• Title, Summary, Keyword: Keunso Bay

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Tidal and Seasonal Variations of Nutrients in Keunso Bay, the Yellow Sea (서해 근소만에서 영양염의 조석 및 계절 변화)

  • Kim, Dong-Seon;Kim, Kyung-Hee
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2008
  • In order to find the effect of intertidal sediments on nutrient cycle in coastal environment, we measured ammonia, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate concentrations every hour during at least 12 hours in the entrance of Keunso Bay during four seasons. The content of ammonia and silicate do not change considerably with season, but nitrate shows large seasonal variation. In summer, nitrate concentration was much lower than in other seasons, which resulted from large biological uptake and active denitrification in intertidal sediments during summer. Phosphate also exhibit seasonal variations, but not that large like nitrate. N/P and N/Si ratios were lower in summer than in other seasons, which was due to active denitrification in the intertidal sediments during summer. For all seasons, ammonia concentrations were higher at low tide than at high tide, but nitrate concentrations were higher at high tide. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations measured in spring, summer, and winter were higher at high tide than at low tide, but in fall, they were higher at low tide than at high tide. For spring and winter, phosphate and silicate concentrations were higher at low tide than at high tide, while in summer and fall, they were higher at high tide than at low tide. In Keunso Bay, intertidal sediments affect significantly the nutrient cycle around the coastal areas. The intertidal sediments act as a source for ammonia and silicate, but as a sink for nitrate. However, phosphate is not considerably influenced by intertidal sediments.

The Effects of Adsorption on Phosphate Benthic Fluxes in the Intertidal Sediments of Keunso Bay, Yellow Sea (황해 근소만 조간대 퇴적물에서 인산염 흡착이 저층플럭스에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Dong-Seon;Kim, Kyung-Hee
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.247-255
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    • 2009
  • We measured phosphate benthic fluxes and conducted phosphate adsorption experiments in order to find out the effects of adsorption on phosphate benthic fluxes in the intertidal sediments of Keunso Bay during summer and winter. Organic carbon contents showed little variation with season at St. S1, but noticeable changes were observed at St. S2, which were three times higher in winter than in summer. The higher organic carbon contents in winter resulted from the bloom of benthic algae in surface sediments. Pore water phosphate concentrations were much higher in summer than in winter. The higher phosphate concentration in summer was probably due to the faster remineralization rate of organic matter in summer. At St. S1, benthic fluxes of phosphate showed a negative value in summer and a positive value in winter. However, St. S2 had a negative benthic flux both in summer and winter. The negative benthic flux was ascribed to the phosphate adsorption on iron oxides in surface sediments. The equilibrium concentrations of phosphate obtained from the adsorption experiment were three times higher at St. S1 than at St. S2. The relatively high adsorption coefficient and low equilibrium concentration indicated that phosphate was strongly adsorbed on the surface sediments of Keunso Bay. The strong adsorption affinity significantly reduced benthic fluxes of phosphate in the intertidal sediments.

Phosphorus Speciation and Bioavailability in Intertidal Sediments of Keunso Bay, Yellow Sea During Summer and Winter (서해 근소만 조간대 퇴적물에서 여름과 겨울에 인의 존재형태)

  • Kim, Dong-Seon;Kim, Kyung-Hee
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.177-186
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    • 2010
  • A sequential extraction technique was used to study sediment phosphorus speciation and its relative importance in the intertidal flat of Keunso Bay during summer and winter for a better understanding of the phosphorus cycle and bioavailability in intertidal sediments. Loosely sorbed P contents were the lowest among the five P-pools and showed little seasonal or spatial variation. Although Fe-bound P contents were almost constant in winter, they decreased rapidly with sediment depth in summer. The dissolution of Fe oxides, used as an oxidant for the anaerobic respiration, ascribed the rapid decrease of Fe-bound P in summer. Al-bound P contents displayed little seasonal variation, but showed a large spatial variation, with higher values in the upper intertidal flat. Comprising about 50% of total P, Ca-bound P contents were the highest among the five P-pools. Ca-bound P contents were higher in winter than summer, but did not exhibit a clear spatial variation. Organic P contents were higher in summer than winter, which was associated with higher primary production and clam biomass in summer. Organic P contents were higher in the lower intertidal flat than the upper intertidal flat. In Keunso Bay, bioavailable P contents of the intertidal flat comprising about one third of total P ranged from 2.41 to 5.09 ${\mu}molg^{-1}$ in summer and 3.82 to 5.29 ${\mu}molg^{-1}$ in winter. The bioavailability of P contents was higher in the lower intertidal flat than the upper intertidal flat, which was attributed to the large clam production in the lower intertidal flat.

Seasonal and Spatial Variations of Nutrient Fluxes in the Intertidal Flat of Keunso Bay, the Yellow Sea (서해 근소만 갯벌에서 영양염 플럭스의 계절 변화)

  • Kim, Kyung-Hee;Kim, Dong-Seon
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.225-238
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    • 2008
  • In order to investigate the effects of intertidal sediments on the nutrient cycle in coastal environments, the benthic fluxes of ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and silicate at two stations on the intertidal flat of Keunso Bay were determined during each season. The efflux of ammonium was observed at S1 and resulted from the diffusion of remineralized ammonium and acceleration caused by the bioirrigation of macrofauna. The influx of ammonium at S2 was probably due to nitrification in the water column. The influx of nitrate was observed at both stations during all seasons, indicating that the nitrate in the pore water was removed by denitrification. Vigorous bioirrigation led to the efflux of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) at S1, whereas the influx of DIN at S2 was predominantly caused by denitrification. Contrary to the diffusive and bio-irrigated release of remineralized phosphate from the sediment at S1, the influx of phosphate was observed at S2, which may be attributable to adsorption onto iron oxides in the aerobic sediment layer. Silicate, which is produced by the dissolution of siliceous material, was mostly released from the sediment by molecular diffusion and bioirrigation. However, the influx of silicate was observed at S2 during spring and winter, which was ascribed to adsorption by particulate matter or assimilation by benthic microphytes. The annual fluxes of DIN were 328 mmol $m^{-2}yr^{-1}$ at S1 and -435 mmol $m^{-2}yr^{-1}$ at S2. The annual fluxes of phosphate were negative at both sites (-2.8 mmol $m^{-2}yr^{-1}$ at S1 and -28.9 mmol $m^{-2}yr^{-1}$ at S2), whereas the annual fluxes of silicate were positive at both sites (843 mmol $m^{-2}yr^{-1}$ at S1 and 243 mmol $m^{-2}yr^{-1}$ at S2).

Seasonal Fluctuation of Meiobenthic Fauna Community at Keunso Tidal Flat in Taean, Korea (서해안 태안 근소만 갯벌에 서식하는 중형저서동물 군집의 계절 변동)

  • SHIN, AYOUNG;KIM, DONGSUNG;KANG, TEAWOOK;OH, JE HYEOK;LEE, JIMIN;HONG, JAE-SANG
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.144-157
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    • 2016
  • The community structure of meiobenthos was investigated from seasonal surveys at four stations of Keunso Bay in Taean. Samples of meiobenthos were collected in August, October, 2013 and January, April, 2014. Triplicate faunal samples were collected by using an acryl corer with a 3.6 cm diameter at each station. The mean grain size of the study area ranged from 3.65 ø to 6.35 ø. Total 13 meiofaunal groups were found in the study area. The total density of meiobenthos at each station was be $1,521-7,849ind./10cm^2$. Nematodes were the most dominant faunal group at all stations. The subdominant group were Sarcomastigophorans and benthic harpacticoid copepods. The highest meiofaunal density was shown in spring, whereas the lowest density was recorded in summer. A total of 13 meiobenthic taxa were found, the richest taxa in October at station 2 ($13ind./10cm^2$), and the lowest in April at station 4 ($5ind./10cm^2$). There were seasonal fluctuations in the number of meiobenthic taxa decreasing from summer to spring. The density of meiobenthos gradually decreased as the depth of sediment increased. Seasonal changes in the vertical distribution of meiobenthos in the study area occurred mainly near the sediment surface.

Nitrogen Removal Via Sediment Denitrification and Its Seasonal Variations in Major Estuaries of South Coast of Korean Peninsula (남해안 주요 하구 갯벌 퇴적물의 탈질소화를 통한 질소 영양염 제거)

  • Heo, Nak-Won;Lee, Ji-Young;Choi, Jae-Ung;An, Soon-Mo
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.81-96
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    • 2011
  • Sediment oxygen demand(SOD) and denitrification rates were measured in four major estuaries(Suncheon Bay, Seomjin river estuary, Goseong stream estuary and Masan Bay) in south coast of Korean peninsula from March of 2009 to May 2010 to estimate organic matter cleaning capacity. SOD was estimated from the temporal dissolved oxygen concentration change and isotopic pairing technique was employed to measure denitrification. Sediment oxygen demand(SOD) was ranged from -5.1 to 24.6 mmole $O_2m^{-2}d^{-1}$ and denitrification rate was ranged from 0.0 to 3.9 mmole $N_2m^{-2}d^{-1}$in the study area. SOD was the highest in Masan Bay(-2.2 to 19.2, average = 10.2 mmole $O_2m^{-2}d^{-1}$) and Suncheon, Goseong, Tae-an and Seomjin followed. Denitrification was also the highest in Masn Bay(0.0 to 3.9, average = 1.0 mmole $N_2m^{-2}d^{-1}$) and Goseong, Seomjin, Suncheon and Taean followed. The effect of benthic photosynthesis by microphytobenthos on denitrification was evident in some season of Tae-an, Seomjin, and Masn Bay. The increased oxygen level produced by photosynthesis stimulated nitrification without severe adverse effect on denitrification and, as a result, coupled nitrification and denitrification was enhanced in these areas. A difference of seasonal patterns of denitrification at each site depended on relative importance of denitrification on different nitrate source($D_w$: nitrate from water column and $D_n$: nitrated produced during nitrification). Denitrification was maximum during spring in Goseong, Suncheon and Masan Bay. On the contrary, denitrification was the highest during summer in Tae-an and Seomjin estuary.