• Title, Summary, Keyword: LDL-cholesterol

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Effectsof Garlic Vinegar Supplementation on Body Weight, Blood glucose, and Serum Lipid Profile in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Rats-fed High Cholesterol Diet

  • Park, Mi-Ja;Cho, Hyun-Ju;Park, Myung-Sook;Park, Yong-Hee
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.200-202
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    • 1999
  • The effectsof garlic vinegar supplementation on body weight, blood blucose, and plasma triglyceride and cholesterol were investigated in streptozotocin -induced diabetic rats fed high-cholesterol(1%) diet for 4 wk. The garlic vinegar was made by fermenting 20% frsh garlic juice. There was no effect of garlic vinegar on body weight, plasma glucose or triglyceride concentrations in the diabetic rats. Plasma total -cholesterol concentrations were unaffected by garlic vinegarr supplementation. However, plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations and atherogenic index were significantly lower in the diabetic rats supplemented with garlic vinegar diet than tin the cotnrol rats. The diabetic-rats supplemented with garlic vinegar not only had increased HDL-cholesterol levels but had decreased LDL-cholesterol. This alteration in the HDL/LDL-cholesterol ratio in the diabetic rats may decrease the risk of atheroscelrosis. Therefore, the over-all effect of garlic vinegar supplement may contribute to the antiatherogenic role in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

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Analysis of Serum Lipids of Medical Check-up Subjects by Age and Sex (건강검진자를 대상으로한 혈청지질 분석 -특히 이상지혈증의 빈도를 중심으로-)

  • Seok, Seong-Ja;Shin, Du-Man
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.105-110
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to establish the normal values of serum lipids by age and sex for healthy adults and the frequency of dyslipidemia as a risk factor of coronary atherosclerosis. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, and HDL-cholesterol were measured for 14,485 average adults (8,712 males and 5,773 females) aged 20 to 69 years and analyzed using the auto-analyzer Hitach 7600 in enzyme method. Mean values of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and atherogenic index were higher in men than in women at the ages of 20-40 years but significantly higher in women than in men in the age group of 60 years. Theses findings suggest that the mean concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol in men and women vary with age. The frequency of hypercholesterolemia ($${\geq_-}200mg/dL$$) in men and women was about 31.4% and increased with age.

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A study on the Effect of Kamijesubsungitang on Hyperlipidemia (가미제습순기탕(加味除濕順氣湯)이 고지혈증(高脂血症)을 유발시킨 고혈압(高血壓) 백서(白鼠)에서의 혈액학적(血液學的) 변화(變化)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Park, Jong-Kwang;Choi, Hak-Joo;Kim, Dong-Hee
    • Journal of Haehwa Medicine
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.19-31
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    • 2006
  • KJST is the oriental herbal medicine of hyperlipemia which consisted of a herb of 17. We induced hyperlipemia to Spontaneous Hypertensive Rat(SHR) and studied the treatment effect by KJST. Hyperlipidemia was induced by hyper-lipidemic diet fed for 4weeks. Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, Triglyceride, Total bilirubin, Lactic dehydrogenase(LDH), Glucose and Total protein were measured on the serum after an oral administration of KJST. Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, Glucose and LDH was significantly lower in the KJST treated animals, and HDL was significantly raised in the KJST treated animals. These results suggest that KJST is effective for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.

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Friedewald-Estimated Versus Directly Measured LDL-Cholesterol: KNHANES 2009-2010 (LDL-콜레스테롤의 Friedewald 계산값과 실측값 비교: 국민건강영양조사 2009-2010)

  • Jang, Sungok;Lee, Jongseok
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.5492-5500
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    • 2015
  • Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major modifiable risk factor for cardio- cerebrovascular disease. In clinical practice, however, it is primarily calculated using the Friedewald formula as a cost-effective method. The aim of this study was to compare Friedewald-estimated and directly measured LDL-C values and assess the concordance in guideline LDL-C risk classification between the two methods. The data were derived from the 2009 and 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES). Analysis was done for 4,319 subjects with lipid panels-total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), directly measured LDL-C using an enzymatic homogeneous assay, and triglycerides (TG). For subjects with TG lower than 400 mg/dL, Friedewald-estimated and directly measured LDL-C were highly correlated (r = 0.958, p < 0.001) and overall concordance was 82.7%. As TG increased, overall concordance decreased. Overall concordance was 85.4% at TG lower than 150 mg/dL; 78.2% at TG of 150-199 mg/dL; and 71.4% at TG of 200-399 mg/dL. The Friedewld equation tended to overestimate LDL-C when TG are of < 150 mg/dL; however, underestimate LDL-C when TG are of ${\geq}150mg/dL$. As a result, Friedewald estimation misclassified 382 subjects (9.1%) in a higher category versus 348 subjects (8.3%) in a lower category. Our findings suggest that overestimation of LDL-C by the Friedewald formula can be a great problem as well as underestimation.

Effect of Low Molecular Alginates on Cholesterol Levels and Fatty Acid Compositions of Serum and Liver Lipids in Cholesterol-Fed Rats (저분자화알긴산이 콜레스테롤식이 흰쥐의 혈청과 간장지질의 콜레스테롤 수준 및 지방산 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • LEE Dong-Soo;NAM Taek-Jeong;PYEUN Jae-Hyeung
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.399-408
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    • 1998
  • The effect of low molecular alginates feeding on the cholesterol levels and fatty acid compositions of rat serum and liver lipid were investigated. After one week basal diet feeding, four week old Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed with water soluble and acid $\cdot$alkali soluble alginate extracted from sea mustard (Undaria pinnatifida) and giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera), and their low molecular alginates prepared by the HCl partial hydrolysis. The feeding efficiency of the alginate fed group was ranged in 0.37$\~$0.44, which was 0.03$\~$0.05 lower than that of the basal diet group. Also, there was much less increase of liver weight in the alginate fed group. The water soluble alginate showed more significant effect in reducing the total cholesterol, free cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid of serum and liver lipid than the acid$\cdot$alkali soluble alginate. The effect was much better with low molecular alginate (reducing effect by the low-molecularization : Water soluble alginate - serum lipid; total cholesterol $59\%$, free cholesterol $65\%$, LDL-cholesterol $96\%$, triglyceride $50\%$, and phospholipid $36\%$. liver lipid: total cholesterol $4\%$, free cholesterol $62\%$, LDL-cholesterol $44\%$, triglyceride $33\%$, and phospholipid $44\%$. acid$\cdot$alkali soluble alginate - serum lipid; total cholesterol $52\%$: free cholesterol $97\%$, LDL-cholesterol $78\%$ triglyceride $32\%$, and phospholipid $64\%$. liver lipid; total cholesterol $11\%$, free cholesterol $12\%$, LDL-cholesterol $10\%$, triglyceride $27\%$, and phospholipid $21\%$). The effect of low molecular alginate feeding on the fatty acid composition of serum and liver lipid reflects the remarkable increase of polyenoic acid, over $44\%$ in serum lipid and about $70\%$ in liver lipid, comparing to the cholesterol fed group. The overall results indicated that feeding of low molecular alginates improves physiological function of rats by changing the serum and liver lipid composition.

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Association of Hypertension with Cluster of Obesity, Abnormal glucose and Dyslipidemia in Korean Urban Population (한국인의 일부 도시인에서 비만, 이상혈당, 이상지질혈증의 집락과 고혈압의 관련성)

  • Lee, Kang-Sook;Kim, Jeong-Ah;Park, Chung-Yill
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.59-71
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    • 1998
  • To examine the association of hypertension with cluster of obesity, abnormal glucose and dyslipidemia in Korean urban population, we conducted this cross-sectional study among 3027 men and 2127 women age 20-85 years who visited a prevention center between May 1991 and June 1995 for a multiphasic health check at St. Mary's Hospital, Seoul. By the self-administered questionnaire, the informations of educational attainments, monthly income, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and physical excercise level were obtained. Height, weight, and blood pressure were measured by a trained nurse. The fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride were tested by enzyme method. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was calculated by 'total cholesterol - HDL cholesterol - triglyceride/5'. For testing the differences of cardiovascular risk factors between hypertension and normotension group, 1-test and $\chi^2$-test were performed. For the age adjusted odds ratios of hypertension in persons with obesity, abnormal glucose, and dyslipidemia compared with normal, logistic regression was performed by using SAS pakageprograme. The results obtained were as follows: 1. Age, weight, body mass index(BMI), blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride of hypertension group in men and women were significantly higher than normotension group, but height and HDL cholesterol of hypertension group only in women significantly lower than normotension group. The frequency of obesity $(BMI\geq25kg/m^2)$, abnormal glucose $(\geq\;120mg/dl)$, hypercholesterolemia $(\geq\;240mg/dl)$, lower HDL cholesterol (<45 mg/dl in women only), higher LDL cholesterol $(\geq\;160mg/dl)$, and hyper hypertriglyceridemia $(\geq\;250mg/dl)$ in hypertension group of men and women were significantly higher than normotension group. 2. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were negatively correlated with hight, but positively with age, weight, BMI, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride in men and women. BMI was positively correlated with fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride but negatively with HDL cholesterol. 3. The age adjusted odds ratios of hypertension were as follows in men and women : among persons who were obese compared with those nonobese, 2.53 (95% Confidence Intervals [C.I.] 2.08-3.07) and 2.22 (95%C.I. 1.71-2.87): among persons who were abnormal glucose compared with those normoglycemic, 1.43 (95%C.I 1.13-1.82) and 2.01 (95%C.I 1.36-2.94): and among persons who were dyslipidemia (hypercholesterolemia or lower HDL cholesterol or higher LDL cholesterol or hypertriglyceridemia) compared with those normal lipid, 1.59 (95%C.I 1.30-1.95) and 1.51 (95%C.I 1.16-1.96). After combined more than one risk factor, the odds ratios were increased. Among persons with cluster of obesity, abnormal glucose, and dyslipidemia, the odds ratio of hypertension was 2.25 (95%C.I 1.47-3.37) in men and 3.02 (95%C.I 1.71-5.30) in women. In conclusion, it was suggested that hypertension was associated with cluster of obesity, abnormal glucose, dyslipidemia in this Korean urban population.

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Effect of Citrus Pectin Oligosaccharide Prepared by Irradiation on High Cholesterol Diet B6.KOR-ApoE Mice

  • Kang, Ho-Jin;Kwon, Joong-Ho;Ahn, Dong-Uk;Lee, Ju-Woon;Lee, Wan-Kyu;Jo, Cheo-Run
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.884-888
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    • 2009
  • Effect of citrus pectin oligosaccharides produced by irradiation was studied on the ability to improve lipid metabolism and hypercholesterolemia in mice fed high cholesterol diets. A total of 35 mice were divided into 5 groups and fed the following diets for 6 weeks: normal diet (C), 0.5% cholesterol (CH), 0.5% cholesterol+5% non-irradiated pectin (P), 0.5% cholesterol+5% irradiated pectin at 20 kGy (PIR), and 0.5% cholesterol+5% irradiated at 20 kGy and dialyzed (PIR-F). CH group had significantly higher serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol contents than pectin oligosaccharide-treated groups (p<0.05). Triglycerides and total cholesterol contents was the lowest in C and PIR-F and followed by PIR and P group, and CH group had significantly higher LDL-cholesterol. Serum high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol content in C group was not different from that in CH and P groups, but lower than that of PIR and PIR-F groups. These results suggest that pectin oligosaccharides produced by irradiation can reduce the levels of serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol in the blood of mice fed high-cholesterol diets and therefore, irradiation can be used as a tool to produce functional oligosaccharides from citrus pectin.

A Comparison of Lovastatin and Simvastatin in Treatment of Hyperlipidemia (Lovastatin과 Simvastatin의 고지혈증 치료 비교)

  • Cho, Jeong Ju;Lee, Suk Hyang
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.39-50
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    • 2002
  • Hypercholesterolemia is one of main causes of coronary heart disease(CHD). Clinical trials demonstrated that lowering serum cholesterol levels would reduce incidence of new cardiovascular events and mortality by primary or secondary preventions. The objective of this retrospective study was to compare efficacy and side effects of lovartatin and simvastatin in treatement of hypercholesterolemia. In Boramae Hospital, patients were included when they have taken lovastatin 20 mg or simvastatin 10 mg for 52 weeks with laboratory monitoring for cholesterol at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 month period. As results, total 128 outpatients were included with their total cholesterol level <240 mg/dl and triglyceride level <400 mg/dl at baseline. Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol of lovastatin group (n=60) and simvastatin group (n=68) were significantly reduced from baseline (p=0.001). Lovastatin maximally reduced total cholesterol by $23.9\%,\;triglyceride\;by\;12.3\%$, LDL cholesterol by $36.1\;\%$ and increased HDL cholerterol by $7.8\%$ and simvastatin reduced by $24.1\%,\;20.5\%,\;34.3\%\;respectively$ and HDL increased by $11.2\%$. There were no significant differences between lovastatin and simvastatin in mean percent change of lipid levels at 12, 24 and 52 weeks from baseline. Cumulative percentage of patients reaching the target LDL cholesterol concentration by 24 weeks was $61.7\%$ in lovastatin and $64.7\%$ in simvastatin. Average time to reach the target LDL goal was 100.1 days in lovastatin and 99.8 days in simvastatin. Both lovastatin and simvastatin also significantly reduced total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in all subgroups (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary heart disease). In this study, treatment efficacy in patients with coronary heart disease was lower than other patients. Considering clinical importance of secondary prevention, more intensive treatment is necessary to decrease LDL cholesterol level of 100 mg/dl or lower in patients with coronary heart disease or other clinical atherosclerotic disease. There were no serious side effects during the study period. Digestive side effects were most frequently reported (lovastatin $8.3\%\;vs\;simvastatin\;8.8\%$). In conclusion, both lovastatin and simvastatin were similar in lipid lowering effects and there was no difference in incidence of side effects.

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A Retrospective Study on the Effect of Daeshiho-tang on the Lipid Profile in Patients with Uncontrolled Dyslipidemia by Statins (스타틴으로 조절되지 않는 이상지질혈증 환자에게 대시호탕 복용이 미치는 영향)

  • Noh, Ji-won;Jeong, Soo-min;Kim, Dong-hyun;Yoo, Jeong-hwa;Ahn, Young-min;Ahn, Se-young;Lee, Byung-cheol
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.1026-1034
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    • 2019
  • Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the lipid-lowering effect and safety of Daeshiho-tang in patients with uncontrolled lipid levels by statins. Methods: We investigated patients who had an abnormal lipid profile even when taking statins and who were administered Daeshiho-tang at Kyung-Hee University Korean Medical Hospital for at least one day between January 2008 and December 2018. Their basal characteristics and examinations were reviewed retrospectively with respect to lipid profile, AST, ALT, GGT, BUN, and creatinine. The lipid profile was composed of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Subgroup analysis was performed on each component of dyslipidemia. Results: Among 20 participants, there were 10 males and 10 females. The mean BMI was 23.52. Eighty five percent of the participants were diagnosed as having cerebral infarction. After the administration of Daeshiho-tang, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were significantly reduced, to 41.3 mg/dl and 33.95 mg/dl, respectively. In subgroup analyses, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were significantly decreased, to 63 mg/dl and 54.6 mg/dl, respectively. Liver and kidney function showed no significant difference after taking Daeshiho-tang. Conclusions: Daeshiho-tang as a decoction or powder had significant lipid-lowering effects on total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in patients with dyslipidemia. The lipid-lowering effect on total and LDL cholesterol increased in patients with hypercholesterolemia and hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia, respectively. Based on the minimal changes in the liver and kidney function test, Daeshiho-tang would be safe enough to be used in clinics.

The Mechanism of LDL Receptor Up-regulation by Ginsenoside-Rb2 in HepG2 Cultured under Enriched Cholesterol Condition (고콜레스테롤 조건하에 배양된 HepG2에서의 ginsenoside-Rb2에 의한 LDL receptor 억제 완화 기전)

  • Lim, G-Rewo;Lee, Hyun-Il;Kim, Eun-Ju;Ro, Young-Tae;Noh, Yun-Hee;Koo, Ja-Hyun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.87-93
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    • 2004
  • The effect of ginsenoside-Rb2, one of a major pharmacological component of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, on low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression was investigated and compared with hypocholesterolemic drug lovastatin. In HepG2 cell, exogenous cholesterol decreased LDL receptor mRNA expression, but ginsenoside-Rb2 recovered this reduction of LDL receptor mRNA up to normal expression level. Lovastatin also increased LDL receptor mRNA expression as similar as ginsenoside-Rb2 did. The reduction of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) transcription by exogenous cholesterol was also similarly recovered by ginsenoside-Rb2 and lovastatin addition. Compound K, a metabolite of ginsenoside-Rb2 and -Rb1 by human intestinal bacteria also increased the SREBP mRNA expression in cholesterol-enriched condition. Ginsenoside-Rb2 seems to up-regulate LDL receptor mRNA expression through the induction of de novo SREBP transcription. Therefore, increased expression of SREBP mRNA by ginsenoside-Rb2 elevated the LDL receptor mRNA expression in HepG2 cells, and these inductions possibly drop the plasma cholesterol level in hypercholesterolemia patients, in vivo, as likely in case of lovastatin.