• Title, Summary, Keyword: Italian Ryegrass

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Some Characteristics of Interspecific and Intergeneric Hybrids in Herbage Grasses (禾本科 牧草의 種屬間雜種 Hybrid ryegrass와 Festulolium의 生育特性)

  • Ryoo, Jong-Won;Kang, Jung-Hoon;Han, Heung-Jeon;Kim, Woong-Bae;Park, Byung-Hoon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.123-127
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    • 1988
  • Even though grass species are one of major importance in livestock industry, the response of intergeneric hybridization of Lolium and Festuca and interspecific hybridization of Lolium m.X Lolium p. to Korean climatic condition has not been adequately documented. This reasearch was conducted to examine the growth characteristics and dry matter yield of Festulolium, cv. Felopa and C-Stamm N 66 and hybrid ryegrass, cv. Maja and Tetilelite. 1. The early growth of Italian ryegrass was better than that of hybrid ryegrass and Festulolium. The plant length and height of Italian ryegrass were longer/taller than those of hybrid ryegrass and Festulolium, but the number of tillers of Italian ryegrass was less than that of hybrid ryegrass and Festulolium. 2. Festuloliu and hybrid ryegrass were more tolerant than Italian ryegrass to winter killing, 70-80% of tillers was survived. 3. After wintering, early spring growth of hybrid ryegrass and Festulolium were better than that of Italian ryegrass. Dry matter yield of hybrid ryegrass and Festulolium were more than that of Italian ryegrass. 4. Spikes of hybrid ryegrass and Festulolium (C-Stamm N66) were more than those of Italian ryegrass. Seed yield per $m^2$ of hybrid ryegrass and Italian ryegrass were almost same, but that of Festuloliu was lower.

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Some Characteristics of Interspecific and intergeneric Hybrid in Herbage Grasses (화본과 목초의 종속간잡종 Hybrid ryegrass 와 Festulolium의 생육특성)

  • 류종원;강정훈;한흥제;김웅배;박병훈
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.123-127
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    • 1988
  • Even though grass species are one of major importance in livestock industry, the response of intergeneric hybridization of Lolium and Festuca and interspecific hybridization of Lolium m.X Lolium p. to Korean climatic condition has not been adequately documented. This reasearch was conducted to examine the growth characteristics and dry matter yield of Festulolium, cv. Felopa and C-Stamm N 66 and hybrid ryegrass, cv. Maja and Tetilelite. 1. The early growth of Italian ryegrass was better than that of hybrid ryegrass and Festulolium. The plant length and helght of Italian ryegrass were longerltaller than those of hybrid ryegrass and Festulolium, but the number of tillers of Italian ryegrass was less than that of hybrid ryegrass and Festulolium. 2. Festulolium and hybrid ryegrass were more tolerant than Italian xyegrass to winter killing, 70-80% of tillers was survived. 3. After wintering, early spring growth of hybrid ryegrass and Festulolium were better than that of Italian ryegrass. Dry matter yield of hybrid ryegrass and Festulolium were more than that of Italian ryegrass. 4. Spikes of hybrid ryegrass and Festulolium (C-Stamm N66) were more than those of Italian ryegrass. Seed yield per $m^2$ of hybrid ryegrass and Italian ryegrass were almost same, but that of Festulolium was lower.

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Prospect of new variety breeding of Italian ryegrass in South Korea

  • Ji, Hee Chung;Hwang, Tae Young;Lee, Ki Won
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.108-108
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    • 2017
  • The objective of this study was to know prospect and present state of new variety breeding of Forage and Grassland in South Korea. The industry of forage in Korea is going up to expend through utilization of good quality forage, Italian ryegrass, forage corn and oat rather than rice straw. Especially, since 2007, Italian ryegrass(IRG) had been very important major winter forage crop in South Korea and developed 13 varieties including very early maturity variety (three varieties), early maturity variety (three varieties), medium maturity variety (one variety) and late maturity variety (six varieties). But the disadvantage of Italian ryegrass was weak winter hardness and drought but has good advantage of forage nutritive value, high-yielding and high sugar content, and like livestock as like hanwoo, dairy cattle, goat so on. The Ko-variety (Korea developed variety) of Italian ryegrass has high cold-tolerant and adaptability more than any other country developed variety, and expend to cultivation area from southern area (below Daejeon) to middle-northern area (upper Han river). Although the cultivation area of Italian ryegrass of South Korea was 21,700 ha in 2007, right now, that of Italian ryegrass is about 123,600ha due to expend cultivation area and know famer to good forage crop and have a various maturity varieties (very early, early, medium, late) according to local situation (before-crop harvesting stage or double cropping system). The seed market of Italian ryegrass in South Korea becoming extended to around 100 million Korean won and seed export get nearer to foreign country. We are going to develop of new variety for stress tolerant and high yield and quality forage variety, good adaptability to the Korean environmental conditions including reclaimed area, make self-sufficiency system for forage seed (Italian ryegrass), export our seed to foreign countries.

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Studies on the Interspecific and Intergeneric Hybridization in Herbage Grasses II. Morphological physiological charateristics of Italian ryegrass X tall fescue hybrid (화본과목초의 종.속간 잡종에 관한 연구 II. Italian ryegrass X tall fescue F1 잡종의 형태 및 생리적 특성)

  • 박병훈;류종원;이영현
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 1991
  • Tall fescue(Festuca amndinacea Schreb.) is a productive pasture grass that is widely adapted to the soil and climate of Korea. It is regarded, however, as relatively low in palatability and nutritive value. On the other hand, Italian ryegrass(lo1ium rnultz$om Lam.) is highly nutritious and palatable, but is essentially weak in cold tolerance. Numerous investigators have succeeded in producing hybrids between Lolium spp. and Festuca spp. but no improved varieties have resulted. Therefore, intergeneric hybridization of Italian ryegrass with tall fescue is employed in 1984 to improve the adaptive and cold resistance quality of Italian ryegrass. In the mean time, F1-hybrid plants obtained by crossing Italian ryegrass x tall fescue were observed in open field. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Leaf-size and silica cell hair were intermediate between the types of parents but the shape of auricle tended to show Italian ryegrass and auricle-cilia to show tall fescue. 2. Roots of $F_1$-hybrid plants were mainly distributed at top soil and did not produced florescence material. 3. Head type of hybrids was intermediate between the types of parents but ray length was somewhat less than the length of tall fescue ray. Typical Italian ryegrass or tall fescue-like phenotypes were not observed. 4. Anthers of $F_1$-hybrid plants were formed but pollen were not formed. Even though pollen were formed, they were all empty. 5. Hybrid plants were more winterhardy and summer persistency than Italian ryegrass. They showed a equivalent growth to Italian ryegrass in spring and to tall fescue in summer. 6. Chromosome of $F_1$-hybrids was allopolyploid(2n=4~=28) and all $F_1$-hybrid plants were sterile.

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Effect of Cutting Height on the Winter Survival , Early Spring Yield and Energy Production of Italian ryegrass, Tall fescue and Perennial ryegrass I. Comparison of nonstrural carbohydrate contents, winter survival and early spring yields (월동전 예취 높이가 북방형목초의 월동성 , 이른봄 수량 및 양분생산에 미치는 영향 I. 초종별 예취 높이에 따른 저장탄수화물함량의 변화 , 월동성 및 수량 비교)

  • 신재순;박근제;차영호;이필상;윤익석
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.14-19
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    • 1988
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the different cutting height on the changes of nonstructural carbohydrate contents, winter survival, spring yields of Italian ryegrass, tall fescue and pernennial ryegrass swards. It was carried out on the experimental field of Livestock Experiment Station, in Suweon, from Sept. 1986 to May 1987. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The changes in soil surface temperature of plots were slightly appeared among grasses. But not appeared with cutting heights. 2. Nonstructural carbohydrate contents of three grasses until wintering showed much more in line with unclipped, 15 cm cutting and 6 cm cutting height. Among three grasses, Italian ryegrass was highest and tall fescue was lowest. Otherwise, wintering survival was not show the difference among grasses and cutting heights. 3. The green yields was much more producted in line with Iralian ryegrass, perennial ryegrass and tall fescue. But in dry matter yields, it was not significantly different among grasses and cutting heights.

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Establishment of suitable rice cultivar in relation to improvement soil physical and chemical properties on paddy field

  • Jo, Won-Sam;Kim, Kyung-Min
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.137-137
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    • 2017
  • Rice has important role as a primary food resource in especially the Asia, Korea, China, India, Indonesia and Japan. After development and increasingly using artificial chemical fertilizer, rice is getting high quality and quantity to satisfy ever-increasing people. On the other hand, the earth environment is more polluted each day. Nowadays consumers are looking for the organic crops or foods that were grown with eco-friendly method and in pure farmland. With the immergence of this trend, it is time to development environmentally-friendly agriculture. One of the methods is growing green manure crops in winter or spring on the fields. For this reasons, growing rye and Italian ryegrass are useful to use green manure to enhance rice production without chemical fertilizers and make the property of the soil eco-friendly. To know how improve the quality and quantity of rice with green manures, rye and Italian ryegrass, first the characteristics of green manure corps were measured. Dry matter yields of the rye and Italian ryegrass were 2.21 and $1.81t\;Ha^{-1}$. And the percentages of the dry matter were 28 and 32%. And, analyzed mineral components in rye and Italian ryegrass were nitrogen, organic matter, $P_2O_5$, CaO, $C_2O$ and MgO. Specially, the percentages of the organic matter and the CaO between rye and Italian ryegrass have difference appreciably. the height of the rice on the Italian ryegrass-fertilized field was the highest among the variant fields. The height of the rice on the non-fertilized field was the lowest. Yield of the Italian ryegrass-, rye- and non-fertilized rice are 805.2, 639.9 and $415.3kg\;10a^{-1}$. At the result, Italian ryegrass is the most effective green manure among the 3 treated-fertilized.

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A Cold-Tolerant and High-Yielding Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) New Variety "Hwasan 101" (내한 다수성 이탈리안 라이그라스 신품종 "화산 101호")

  • 최기준;임용우;김기용;최순호;성병렬;김원호;신동은;임영철
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2000
  • Improvement of cold-tolerance of Italian ryegrass(Lo1ium multiflorum L.) is an important breeding objectivefor enlargement of cultivation area in Korea. To develop the cold-tolerant variety of Italian ryegrass,cold-tolerant clones survived under - 13- - 14$^{\circ}$C of minimum average air temperature in January wereselected in the area of Dun Nae, Kwangwon Province. The 5 lines of Italian ryegrass clones selected werepolycrossed for seed production. Synthetic seeds were examined on growth characters and forage productionsin Suwon from 1996 to 1998, in Unbong 1997 and in Younchun 1998, respectively. The growth charactersand forage productions of Italian ryegrass variety named as "Hwasan 101" were summarized as follow ;ltalian ryegrass variety, Hwasan 101 was tetraploid and showed semi-prostrate growth habit in autumn andwas not only dark green in leaf color and broad in flag leaf width but also excellent in leafiness. Also, itshowed low plant height at first heading date of 20th May and excellent lodging tolerance. Expecially,Hwasan 101 in all trial regions was 80 -90% of winter survivals that was higher than 60 -90% of Florida80 and Marshall varieties. Therefore we estimate that Hwasan 101 can be cultivated in regions that is higherthan -9$^{\circ}$C in minimum average air temperature and lower than 400m in sea level. In forage production ofHwasan 101, fresh weight and total digestible nutrient(TDN) yield were 66,940 and 6,551kghq and drymatter yield was 10,050kgha. In conclusion, Italian ryegrass, Hwasan 101 was medium and late maturingvariety but excellent in cold-tolerance, lodging-tolerance, leafiness, and forage production.(Key words : Italian ryegrass, Cold tolerance, New variety)ian ryegrass, Cold tolerance, New variety)

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Yearly Change of Phosphorus Absorption in Annual-and Perennial Grass (일년생 및 다년생목초에 있어서 인산흡수의 연차적 변화)

  • Chung, Chan;Jeon, Byong-Tae
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.230-235
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    • 1991
  • This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of soil phosphorus(P) level on growth environment of annual-and perennial plant. The results obtained are summarized as follow:1. With increasing level of phosphorus fertilizer, plant length of Italian-and perennial ryegrass tended to increase. 2. After the second year, DM yield of perennial ryegrass was significantly higher than that of Italian ryegrass in all treatments. 3. In the difference of P-yield between high P-treatment and nil P-treatment, there was tendency for that of Italian ryegrass to be increased but for perennial ryegrass to be decreased throughout 3 years. 4. The growth of perennial ryegrass compared with Italian ryegrass was tended to profitable in low phosphorus environment than high phosphorus environment.

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Effects of Sward Composition and N.P Fertilization on Forage Yields and Intercompetition of Subterranean clover-Italian Ryegrass and Berseem clover-Italian Ryehrass Mixtures (식생비율과 질소.인산시용이 Subterranean Clover-Italian Ryegrass 및 Berseem Clover-Italian Ryegrass 혼파 초지의 생산성과 종간경합에 미치는 영향)

  • 강진호
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.274-282
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    • 1992
  • Annual forage crops have been increasingly important for conpensating insufficient forage production of perennial pastures took place for short interval. This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of sward composition and NㆍP fertilization on forage production and intercompetition of subterranean clover-Italian ryegrass and berseem clover-Italian ryegrass. The two clovers were grown in the field at the clover/ryegrass ratios of 0/100, 25/75, 50/50, 75/25 and 100/0 where no, N (200 kg /ha), P (50 kg /ha) or NㆍP fertilization was done. Each crop was separated after harvest and drying. Relative Crowding Coefficient (RCC), aggressivity and Relative Yield Total (RYT) were analyzed on the basis of the harvested dry matter of each crop. Berseem clover-ryegrass mixtures produced greater yield than subclover-ryegrass mixtures as a result of higher yields of the two component species. In the former forage yield was increased with increased rate of clover up to 75%, while in the latter the highest yields were obtained at more than 50% of the clover. In the mixtures N stimulated the growth of ryegrass, whereas P did only that of subclover. The two clovers produced more forage than the companion grass under no and only P fertilization although the reverse result was true under N or NㆍP fertilization, but the annual forage yield was decreased in the order of N and P, N, P, and no fertilization. The mixture yields were overyielded compared to the Expected Yield. Although generally RCCs and RYTs of subclover were higher than those of berseem clover in the mixtures differing the composition rate or under no and only P fertilization, those of the former clover were lower under N or NㆍP fertilization. In the clover-ryegrass mixtures, ryegrass acted as an aggressor and became more aggressive under P fertilization.

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Italian rygrass의 파종비율과 다른 예취빈도가 초년도에 있어서 혼파초지의 수량 및 식생비율에 미치는 영향 ( The Effect of Different Seeding Rates of Italian ryegrass and Cutting Frequency on the Yield and Botanical Composition of Pasture Mixtures in the Firs

  • 조무환;김동암
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.51-61
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    • 1983
  • This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of different seeding rates of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and cutting frequency on the dry matter yield botanical composition of pasture mixtures in first harvest year. The experimental design was a split-plot design with three replication. The main plots were two seeding rates of Italian ryegrass at 0.3 and 1.0kg per 10a and the sub-plots were 3, 4, and 5 cutting frequency. The experiment was undertaken over a period 12 months from September 1981 to August 1982. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The different seeding rates of Italian ryegrass had no effect on total day matter yield. 2. Over the experimental period, the total dry matter yield of pasture mixtures was increased with increasing the cutting frequency, but there was no significant. 3. It was found that dry matter yield of weeds clearly decreased with the high seeding rate of Italian ryegrass over the experimental period. 4. The high seeding rate of Italian ryegrass showed the trend toward the high yield of Italian ryegrass, and the low yield of orchardgrass and ladino clover. 5. At the early stage of the experiment, the botanical compositions of orchardgrass and ladino clover were decreased with the high seeding rate of Italian ryegrass. But at the final stage they were not influenced by the seeding rates of Italian ryegrass. From the above results it is suggested that the high seeding rate of Italian ryegrass give a good effect on the early forage yield and weed control, and the high cutting frequency maintain desirable botancial composition of orchardgrass and ladino clover in the pasture mixtures with Italian ryegrass.

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