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Studies on Distribution and Utilization of Cordyceps militaris and C. nutans (동충하초속균의 분포 및 Cordyceps militaris와 C. nutans의 이용에 관한 연구)

  • Sung, Jae-Mo;Kim, Chun-Hwan;Yang, Kun-Joo;Lee, Hyun-Kyung;Kim, Yang-Sup
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.94-105
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    • 1993
  • The genus Cordyceps known as an insect parasite forms a sclerotium in insect bodies and then produces perithecia on the single or multiple stromata produced from sclerotium. Collected Cordyceps were identified into 5 species: Cordyceps militaris, C. nutans, Cordyceps sphecocephala, Isaria japonica, and Torrubiella sp. The fruit bodies of Cordyceps in petri-dish cover were fixed by tape and put the lid on water agar plates to isolate these collected Cordyceps. The germinated spores were transferred from water agar to Potato dextrose agar(PDA) after six hours. Mycelial growth of C. nutans and C. militaris was the most successful on Hamada media and was also good on Complete media and PDA. Mannose as a carbon source was good for two species and Glutamic acid as a nitrogen source was satisfactory to C. militaris and Asparagine gave a good result to C. nutans. C. militaris and C. nutans showed similar mycelial growth rate on the media that contained thiamine-HCI, biotine or nicotinic acid as a vitamine. When conidia of C. nutans were inoculated to insects, mortality was high in Artogeia napi L, Hemiptera, Plutella xylostella and 50% in Orthoptera, 12% in Acantholyda posticalise M, but not Agelastica coerulea B. in Aphididae, C. nutans was collected from only Hemiptera in nature, but killing effect on other insects was proved. Mycelial growth and fruit-body formation were good on the media that consist of rice powder 5g, wheat flour 5g, water 100ml, but formed fruit-body was not complete stromata but a mass of conidia according to results of observing microscope.

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Production of Pleurotus ostreatus and Flammulina velutipes Using Liquid Spawn Inoculation System (느타리 팽나무버섯 재배에서 액체종균 배양 및 접종시스템 적용방법의 구명)

  • Hong, Sung-Jun;Lee, Won-Ho;Shin, Beom-Soo;Sung, Jae-Mo
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.22-27
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    • 2003
  • This research aimed at developing the efficient method and device applicable to the inoculation of mushroom using (spawn was intended to utilize) liquid spawn for the stable production of mushroom. For the mass production of liquid culture, optimal inoculum volume and cultural period were $5{\sim}6%$ and 4 days for Flammulina velutipes and 4% and 5 days for Pleurotus ostreatus. Fruit body weight in 850 ml polythene bottle was highest at 6% or 15 ml liquid inoculum for P. ostreatus and $4{\sim}6%$ or $10{\sim}15ml$ for F. velutipes. Weight of fruit body by the application of liquid spawn inoculation system increased up to 33.7% for P. ostreatus and 32.8% for F. velutipes, respetively, compared to conventional spawn making system. The system of liquid spawn inoculation was successfully operated without malfunction in opening or closing the lid, and it took 26 min to inoculate 1200 bottles.

Evaluation of Image Quality Based on Time of Flight in PET/CT (PET/CT에서 재구성 프로그램의 성능 평가)

  • Lim, Jung Jin;Yoon, Seok Hwan;Kim, Jong Pil;Nam Koong, Sik;Shin, Seong Hwa;Yoon, Sang Hyeok;Kim, Yeong Seok;Lee, Hyeong Jin;Lee, Hong Jae;Kim, Jin Eui;Woo, Jae Ryong
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.110-114
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    • 2012
  • Purpose : PET/CT is widely used for early checking up of cancer and following up of pre and post operation. Image reconstruction method is advanced with mechanical function. We want to evaluate image quality of each reconstruction program based on time of flight (TOF). Materials and Methods : After acquiring phantom images during 2 minutes with Gemini TF (Philips, USA), Biograph mCT (Siemens, USA) and Discovery 690 (GE, USA), we reconstructed image applied to Astonish TF (Philips, USA), ultraHD PET (Siemens, USA), Sharp IR (GE, USA) and not applied. inside of Flangeless Esser PET phantom (Data Spectrum corp., USA) was filled with $^{18}F$-FDG 1.11 kBq/ml (30 Ci/ml) and 4 hot inserts (8. 12. 16. 25 mm) were filled with 8.88 kBq/ml (240 ${\mu}Ci/ml$) the ratio of background activity and hot inserts activity was 1 : 8. Inside of triple line phantom (Data Spectrum corp., USA) was filled with $^{18}F$-FDG 37 MBq/ml (1 mCi). Three of lines were filled with 0.37 MBq (100 ${\mu}Ci$). Contrast ratio and background variability were acquired from reconstruction image used Flangeless Esser PET phantom and resolution was acquired from reconstruction image used triple line phantom. Results : The contrast ratio of image which was not applied to Astonish TF was 8.69, 12.28, 19.31, 25.80% in phantom lid of which size was 8, 12, 16, 25 mm and it which was applied to Astonish TF was 6.24, 13.24, 19.55, 27.60%. It which was not applied to ultraHD PET was 4.94, 12.68, 22.09, 30.14%, it which was applied to ultraHD PET was 4.76, 13.23, 23.72, 31.65%. It which was not applied to SharpIR was 13.18, 17.44, 28.76, 34.67%, it which was applied to SharpIR was 13.15, 18.32, 30.33, 35.73%. The background variability of image which was not applied to Astonish TF was 5.51, 5.42, 7.13, 6.28%. it which was applied to Astonish TF was 7.81, 7.94, 6.40 6.28%. It which was not applied to ultraHD PET was 6.46, 6.63, 5.33, 5.21%, it which was applied to ultraHD PET was 6.08, 6.08, 4.45, 4.58%. It which was not applied to SharpIR was 5.93, 4.82, 4.45, 5.09%, it which was applied to SharpIR was 4.80, 3.92, 3.63, 4.50%. The resolution of phantom line of which location was upper, center, right, which was not applied to Astonish TF was 10.77, 11.54, 9.34 mm it which was applied to Astonish TF was 9.54, 8.90, 8.88 mm. It which was not applied to ultraHD PET was 7.84, 6.95, 8.32 mm, it which was applied to ultraHD PET was 7.51, 6.66, 8.27 mm. It which was not applied to SharpIR was 9.35, 8.69, 8.99, it which was applied to SharpIR was 9.88, 9.18, 9.00 mm. Conclusion : Image quality was advanced generally while reconstruction program which is based on time of flight was used. Futhermore difference of result compared each manufacture reconstruction program showed up, however this is caused by specification of instrument of each manufacture and difference of reconstruction algorithm. Therefore we need further examination to find out appropriate reconstruction condition while using reconstruction program used for advance of image quality.

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Measurement of Two-Dimensional Velocity Distribution of Spatio-Temporal Image Velocimeter using Cross-Correlation Analysis (상호상관법을 이용한 시공간 영상유속계의 2차원 유속분포 측정)

  • Yu, Kwonkyu;Kim, Seojun;Kim, Dongsu
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.537-546
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    • 2014
  • Surface image velocimetry was introduced as an efficient and sage alternative to conventional river flow measurement methods during floods. The conventional surface image velocimetry uses a pair of images to estimate velocity fields using cross-correlation analysis. This method is appropriate to analyzing images taken with a short time interval. It, however, has some drawbacks; it takes a while to analyze images for the verage velocity of long time intervals and is prone to include errors or uncertainties due to flow characteristics and/or image taking conditions. Methods using spatio-temporal images, called STIV, were developed to overcome the drawbacks of conventional surface image velocimetry. The grayscale-gradient tensor method, one of various STIVs, has shown to be effectively reducing the analysis time and is fairly insusceptible to any measurement noise. It, unfortunately, can only be applied to the main flow direction. This means that it can not measure any two-dimensional flow field, e.g. flow in the vicinity of river structures and flow around river bends. The present study aimed to develop a new method of analyzing spatio-temporal images in two-dimension using cross-correlation analysis. Unlike the conventional STIV, the developed method can be used to measure two-dimensional flow substantially. The method also has very high spatial resolution and reduces the analysis time. A verification test using artificial images with lid-driven cavity flow showed that the maximum error of the method is less than 10 % and the average error is less than 5 %. This means that the developed scheme seems to be fairly accurate, even for two-dimensional flow.

A Comparative Study on the Recognition of Urban Agriculture between Urban Farmers and Public Officials (도시농업인과 공무원의 도시농업 인식 비교·평가)

  • Park, Won-Zei;Koo, Bon-Hak;Park, Mi-Ok;Kwon, Hyo-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.90-103
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    • 2012
  • The aim of this study is to be able to understand the problems within the urban agriculture policy promoted by the Government and local autonomous entity base on the comparison of the consciousness of the urban agriculture between urban farmers and public officials and to inquire into the further revitalization scheme in the end. For this purpose, this study drew implications through studying latest trend and the legislation of domestic and foreign urban agriculture and then conducted a questionnaire survey of urban farmers and public officials. Because of this research, the revitalization schemes of urban agriculture are as follows: First, it's necessary to secure the usable arable land, such as the green roof, community garden, as well as urban agriculture park, etc. Second, it is necessary to establish the urban agriculture relations act suited for the actual circumstances of our country and to back up the legislation at an institutional, technological level in terms of a nation in order to secure the durability of urban agriculture. Third, it is advisable to make a proposal about the problems in time of activities for cultivation by forming a network between urban farmers and public officials and to prepare the plan for the active exchange of farming technologies. Fourth, it's necessary to activate the community gardens by supplying the education through cultivation method & its management method, and a variety of urban-agriculture-participation programs. Fifth, it is necessary to set up the specialized and practical education through an institute for landscape architecture. Sixth, it is necessary to induce the spontaneous participation in urban agriculture from urban farmers accompanied by the activities for promotion that are worth arousing urban farmers' interest. Lastly, it is also necessary to establish a legal basis of urban agricultural parks and facilities as well as to promote a search for multilateral policies and their practice so that the further urban agriculture can be stably continued within city boundaries.

Suitability of Migration Testing for Food Packaging Materials Using Tenax® (Tenax®를 이용한 식품포장재의 용출 실험의 적합성)

  • Kim, Hyeong-Jun;Bang, Dae Young;Kim, Min Ho;Lee, Keun Taik
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF PACKAGING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.97-106
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    • 2018
  • This study aimed at examining the suitability of $Tenax^{(R)}$ for the migration testing of food packaging materials, which is currently approved in the EU as a dry food simulant. The results are used as a basis to examine the feasibility of introducing $Tenax^{(R)}$ to Korean regulation. The OMVs of test specimen into various solvents (diethyl ether, ethanol, pentane, and acetone) after exposure to $100^{\circ}C$ for 1 hr were compared. Diethyl ether showed the highest OMV ($1.33mg/dm^2$) among the solvents tested. When the tests were conducted with different amounts of $Tenax^{(R)}$ of 2, 4, or 8 g per specimen, the OMVs were 0.75, 1.33 and $1.40mg/dm^2$, respectively. The OMV obtained with a closed system after wrapping with aluminum foil showed a significantly higher OMV ($1.61mg/dm^2$) than that without aluminum wrapping ($1.318mg/dm^2w$) and an open system without lid ($1.06mg/dm^2$). The specific migration rates of surrogates spiked in the polyethylene test film and paper samples into $Tenax^{(R)}$ were compared with those into liquid food simulants including 95% ethanol and n-heptane, and actual foods such as starch, skim milk, and sugar. In general, the specific migration levels of surrogates into $Tenax^{(R)}$ were similar compared with n-heptane, however those were significantly higher than into actual foods. These results suggest that $Tenax^{(R)}$ may be used as a food simulant for the long-term preservation of dried foods and paper products. However, more studies need to be conducted to investigate the factors influencing the migration into $Tenax^{(R)}$, such as the types of foods and packaging materials tested, migration conditions, and surrogates properties etc.

Evaluation of Cellulose and Super-Absorbent-Polymer as an Absorbent of Tube-type Tear Test Kit (튜브형 눈물검사키트 흡수제로서 셀룰로오스와 고흡수성 폴리머의 유용성 평가)

  • Park, Jung-Eun;Song, In-Chang;Jeong, Myeong-Jin;Lee, Koon-Ja
    • The Korean Journal of Vision Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.495-502
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of cellulose (CEL) filter and super-absorbent-polymer (SAP) as an absorbent of tube type tear test kits. Methods: Tube type tear test kits (kit-CEL and kit-SAP) were made by inserting cellulose filter and super absorbent polymer respectively. To evaluate the repeatability of tear test kits made, the tip of the test kits were immersed for 1 to 5 seconds into solutions of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and $2.0{\mu}{\ell}$. The experiment was repeated for 10 times, respectively. Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were performed for the effect of the amount of solution and absorption time on absorbed distance of the tear test kits. Results: The absorbed distances of the kit-CEL and kit-SAP were significantly increased with the volume of solution and absorption time, however kit-CEL showed lineality within $2{\mu}l$ and kit-SAP showed lineality within $1.5{\mu}l$ of solution. The absorption lengths of the kit-CEL and kit-SAP were correlated with the volume of solution and absorption time that correlation coefficients (r) were 0.683 and 0.705 with the volume of solution and 0.665 and 0.530 with the absorption time. The power of explanation ($R^2$) of the kit-CEL and kit-SAP were 0.840, 0.776 for the volume of solution and absorption time. The reliability of the kit-CEL and kit-SAP were measured as 0.998 and 0.987 respectively. Conclusion: The kit-CEL and kit-SAP showed good accuracy and high power of explanation for the volume of solution and absorption time that both kits could be evaluated as suitable tools for tear volume test, however, the kit-CEL could be more useful than kit-SAP.

Development of Fertilizer-Dissolving Apparatus Using Air Pressure for Nutrient Solution Preparation and Dissolving Characteristics (공기를 이용한 양액 제조용 비료용해 장치 개발 및 용해특성)

  • Kim, Sung Eun;Kim, Young Shik
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.163-169
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    • 2012
  • We have conducted three experiments to develop a fertilizer-dissolving apparatus used in fertigation or hydroponics cultivation in order to decrease the fertilizer dissolving time and labor input via automation. All of the experiments were conducted twice. In the first experiment, four selected treatments were tested to dissolve fertilizers rapidly. The first treatment was to dissolve fertilizer by spraying water with a submerged water pump, placed in the nutrient solution tank. The water was sprayed onto fertilizer, which is dissolved and filtered through the hemp cloth mounted on the upper part of the nutrient solution tank (Spray). The second treatment was to install a propeller on the bottom of the nutrient solution tank (Propeller). The third treatment was to produce a water stream with a submerged water pump, located at the bottom of the tank (Submerged). Finally, the fourth treatment was to produce an air stream through air pipes with an air compressor located at the bottom of the tank (Airflow). The Spray treatment was found to take the shortest time to dissolve fertilizer, yet it was inconvenient to implement and manage after installation. The Airflow treatment was thought to be the best method in terms of the time to dissolve, labor input, and automation. In the second experiment, Airflow treatment was investigated in more detail. In order to determine the optimal number of air pipe arms and their specification, different versions of 6- and 8-arm air pipe systems were evaluated. The apparatus with 6 arms (Arm-6) that was made of light density polyethylene was determined to be the best system, evaluated on its time to dissolve fertilizer, easiness to use regardless of the lid size of the tank, and easiness to produce and install. In the third experiment, the Submerged and Arm-6 treatments were compared for their dissolving time and economics. Arm-6 treatment decreased the dissolving time by 8 times and proved to be very economic. In addition, dissolving characteristics were investigated for $KNO_3$, $Ca(NO_3)_2{\cdot}4H_2O$, and Fe-EDTA.

The Growth Response of Balloon Flower (Platycodon grandiflorum A. DC.) Plantlets In Vitro as Affected by Air Exchanges and Light Intensity (배양용기 내 환기와 광도에 따른 도라지(Platycodon grandiflorum A. DC.) 기내 배양묘의 생장반응)

  • Choi So-Ra;Kim Myung-Jun;Eun Jong-Seon;Ahn Min-Sil;Lim Hoi-Chun;Ryu Jeong
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.23-29
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    • 2005
  • Shoots of balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum A. DC.) derived from in vitro germinated seeds were cultured on MS medium containing $0.1\;\cal{mg/L}$ NAA under various photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) 33, 66, and $99\;{\mu}mol\;m^{-2}s^{-1}$ with or without membrane filter. Number of air exchanges per hour (NAEH) of the culture vessel with membrane filter on the lid was $4.9 h^{-1}$ and that without membrane filter was $0.1 h^{-1}$ Plantlets grown in $4.9 h^{-1}$ NAEH showed greater growth than in $0.1 h^{-1}$ NAEH. According to increase of PPF, plantlets growth decreased in $0.1 h^{-1}$ NAEH while it increased in $4.9 h^{-1}$ NAEH. At the same PPF, fresh weight and sugar content in plantlets in $4.9 h^{-1}$ NAEH were above 1.9, 2.0 times higher than those in $0.1 h^{-1}$ NAEH, respectively. Also they were enhanced in $4.9 h^{-1}$ NAEH by increase of PPF whereas no significance in $0.1 h^{-1}$ NAEH. The percentage of water content of plantlets in $4.9 h^{-1}$ NAEH was $4.2\~5.5\%$ lower than those in $0.1 h^{-1}$ and no difference in PPF. The content of total chlorophyll in plantlets in $4.9 h^{-1}$ NAEH was higher $0.27\~0.79\;\cal{mg/g}$ F.W. than that in $0.1 h^{-1}$ NAEH. By increase of PPF, it was decreased in $0.1 h^{-1}$ NAEH while had no significant difference in $4.9 h^{-1}$ NAEH. Guard and subsidiary cells of leaves in $4.9 h^{-1}$ NAEH were more developed than in $0.1 h^{-1}$ NAEH. Especially, in $99\;{\mu}mol\;m^{-2}s^{-1}$ leaves in $0.1 h^{-1}$ NAEH had undeveloped subsidiary cells and wide open stomata whereas those in $4.9 h^{-1}$ NAEH had well-developed subsidiary cells.

A Study on Actual Conditions for Prevention of Infections by Dental Hygienists (치과위생사의 감염 예방 실태 조사)

  • Nam, Young-Shin;Yoo, Jung-Sook;Park, Myung-Suk
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2007
  • This study aimed to provide basic information on dental hygienists' practicing the prevention of infections by figuring out their actual conditions in dental clinics. The subjects of the study were the dental hygienists who participated in the continuing medical education of Incheon & Gyeonggi-do association and Seoul city association in October and November 2005 and the self-administered surveys were used for the prevention of infections. The results were as below. 1. In terms of education experiences of infection prevention, those who answered "there were" were 72 persons (42.9%) and those who followed the educational route for infection prevention were "through the in-house education from the hospital" and they were 42 persons (58%), which were highest. 2. In terms of the injury experiences, those who answered "there were" were 147 persons (87.5%) and the number of annual injury out of 147 persons with injury experiences was 7.7 time. For the tools that were damaged, 125 persons (75%) damaged the "explorer," which was highest. 3. For the experiences of being infected with contagious diseases, those who answered "there were" were 6 persons (3.6%) and there were four persons for "hepatitis B", one person for "rubella" and one person for "TB." 4. The questions with high practice scores were as in the following: "2. I wash my hands after conducting medical examinations (1.86 points)," "7. I always close the lid of a shot of Novocain after doing local anesthesia (1.86 points)" and "20. I separate and collect the wastes and give them to those who treat accumulated materials (1.85 points)". Meanwhile, the questions with low practice scores were as below: "16. I change my medical gowns (doctor wears) once a day (0.24 point)" and "I wash my medical gowns every time after examining patients with contagious diseases (0.52 points)." 5. The question with high knowledge was as below: "1. The contagion during the dental treatment is determined by source of infection, infection methods, infection routes and the host that is prone to infection (0.95 point)" and the question with the lowest knowledge was "5. HBV(hepatitis B) is destroyed after adding 95oC of heat for more than 5 minutes (0.27 points)." 6. The question with the highest organization-related factors was "I am always ready to use a mask, gloves, etc. if necessary" (0.89 points)" and the question with the lowest score was "There is a guideline that I can refer when I am exposed to dangerous situations related to the contagion in my workplace (0.33 point)." 7. In terms of the equipment conditions of protectors in medical environments, 168 persons for (disposable) mask (100%), 167 persons for disposable gloves (Latex) (99.4%), which meant that most of them were equipped with them. On the contrary, 108 persons (64.3%) are equipped with the protectors for frontal faces, which is the lowest and 165 persons (98.2%) said that they had autoclave in their disinfecting and sterilizing devices.

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