• Title/Summary/Keyword: Leghorn Hen

Search Result 6, Processing Time 0.094 seconds

COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE UTILIZATION OF CALCIUM BETWEEN LAYING TSAIYA DUCK AND LEGHORN HEN

  • Chen, Woan-Lin;Shen, Tlan-Fuh
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.2 no.2
    • /
    • pp.67-75
    • /
    • 1989
  • Studies were conducted to compare the utilization of dietary calcium between brown laying Tsaiya duck and Leghorn hen. Birds were fed corn-soybean diets containing 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0% calcium, respectively, with five birds per treatment. The metabolizability of calcium was determined by the indicator method. Experiments were conducted three times each at the age of 27, 31 and 36 weeks. Results appeared that duck eggs were heavier with better shell quality in comparison with hen eggs. Ducks fed 1% calcium diet resulted in severely depressed egg production (19%), but not for hens which still had 56% egg production. The metabolizability of calcium for hens was significantly higher than that for ducks (P<0.05) when both were fed diets containing 1 or 2% calcium. As the dietary calcium level was increased to 3 to 5%, there was no significant difference in calcium metabolizability between ducks and hens. When the dietary calcium was between 2 to 5%, the ducks retained more calcium than did the hens. Plasma calcium content for both hens and ducks fed 1% calcium diet was about the same. When the amount of the dietary calcium was increased to 2-5%, the plasma calcium level of ducks was approximately 7-10 mg/dl higher than that of hens. The calcium content in the egg shell of duck was significantly higher than that of hens, too. As the dietary calcium level was increased, there was a decreased magnesium content in the eggshell of hens, but not for ducks. The magnesium level in the eggshell was higher in hens than that in ducks. It is concluded that ducks could retain significantly more calcium and maintain higher plasma calcium level which might be the reason for larger eggs with better shell quality by ducks.

THE EFFECT OF DIETARY MAGNESIUM LEVEL ON THE MAGNESIUM METABOLIZABILITY IN LAYING TSAIYA DUCK AND LEG HORN HEN

  • Ding, S.T.;Shen, T.F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.5 no.2
    • /
    • pp.225-228
    • /
    • 1992
  • The study was undertaken to determine the effect of various levels of dietary magnesium on the metabolizability of magnesium in laying Tsaiya ducks and Leghorn hens. Twenty-five Tsaiya ducks and 25 Leghorn hens were raised in individual cages. The basal diet was mainly consisted of corn starch and isolated soybean protein. At the beginning of the experiments, birds were fed the basal diet added with 500 mg/kg Mg (1070 mg/kg in total by analysis) for 10 days in order to make the birds adapt to the new diet. Then, they were randomly divided into five treatments with five birds for each treatment and fed the experimental diets containing 690, 1070, 1690, 2150 or 2380 mg/kg Mg for 21 days and during the last five days excreta were collected. The experiment was repeated three times each at the age of 25, 31 and 36 weeks. The metabolizability of magnesium in the diet was determined by the indicator method. The metabolizabilities of magnesium for Tsaiya duck and Leghorn hen were 59.9% and 62.5%, respectively as the diet contained 690 mg/kg magnesium, and were significantly decreased (p<0.05) to 39.7 and 30.7%, respectively when the dietary magnesium content was increased to 2380 mg/kg.

THE EFFECT OF DIETARY MAGNESIUM LEVEL ON THE EGGSHELL QUALITY IN LAYING TSAIYA DUCK AND LEGHORN HEN

  • Ding, S.T.;Shen, T.F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.5 no.2
    • /
    • pp.217-224
    • /
    • 1992
  • The study was undertaken to determine the effect of dietary magnesium on the eggshell quality and other performance in laying Tsaiya ducks and Leghorn hens. Twenty-five Tsaiya ducks and 25 Leghorn hens were raised in individual cages. The basal diet was mainly consisted of corn starch and isolated soybean protein. At the beginning of the experiments, birds were fed for 10 days with the basal diet supplemented with 500 mg/kg Mg (1070 mg/kg in total by analysis) in order to allow the birds adapting to the new diet. Both Tsaiya ducks and Leghorn hens were then each randomly divided into five groups and each group of five birds were fed with the experimental diets containing 690, 1070, 1690, 2150 or 2380 mg/kg Mg, respectively for 21 days. Eggs were collected in order to measure eggshell quality, Mg and Ca content of the eggshell. At the end of the experiments, blood samples of all birds were taken from their brachial veins for measuring the concentration of Mg and Ca in the plasma. Experimental results appeared that the dietary Mg content did not significantly affect egg production, egg weight, eggshell breaking strength and thickness in both Tsaiya ducks and Leghorn hens. In Tsaiya ducks, however, the plasma Mg concentration was affected by the dietary Mg content, but the plasma Mg almost reached a plateau (4.66 mg/dl) as long as the dietary Mg level was over 1070 mg/kg. In Leghorn hens, the plasma Mg level was significantly increased from 1.66 mg/dl to 4.03 mg/dl when the dietary Mg content in the diet had been increased from 690 mg/kg to 2380 mg/kg, suggesting that the plasma Mg concentration seems to be directly influenced by the Mg absorbed in the intestine. In the Tsaiya ducks, however, the dietary Mg level did not significantly affect the eggshell Mg content (from 0.113% to 0.123%). Whereas, there was a negative correlation between the eggshell thickness and eggshell Mg content (r = -0.50, p<0.01), revealing that the increase in eggshell Mg content probably associated with the impairment of eggshell quality in Tsaiya ducks. In Leghorn hens, however, there was no significant correlation between eggshell quality and eggshell Mg content, although the Mg content in the eggshell was also increased from 0.279% to 0.427% when the dietary Mg had been elevated from 690 mg/kg to 2380 mg/kg.

The Role of Magnesium and Calcium in Eggshell Formation in Tsaiya Ducks and Leghorn Hens

  • Shen, T.F.;Chen, W.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.16 no.2
    • /
    • pp.290-296
    • /
    • 2003
  • Tsaiya ducks and Leghorn hens are the two major laying birds raised in Taiwan. They are all excellent egg layers. Tsaiya ducks are small in body size (1.3 kg) with bigger egg weight (65 g) and stronger eggshell breaking strength than eggs from hens. The eggshell consists mainly of calcium carbonate, hence calcium plays an important role in the eggshell formation. Magnesium is also present in eggshell in small amounts, which may have effect on maintaining eggshell quality. In comparison studies, it was shown that the duck eggshells contained higher calcium and lower magnesium content than chicken eggshells. The eggshell magnesium content was not affected by the dietary magnesium levels (690-2380 ppm) in ducks, but in hens, it increased linearly with dietary magnesium levels. The palisade layer ($5000{\times}$) of the eggshell was found to have a compact form for ducks while there are many hallow vesicles in chicken eggshells. The eggshell magnesium deposition model is different for ducks and hens with ducks having a one-peak and hens having a two-peak model. The calcium deposition model is similar for both birds. Both the carbonic anhydrase specific activity and total activity in the shell gland mucosa of ducks are higher than those in hens. Ducks retain higher magnesium and lower calcium in the shell gland mucosa and secret less magnesium and more calcium into the shell gland lumen for eggshell deposition. The ATPase specific activity is maintained fairly constant during the eggshell forming stage, indicating continuous calcium transport into the shell gland lumen for eggshell formation. The magnesium content in duck eggshells is much lower than that in hens indicating that the magnesium content in the eggshell may have an effect on eggshell quality.

Cloning and Expression of a Yeast Cell Wall Hydrolase Gene (ycl) from Alkalophilic Bacillus alcalophilus subsp. YB380

  • Ohk, Seung-Ho;Yeo, Ik-Hyun;Yu, Yun-Jung;Kim, Byong-Ki;Bai, Dong-Hoon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.11 no.3
    • /
    • pp.508-514
    • /
    • 2001
  • A stuructural gene (ycl) encoding novel yeast cell wall hydrolase, YCL, was cloned from alkalophilic Bacillus alcalophilus subsp. YB380 by PCR, and transformed into E. coli JM83. Based on the N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences of the enzyme, primers were designed for PCr. The positive clone that harbors 1.8 kb of the yeast cell wall hydrolase gene was selected by the colony hybridization method with a PCR fragment as a probe. According to the computer analysis, this gene contained a 400-base-paired N-terminal domain of the enzyme. Based on nucletide homology of the cloned gene, a 850 bp fragment was amplified and the C-terminal domain of the enzyme was sequenced. With a combination of the two sequences, a full nucleotide sequence for YCL was obtained. This gene, ycl, consisted of 1,297 nucleotides with 27 nucleotides with 27 amino acids of signal sequence, 83 redundant amino acids of prosequence, and 265 amino acids of the mature protein. This gene was then cloned into the pJH27 shuttle vector and transformed into the Bacillus subtilis DB104 to express the enzyme. It was confirmed that the expressed cell wall hydrolase that was produced by Bacillus subtilis DB104 was the same as that of the donor strain, by Western blot using polyclonal antibody (IgY) prepared from White Leghorn hen. Purified yeast cell wall hydrolase and expressed recombinant protein showed a single band at the same position in the Western blot analysis.

  • PDF

Calorimetric Studies on Energy Metabolism by the Laying White Leghorn Hen (호흡대사장치를 이용한 산란계의 기초대사, 유특 및 생산시 에너지대사 측정시험)

  • 이영철
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
    • /
    • v.13 no.1
    • /
    • pp.23-30
    • /
    • 1986
  • The Calorimetric experiment was made firstly to measure the difference in energy metabolisms of laying hens among their three different laying periods, secondly to estimate the energy requirements of the layers on their respective laying periods. The laying period was divided into three chronological periods of 25-40, 41-55, and 56-69 weeks old of laying hens, which are refered to as period I, II, and III respectively. 1) The fasting heat production (FHP) of laying hen on the three laying periods were 81.5 Kcal/kg$\^$0.75/ for period I, 72.3 Kcal/kg$\^$0.75/ for perod II, and 97.5 Kcal/kg$\^$0.75/ for perod III. The marked increase in FHP was found in period m, while there was a small difference in FHP between period I and II. The present study have observed among the birds in period in the high degree of plumage defectiveness, and this condition of bird might have accounted for the increase in FHP. 2) The regression equation between ME intake and energy retention (ER) were calculated, and the equations indicated that, for the period I, II, and III, the ME requirements for maintenance (MEm) were 123, 111, and 131 Kcal/kg$\^$0.75/ respectively, and that the Net Availabilities of Metabolizable energy (NAME) were 76, 79, and 74 percent respectively. For the whole laying period measured, MEm was 119 Kcal/kg$\^$0.75/ and NAME was 79 percent. There was a tendancy of higher MEm, and lower NAME during Period III, comparing with period I and II.

  • PDF