rock cavern, and to develop essential technologies for constructing underground LNG storage facilities, a small pilot plant storing liquid nitrogen (LN2) has been constructed at the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM). The LN2 stored in the cavern will subject the host rock around the cavern to very low temperatures, which is expected to cause the development of an ice ring and the change of ground condition around the storage cavern. To investigate and monitor changes in ground conditions at this pilot plant site, geophysical, hydrogeological, and rock mechanical investigations were carried out. In particular, geophysical methods including borehole radar and three-dimensional (3D) resistivity surveys were used to identify and monitor the development of an ice ring, and other possible changes in ground conditions resulting from the very low temperature of LN2 in the storage tank. We acquired 3D resistivity data before and after storing the LN2, and the results were compared. From the 3D images obtained during the three phases of the resistivity monitoring survey, we delineated zones of distinct resistivity changes that are closely related to the storage of LN2. In these results, we observed a decrease in resistivity at the eastern part of the storage cavern. Comparing the hydrogeological data and Joint patterns around the storage cavern, we interpret this change in resistivity to result from changes in the groundwater flow pattern. Freezing of the host rock by the very low temperature of LN2 causes a drastic change in the hydrogeological conditions and groundwater flow patterns in this pilot plant.

The Effect of Seminal Plasma on Chilling and Freezing of Canine Spermatozoa (개 정액의 정장이 개정자의 냉각과 동결에 미치는 영향)

  • You, Myung-Jo;Lee, John-Hwa;Kim, In-Shik;Park, Jin-Ho;Kwon, Jung-Kee;Kim, Jong-Hoon;Kim, Bum-Seok;Yu, Il-Jeoung
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.486-492
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    • 2007
  • Seminal plasma(SP) is usually removed from semen that is to be cryopreserved. However, some reports indicate that SP has beneficial effects on spermatozoa during chilling and freezing. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of SP on sperm survival by adding SP to the extender before cooling and freezing canine spermatozoa. In replicate experiments, ejaculates obtained from four healthy dogs(1-4 years old) of various breeds were pooled, centrifuged at $300{\times}g$ for 10 min at $25^{\circ}C$, and the supernatant of seminal plasma was decanted. Spermatozoa were suspended in egg yolk-Tris(EYT) buffer. The study comprised two experiments: [Exp 1] Sperm were suspended in EYT extender containing either 0, 20, 40, 80 or 100% SP and were slowly cooled to $4^{\circ}C$ for 2h or held at $25^{\circ}C$ as controls. Sperm concentration was adjusted to $2{\times}10^8/ml$. [Exp II] Sperm samples, each of which contained $1{\times}10^8/ml$, were assigned to nine groups to be frozen. In the first four groups, sperm in EYT containing either 20, 40, 80 or 100% SP were cooled to $4^{\circ}C$, then diluted to contain final concentrations of EYT+0.6M glycerol and then were frozen. The final concentrations of SP were 10, 20, 40 or 50%. In the other four groups, sperm in EYT alone were first cooled slowly to $4^{\circ}C$, then diluted to contain final concentrations of EYT+0.6M glycerol plus 10, 20, 40 or 50% SP and then were frozen. Spermatozoa, which chilled in EYT alone and diluted to contain final concentrations of EYT+0.6M glycerol without seminal plasma, and then frozen, was regarded as control. Spermatozoa were frozen at $25^{\circ}C/min$ of cooling rate in plastic straws that were suspended above liquid nitrogen and thawed in water at $38^{\circ}C$ for 1 min. Sperm survival was assayed by determining progressive motility and integrity of plasma and acrosome membranes. Progressive motility was determined by microscopic examination at $200{\times}$ magnification. Membrane integrity was assessed by use of a double fluorescent dye, and acrosome integrity by staining sperm with Pisum sativum agglutinin. The results of the first experiment showed that adding SP did not improve motility of spermatozoa compared to those incubated without SP regardless of temperature. The results of the second experiment showed that spermatozoa suspended in EYT+0.6M glycerol containing SP exhibited the higher progressive motility before being frozen(P<0.05). However, frozen-thawed spermatozoa that had suspended in EYT+0.6M glycerol containing SP showed the similar or lower viability(P<0.05). In summary, although seminal plasma did not affect spermatozoa that were chilled in EYT without cryoprotectant(CPA), addition of seminal plasma to EYT containing CPA did significantly improved progressive motility of canine spermatozoa that were chilled.

Studies on the Cryopreservation and Survival after Thawing of Hamster Embryos (Hamster 수정란(受精卵)의 동결보존(凍結保存) 및 생존성(生存性)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Oh, Won Jin;Lee, Kyu Seung;Kim, Young Mook
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.82-89
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    • 1986
  • This experiment was carried out to determine the optimum freezing and thawing rates of the hamster embryos. The female hamsters were induced to superovulate by intraperitoneal injections of 30 i.u. PMSG and mated with males of the same strain of 4 days the PMSG injection. They were killed and embryos were flushed from the oviduct and uterine horn on 3 days after mating. Embryos were flushed with a modified Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline and equilibrated with 1.5 M-dimethylsulphoxide by a 3-step procedure. The freezing rates of the samples were $1^{\circ}C/min$ from room temperature to $-6^{\circ}C$ and the samples were seeded at $-6^{\circ}C$. After being held for 3 min at the seeding temperature, the rates were $0.3^{\circ}C/min$ from $-6^{\circ}C$ to $-35^{\circ}C$. From $-35^{\circ}C$ to $-70^{\circ}C$, the rates were divided into $0.1^{\circ}C/min$, $1^{\circ}C/min$ and $10^{\circ}C/min$, respectively. At $-70^{\circ}C$ the samples were plunged directly into liquid nitrogen. The samples were thawed at $4^{\circ}C/min$ and $12^{\circ}C/min$ from $-196^{\circ}C$ to $37^{\circ}C$, and for 2 min in $37^{\circ}C$ water bath, respectively. The average numbers of ovulation points and embryos recovered were 35.1 and 27.0 appearing 77.0% recovery rates. Eight cell embryos in the embryos recovered were 24.8. The survival rates of embryos according to the freezing rates were 55.5~67.7% at $0.1^{\circ}C/min$, 58.8~64.9% at $1^{\circ}C/min$ and 40.5~44.7% at $10^{\circ}C/min$, respectively. The survival rates at $10^{\circ}C/min$ were significantly low. The survival rates of embryos according to the thawing rates were 53.5% at $4^{\circ}C/min$, 53.7% at $12^{\circ}C/min$ and 59.1% in $37^{\circ}C$ water bath. The survival rates, in $37^{\circ}C$ water bath were slightly higher, but we did not find any differences among them. In conclusion, the best freezing rates of hamster embryos were $1^{\circ}C/min$ from the room temperature to $-6^{\circ}C/min$, $0.3^{\circ}C/min$ from $-6^{\circ}C/min$ to $-35^{\circ}C$ and $-0.1^{\circ}C/min$ or $1^{\circ}C/min$ from $-35^{\circ}C$ to $-70^{\circ}C$. The hamster embryos thawed for 2 min in $37^{\circ}C$ water bath showed the best survival rates.

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Studies on Genetics and Breeding in Rainbow Trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss) VII. Fertilization of Fresh Egg with Co-Preserved Sperm and Ultrastructural Changes (무지개 송어의 유전 육종학적 연구 VII. 동결보존시킨 정자와 신선한 난모세포의 수정 및 미세구조적 변화)

  • PARK Hong-Yang;YOON Jong-Man
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.79-92
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    • 1992
  • This study was carried out to develop new techniques useful for cryopreservation, thawing and artificial insemination, and ultrastructural changes of cryopreserved spermatozoa in rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss) . Two extenders, such as Tyrode solution and Whittingham's $T_6$ solution, were used to preserve rainbow trout sperm in refrigerator $(-20,\;-40\;and\;-70^{\circ}C)$ or liquid nitrogen $%(-196^{\circ})$. Hand-stripped semen was diluted to 1:16 with two extenders, an then the semen were frozen after mixing semen and each extender containing 1M or 1.5M DMSO solution to 1:1. After 60 days cryopreserved semen was thawed in a $13^{\circ}$ water bath, and subsequently centrifugated. After centrifugation at 1,000 rpm for 5 min thawed semen was washed with extenders, and then fertilized with fresh eggs. The results obtained in these experiments were summarized as follows: After cryopreservation, over 75% of spermatozoa were appeared motile and the survival rate was high. Following cryopreservation by the addition of cryoprotectant such as DMSO, methanol and glycerol, the fertilization rate of the thawed spermatozoa appeared over $99\%$ compared with the control having $99\%$ of fertilization rate. There was no difference between the control and experimental groups such as $(-20^{\circ}C\;-40^{\circ}C\;and\;-70^{\circ}C)$ and $-196^{\circ}$ in fertilization rate. Following cryopreservation at $-196^{\circ}$ by the addition of 1M DMSO of cryoprotectant, each fertilization rate following 24 hours and hatching rate following 24 days showed $96\%$ and $8\%$ by the addition of BSA, but showed $98\%\;and\;10%$ by no addition of BSA. Following 2 months of cryopreservation by the addition of 1M DMSO of cryoprotectant, there were $10%$ of hatching rate at $-196^{\circ}\;and\;10\%\;and\;35\%,\;respectively,\;at\;-40^{\circ}C\;and\;-70^{\circ}C$. Following 2 months of cryopreservation by the addition of 1M methanol of cryoprotectant, there were $22\%$ of fertilization rate at $-20^{\circ}C,\;and\;28\%,\;at\;-70^{\circ}C$ Following 2 months of cryopreservation by the addition of 1M glycerol of cryoprotectant, there were $22\%$ of fertilization rate at $-20^{\circ}C$, and $33\%,\;at\;-70^{\circ}C$. pollowing 2 months of cryopreservation by the addition of 1.5M DMSO of cryoprotectant, there were $27\%$ of fertilization rate at $-20^{\circ}C,\;an\;36\%\;and \;35\%,\;respectively,\;at\;-40^{\circ}C\;and\;-70^{\circ}C$. Following 2 months of cryopreservation by the addition of 1.5M glycerol of cryoprotectant, there were $34\% \;of\;fertilization\;rate\;at\;-20^{\circ}C, \;and\;31\%\;and\;31\%,\;respectively,\;at \;-40^{\circ}C\;and\;-70^{\circ}$. Following 2 months of cryopreservation by the addition of 1.5M methanol of cryoprotectant, there were $28\%$ of fertilization rate at $-20^{\circ}C,\;and\;29\%\;and\;28\%,\;respectively,\;at\;-40^{\circ}C\;and\;-70^{\circ}C.$ From 10 days and 15 days following fertilization at $13^{\circ}C\;and\;10^{\circ}C$, respectively, the mortality rate of fertilized ova was markedly increased. The middle piece of spermatozoa had two set of central doublets, nine set of outer coarse fibres, and mitochondrial sheath. Spermatozoa went through morphological changes during storage, e.g. winding of flagella, detachment of the nuclear envelope and the plasma membrane from the nucleus of the sperm head. There were $1\%$ abnormal spermatozoa in fresh sperm and about $15\%$ during storage.

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