• Title/Summary/Keyword: Lagging

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Socio-Economic Differentials along the Ethnic Line among Coffee Farms in Central Highland, Vietnam (베트남 중부고원지대 커피농가의 사회경제적 격차: 민족성의 영향을 중심으로)

  • Chung, Su-Yeul;Lee, Sung-Cheol;Joh, Young Kug
    • Journal of the Economic Geographical Society of Korea
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.360-377
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    • 2016
  • Since after the 1986 economic reform policy(Doi Moi), the central highland in Vietnam has transformed into one of the largest coffee producing areas. The transformation had been supported by mass migration of ethnic Kinhs from the coastal lowland. It did not take long for the Kinh migrants to be the ethnic majority in the region. Meanwhile the growth of coffee industry entailed in socio-economic disparity, specially between Kinh migrants and native ethnic minorities. The disparity has becomed obvious not only between coffee farming Kinhs and non-coffee farming ethnic minorities but also between coffee farming Kinhs and ehtnic minorities. The previous literatures highlight the lack of human and social capital and the lagging modernization in ethnic minority societies. However, they fall short in showing the explicit processes why ethnic minority coffee farmers earn less than ethnic majority counterparts. With a case study of Dak Lak province, this research attempts to show the reason why there is income gap between Kinh and ethnic minority Ede coffee farmers by comparing their ways of producing coffee and selling their products. The results show that Ede's land productivity is significantly lower than Kinh's. It is because Ede farmers use less fertilizer due to the shortage of the capital. Also they often get into debt for coffee production and should pay it back right after the harvest. It deprives them of chance to raise earning by selling the coffee beans at a higher price.

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Growth of Radish Plug Seedlings as Influenced by Various Pre-planting Nitrogen Levels in Inert Media (기비로 혼합된 질소 수준이 무 플러그 묘 생장에 미치는 영향)

  • Sung, Jwa Kyung;Park, Myong Sun;Choi, Jong Myung
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.201-207
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    • 2017
  • Objective of this research was to investigate the influence of pre-plant nitrogen levels in root media on plug seedling growth of radish cv. Soksungbommu. To achieve the research purpose, a root medium, the mixture of perlite, coir dust, and peatmoss (volume percentage of 30:35:35) was formulated and the N levels incorporated during mixing were controlled to 0, 100, 250, 500, 750, 1,000, and $1,500mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$. Then, the seeds were sown into 72-cell plug trays in which the root medium was packed. The measurements of growth and analysis of tissue and root media were conducted 2 and 4 weeks after sowing. Elevation of pre-plant N levels raised EC and turned down pH of root media. But, as seedling grew, the pH rose and EC get lowered in all treatments. The EC as well as $NH_4-N$ and $NO_3-N$ concentrations of root media declined gradually until week 2, but those declined sharply between weeks 2 to 4. The seedling growth 2 weeks after sowing showed quadratic response to pre-plant N levels with the highest growth in $250mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ treatment and lagging growth in the treatments of lower or higher N levels than $250mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$. The seedling growth 4 weeks after sowing showed also quadratic response with the highest growth in $500mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ treatment. The tissue N contents were get higher and those of K, Ca, and Mg were get lower as pre-plant N levels were elevated. Above results suggest that lower than $250mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ in pre-plant N levels is optimistic for growth of plug seedling and avoidance of toxic injury in very young stage.

Irradiation Preservation of Korean Fish 1. Kadurization of croaker, yellow corvenia and roundnose flounder (방사선조사에 의한 한국산어류의 품질보존에 관한 연구 1. 민어, 참조기 및 물가자미의 감마선 조사 후의 보존특성)

  • CHUNG Jong Rak;KIM Su Ill;LEE Min Chul
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.129-142
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    • 1976
  • Optimum doses The optimum dose that may be defined as the dose below the maximum permissible dose, yet would bring about a significant storage life extension at refrigerated temperatures, varied with species of fish as well as with the postirradiation storage temperatures. Thus the dose of 0. 1 Mrad was considered to be optimum for the croaker and yellow corvenia at $0^{\circ}C$, while at $5^{\circ}C$ the dose of 0.2 Mrad would be suitable for both species. The roundnose flounder was more radiosensitive and even at the dose of 0.1 Mrad a slight irradiation odor was detected immediately after the radiation treatment. Such degree of irradiation odor disappeared upon storage, therefore, the dose of 0.1 Mrad was considered to be optimum for the roundnose flounder at both $0^{\circ}\;and\;5^{\circ}C$. Storage life extension The croaker meats irradiated at 0.1 Mrad could be held at $0^{\circ}C$ as long as 5 weeks in good acceptable conditions, while the unirradiated control became unacceptable within 2 weeks-3-4 for extension of storage life at $0^{\circ}C$. At the storage temperature of $5^{\circ}C$, the storage life of 0.2 Mrad irradiated samples was extended from less than one week to 4 weeks--4-5 fold extension. The storage life extension of 0.1 Mrad irradiated yellow corvenia at $0^{\circ}C$ was from less than 2 weeks for the unirradiated to 4 weeks-approximately a-s folds and that of 0.2 Mrad irradiated samples stored at $5^{\circ}C$ was from 5 days to 3 weeks 4-5 folds. The roundnose flounder meats irradiated at 0.1 Mrad could held at $0^{\circ}C$ for 3-4 weeks as compared to less than 1 week for the unirradiated and at $5^{\circ}C$ the storage life could be extended from less than 3 days to up to 3 weeks. Thus the storage life extension by 4-5 folds and by 6-7 folds was possible at $0^{\circ}C\;and\;5^{\circ}C$ storage, respectively. Postirradiation storage microbiology and biochemistry In general 10 fold reduction of initial microflora was realized as a result of irradiating fish samples at 0.1 Mrad. The extent of microflora reduction increased with increasing doses applied, but not proportionately dependent. The microbial growth in the irradiated was severely retarded during the subsequent storage period, lagging far behind that of the irradiated control samples except in the late storage phase, when the levels of microflora of the irradiated either approached to or rose above the levels of the unirradiated. The microbiological changes caused by irradiation was reflected in the pronounced suppression of TVB and TMA accumulation during the storage period. This suggests that irradiation treatment brought about both quantitative and qualitative changes in microflora initially present and it is reasonable to suggest that the microflora removed by irradiation in fact represent most of the flora capable of producing TVB and TMA in normal fish spoilage process.

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Mammalian Cloning by Nuclear transfer, Stem Cell, and Enzyme Telomerase (핵치환에 의한 cloning, stem cell, 그리고 효소 telomerase)

  • 한창열
    • Korean Journal of Plant Tissue Culture
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.423-428
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    • 2000
  • In 1997 when cloned sheep Dolly and soon after Polly were born, it had become head-line news because in the former the nucleus that gave rise to the lamb came from cells of six-year-old adult sheep and in the latter case a foreign gene was inserted into the donor nucleus to make the cloned sheep produce human protein, factor IX, in e milk. In the last few years, once the realm of science fiction, cloned mammals especially in livestock have become almost commonplace. What the press accounts often fail to convey, however, is that behind every success lie hundreds of failures. Many of the nuclear-transferred egg cells fail to undergo normal cell divisions. Even when an embryo does successfully implant in the womb, pregnancy often ends in miscarriage. A significant fraction of the animals that are born die shortly after birth and some of those that survived have serious developmental abnormalities. Efficiency remains at less than one % out of some hundred attempts to clone an animal. These facts show that something is fundamentally wrong and enormous hurdles must be overcome before cloning becomes practical. Cloning researchers now tent to put aside their effort to create live animals in order to probe the fundamental questions on cell biology including stem cells, the questions of whether the hereditary material in the nucleus of each cell remains intact throughout development, and how transferred nucleus is reprogrammed exactly like the zygotic nucleus. Stem cells are defined as those cells which can divide to produce a daughter cell like themselves (self-renewal) as well as a daughter cell that will give rise to specific differentiated cells (cell-differentiation). Multicellular organisms are formed from a single totipotent stem cell commonly called fertilized egg or zygote. As this cell and its progeny undergo cell divisions the potency of the stem cells in each tissue and organ become gradually restricted in the order of totipotent, pluripotent, and multipotent. The differentiation potential of multipotent stem cells in each tissue has been thought to be limited to cell lineages present in the organ from which they were derived. Recent studies, however, revealed that multipotent stem cells derived from adult tissues have much wider differentiation potential than was previously thought. These cells can differentiate into developmentally unrelated cell types, such as nerve stem cell into blood cells or muscle stem cell into brain cells. Neural stem cells isolated from the adult forebrain were recently shown to be capable of repopulating the hematopoietic system and produce blood cells in irradiated condition. In plants although the term$\boxDr$ stem cell$\boxUl$is not used, some cells in the second layer of tunica at the apical meristem of shoot, some nucellar cells surrounding the embryo sac, and initial cells of adventive buds are considered to be equivalent to the totipotent stem cells of mammals. The telomere ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes cannot be replicated because the RNA primer at the end of a completed lagging strand cannot be replaced with DNA, causing 5' end gap. A chromosome would be shortened by the length of RNA primer with every cycle of DNA replication and cell division. Essential genes located near the ends of chromosomes would inevitably be deleted by end-shortening, thereby killing the descendants of the original cells. Telomeric DNA has an unusual sequence consisting of up to 1,000 or more tandem repeat of a simple sequence. For example, chromosome of mammal including human has the repeating telomeric sequence of TTAGGG and that of higher plant is TTTAGGG. This non-genic tandem repeat prevents the death of cell despite the continued shortening of chromosome length. In contrast with the somatic cells germ line cells have the mechanism to fill-up the 5' end gap of telomere, thus maintaining the original length of chromosome. Cem line cells exhibit active enzyme telomerase which functions to maintain the stable length of telomere. Some of the cloned animals are reported prematurely getting old. It has to be ascertained whether the multipotent stem cells in the tissues of adult mammals have the original telomeres or shortened telomeres.

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Problems in the field of maternal and child health care and its improvement in rural Korea (우리나라 농촌(農村)의 모자보건(母子保健)의 문제점(問題點)과 개선방안(改善方案))

  • Lee, Sung-Kwan
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 1976
  • Introduction Recently, changes in the patterns and concepts of maternity care, in both developing and developed countries have been accelerating. An outstanding development in this field is the number of deliveries taking place in hospitals or maternity centers. In Korea, however, more than 90% of deliveries are carried out at home with the help of untrained relatives or even without helpers. It is estimated that less than 10% of deliveries are assisted by professional persons such as a physician or a midwife. Taking into account the shortage of professional person i11 rural Korea, it is difficult to expect widespread prenatal, postnatal, and delivery care by professional persons in the near future, It is unrealistic, therefore, to expect rapid development of MCH care by professional persons in rural Korea due to economic and sociological reasons. Given these conditions. it is reasonable that an educated village women could used as a "maternity aid", serving simple and technically easy roles in the MCH field, if we could give such a women incentive to do so. The midwife and physician are assigned difficult problems in the MCH field which could not be solved by the village worker. However, with the application of the village worker system, we could expect to improve maternal and child hoalth through the replacement of untrained relatives as birth attendants with educated and trained maternity aides. We hope that this system will be a way of improving MCH care, which is only one part of the general health services offered at the local health centre level. Problems of MCH in rural Korea The field of MCH is not only the weakest point in the medical field in our country hut it has also dropped behind other developing countries. Regarding the knowledge about pregnancy and delivery, a large proportion of our respondents reported having only a little knowledge, while 29% reported that they had "sufficient" knowledge. The average number of pregnancies among women residing in rural areas was 4.3 while the rate of women with 5 or more pregnancies among general women and women who terminated childbearing were 43 and 80% respectively. The rate of unwanted pregnancy among general women was 19.7%. The total rate for complications during pregnancy was 15.4%, toxemia being the major complication. The rate of pregnant women with chronic disease was 7%. Regarding the interval of pregnancy, the rates of pregnancy within 12 months and within 36 months after last delivery were 9 and 49% respectively. Induced abortion has been increasing in rural areas, being as high as 30-50% in some locations. The maternal death rate was shown 10 times higher than in developed countries (35/10,000 live births). Prenatal care Most women had no consultation with a physician during the prenatal period. Of those women who did have prenatal care, the majority (63%) received such care only 1 or 2 times throughout the entire period of pregnancy. Also, in 80% of these women the first visit Game after 4 months of gestation. Delivery conditions This field is lagging behind other public health problems in our country. Namely, more than 95% of the women deliveried their baby at home, and delivery attendance by a professional person occurred only 11% of the time. Attendance rate by laymen was 78% while those receiving no care at all was 16%. For instruments used to cut the umbilical corn, sterilized scissors were used by 19%, non-sterilized scissors by 63% and 16% used sickles. Regarding delivery sheets, the rate of use of clean sheets was only 10%, unclean sheets, vinyl and papers 72%, and without sheets, 18%. The main reason for not using a hospital as a place of delivery was that the women felt they did not need it as they had previously experience easy deliveries outside hospitals. Difficult delivery composed about 5% of the total. Child health The main food for infants (95%) was breast milk. Regarding weaning time, the rates within one year, up to one and half, two, three and more than three years were 28,43,60,81 and 91% respectively, and even after the next pregnancy still continued lactation. The vaccination of children is the only service for child health in rural Korea. As shown in the Table, the rates of all kinds of vaccination were very low and insufficient. Infant death rate was 42 per 1,000 live births. Most of the deaths were caused by preventable diseases. Death of infants within the neonatal period was 83% meaning that deaths from communicable diseases decreased remarkably after that time. Infant deaths which occurred without medical care was 52%. Methods of improvement in the MCH field 1. Through the activities of village health workers (VHW) to detect pregnant women by home visiting and. after registration. visiting once a month to observe any abnormalities in pregnant women. If they find warning signs of abnormalities. they refer them to the public health nurse or midwife. Sterilized delivery kits were distributed to the expected mother 2 weeks prior to expected date of delivery by the VHW. If a delivery was expected to be difficult, then the VHW took the mother to a physician or call a physician to help after birth, the VHW visits the mother and baby to confirm health and to recommend the baby be given proper vaccination. 2. Through the midwife or public health nurse (aid nurse) Examination of pregnant women who are referred by the VHW to confirm abnormalities and to treat them. If the midwife or aid nurse could not solve the problems, they refer the pregnant women to the OB-GY specialist. The midwife and PHN will attend in the cases of normal deliveries and they help in the birth. The PHN will conduct vaccination for all infants and children under 5, years old. 3. The Physician will help only in those cases referred to him by the PHN or VHW. However, the physician should examine all pregnant women at least three times during their pregnancy. First, the physician will identify the pregnancy and conduct general physical examination to confirm any chronic disease that might disturb the continuity of the pregnancy. Second, if the pregnant woman shows any abnormalities the physician must examine and treat. Third, at 9 or 10 months of gestation (after sitting of the baby) the physician should examine the position of the fetus and measure the pelvis to recommend institutional delivery of those who are expected to have a difficult delivery. And of course. the medical care of both the mother and the infants are responsible of the physician. Overall, large areas of the field of MCH would be served by the VHW, PHN, or midwife so the physician is needed only as a parttime worker.

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Studies on the Foliar Application of Urea as Nitrogen Source of Rice Plant Nutrition (요소엽면살포(尿素葉面撒布)에 따른 수도(水稻)의 질소영양(窒素營養)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Cho, Seoung-Jin
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.9
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    • pp.125-147
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    • 1968
  • This experiment was carried out as a part of the studies on reasonable application of nitrogen in rice plant to determine: (I) Nitrogen absorption. and rooting of rice seedlings as affected by urea foliar application at late seedling stage (II) Effect of leaf prunning and foliar application of urea at late heading stage on the maturation and yield of rice (III) Effect of foliar application of urea and its time during the stage of ear formation on yield of rice plant. Results obtained are summarized as follows. Exp.I: Nitrogen absorption and rooting of rice seedlings as affected be urea foliar application at late seedling stage. 1 : The foliar application of urea plots$(T_{1},T_2)$ snowed mare N-content than non-urea foliar application plot(T0) at lane seedling stage, being significant among treatments and foliar application of urea seemed more effective in increasing the N-content of seedlings. and promoted root settlement and early growth alter the transplanting. 2 : The carbon contents of the plants of $T_1$, and $T_2$ at late seedling stage increased than T0, and the carbon contents. of $T_1$ and $T_2$ plots became higher in amount in proportion to the nitrogen absorption as compared with those of $T_0$. 3 : C/N ratio appeared significant among soil application plots($N_1, \;N_2$) and foliar application of urea plots ($T_1$, $T_2$ and $T_0$). C/N ratio was lower in case of increased amount of nitrogen. The higher contents of nitrogen and carbon and lower C/N ratio resulted in the increment of root numbers and root lengths. Exp.II: Effect of leaf prunning and foliar application of urea at late heading stage on the maturation and yield of rice. 1 : There was a highly significant decrease in the maturing rate by severe leaf prunning. In the mean time, significant increase in maturing rate was observed with urea foliar application and it was found the more frequent application the more effective for higher maturing rate with a moderate significance. A correlationship between the level of prunning and maturing rate was enumerated to 0.961 of correlation coefficient, which indicated an increased maturing rate by the increased number of remaining leaves. 2 : The 1.000 grain weight, grain weight and hulled rice yield increased by leaf prunning in order (plot a$A_1$, $A_3$, $A_2$ and $A_0$ were 89.8%, 89.4%, 87.8% and 87.5% respectively, showing the highest of rate in $A_1$ and $A_3$ in methods of ear fertilization and being highly significant between its treatment. 3 : 1000 grain weights were highly significant between time of application, showing a tendency of increase of weights with the time lagging until days before earings as that of maturing rates. High significance was recognized between methods of ear fertilization, showing the highest in $A_2$ 23.18 gr. 4 : Yields per $3.3m^2$ were not significant between time of ear fertilization, whereas were highly significant between methods of ear fertilization. Those of $A_1$, $A_3$, $A_2$ and $A_0$ were 1.486 kg, 1.491 kg, 1.381 kg and 1.328 kg, respectively, showing the highest in $A_1$ and $A_3$. 5 : Hulling ratios showed significant different between time of ear fertilization, showing the highest in $T_2$, whereas those of methods of ear fertilization were highly significant between its treatment, Those of $A_1$, $A_3$, $A_2$ and $A_0$ were 84.72%, 84.06%, 83.29%, and 82.56% respectively, showing the highest m $A_2$ and $A_3$ among others. 6 : Yields of hulled rice per $3.3m^2$ showed significant different between time of ear fertilization, showing the highest in $T_1$ 1.192 kg. Whereas, those were highly significant between methods of ear fertilization. Those of $A_1$, $A_3$, $A_2$ and $A_0$ were 1.259 kg, 1.254 kg, 1.149 kg and 1.095 kg, respectively, showing the highest in $A_1$ and $A_2$. 7 : Contents of nitrogen on rice plant increased in case of nitrogen application as ear fertilizer and showed that the case of urea foliar application was more effective than that of soil application, showing the increased nitrogen content of rice plant was accompanied by carbon content.

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