• Title/Summary/Keyword: Intercropping

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Growth, Hay Yield and Chemical Composition of Cassava and Stylo 184 Grown under Intercropping

  • Kiyothong, K.;Wanapat, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.799-807
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    • 2004
  • The objective of this field experiment was to investigate the growth, hay yield and chemical composition of cassava and stylo 184 grown under intercropping. The experiment was arranged in a Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design with 5 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were: sole crop cassava (C); sole crop stylo 184 (S) and three intercropping treatments comprising an additive series of one (SC), two (SSC) and three (SSSC) rows of stylo 184 to one row of cassava. The results showed that leaf area per plant (LA) of cassava was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the sole crop relative to the intercropping treatments. Both total hay yield and CPDM yield were significantly higher (p<0.05) for C treatment and lower (p<0.05) for SSSC treatment. The total hay yield and CPDM yield were significantly greater (p<0.05) in the sole crop relative to the intercropping treatments. At the first and second harvests, CP content was similar among treatments; while at third and fourth harvests, CP contents were significantly greater (p<0.05) for the intercropping treatment relative to the sole crop. At the first and second harvest, NDF contents were significantly greater (p<0.05) in the sole crop relative to the intercropping treatments, whereas NDF contents were similar among intercropping treatments. Leaf area of stylo 184 at first and second harvest were significantly greater (p<0.05) for C, SC and SSC as compared with the SSSC treatments. At each harvesting, there were no significant differences in ash, CP, NDF, ADF and ADL contents of stylo 184 hay between the sole crop and intercropping treatments, except for the first harvest. ADF contents were significantly greater (p<0.05) in S, SC treatments relative to SSC and SSSC treatments. Both collective hay yield and CPDM yield of cassava and stylo 184 were significantly greater (p<0.05) for the SSC treatment and significantly lower (p<0.05) for the S treatment. Collective hay yield and CPDM yield were significantly greater (p<0.05) for the intercropping treatments relative to the sole crop. Based on this research, it was concluded that stylo 184 showed potential for intercropping with cassava. Intercropping cassava with stylo 184 has beneficial effects and can improve foliage biomass yield and soil fertility, which would be a more sustainable system than growing the cassava as a pure stand. In terms of hay yield and CP production, two rows of stylo 184 to one row of cassava could be the optimal pattern for this intercropping system.

Interaction between different nitrogen fertilizer levels and maize-bean intercropping patterns

  • Sadeghi, Hossein;Kazemeini, Seyed Abdolreza
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.269-277
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    • 2012
  • In order to investigate the effects of different maize-bean intercropping patterns, and of nitrogen fertilizers on morphological and yield related traits, a factorial study based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was performed during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons in a research filed of Shiraz University, Iran. The first factor of the study was seven different ratios of Maize-Bean intercropping system (Maize sole cropping, Bean sole cropping, and intercropping of maize/bean at the ratios of 1/3, 1/1, 2/3, 3/2 and 3/1) and the second factor was three nitrogen (N) fertilizer application levels (0, 100 and 200 kg N/ha). Results showed that with respect to increasing the levels of N fertilizer, the yield of bean sole cropping decreased but the yield of maize sole cropping increased. On the other hand, in intercropping systems with N fertilizer application, the yield of both crops increased. Results of total land equivalent ratio (LER) for both crops showed that the highest LER value under both 100 and 200 kg N/ha application was that of M1B1 (1 seed of maize after 1 seed of bean, consecutively, on a row with same distance). Under no N fertilizer application the highest LER value was that of M2B3 (2 seeds of maize after 3 seeds of bean, consecutively, on a row with same distance). Overall, it can be concluded that M1B1 is the best intercropping pattern in maize-bean intercropping systems and that the application of N fertilizer can be effective within practical settings of intercropping agriculture, resulting in higher yields.

Studies on Corn-Legume Intercropping System II. Effect of corn-cowpea intercropping system on chemical composition and yield (Silage용 옥수수와 두과작물의 간작에 관한 연구 I. Silage용 옥수수 ( Zea mays L. )와 동부 ( Vigna sinensis King ) 의 간작이 영양성분함량 및 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • 이성규
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.128-134
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    • 1988
  • This experiment was carried out to compare chemical composition of corn-cowpea intercropping and corn monocropping plants at different harvesting time and obtained the following results. 1. In both cropping systems, the contents of crude fat and nitrogen free extract (NFE) were significantly increased (P<0.01), while that of crude protein, crude fiber and crude ash were decreased (P<0.01) with each harvesting time. 2. The acid detergent fiber (ADF) and crude fiber contents were decreased same patterns in growing period, however, according to maturing of corn ears the difference between ADF and crude fiber contents reduced. 3. At mature stage, crude protein yields per 10a in corn monocropping and corn-cowpea intercropping system were 127.6kg and 152.lkg, respectively. The difference of crude protein content between corn-cowpea intercropping and corn monocropping system was 19.2%. 4. TDN yields of each cropping system, at mature stage, obtained similar results and TDN yields per 10a of corn monocropping and corn-cowpea intercropping system were 1006.lkg and 990.1, respectively. 5. Conseqently, corncowpea intercropping system could be increased protein yield without decreasing of dry matter yield in comparison with corn monocropping system.

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Studies on Corn-Legume Intercropping System IV. Effects of corn-soybean intercropping on chemical composition and TDN yield (Silage용 옥수수와 두과작물의 간작에 관한 연구 IV. Silage용 옥수수 (Zea mays L.) 와 콩 ( Glycine max (L.) Merr.) 의 간작이 영양성분함량 및 TDN수량에 미치는 영향)

  • 이성규
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.113-118
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    • 1989
  • This experiment was carried out to compare chemical composition, TDN yield of corn-soybean intercropping and corn monocropping forage plants at different harvesting time and obtained the following results. 1. In both cropping systems, the content of chemical composition of forage were changed same pattern in growing stage. The content of crude protein in corn-soybean intercropping forage at yellow stage increased more than that of corn nonocropping forage, while the crude fat in corn monocropping forage plants increased than that of corn-soybean intercropping forage plants at mature stage. 2. The crude fiber, crude ash, ADF content of forage plants in both cropping system decreased same pattern in growing period, however, NFE content of forage increased with maturity. 3. TDN yield of corn-soybean intercropping and corn monocropping forage plants at yellow stage obtained similar results and TDN yield per 10a in intercropping and monocropping were 1006.lkg and 978.6kg, respectively. 4. Consequently, corn-soybean interaopping system could be increased crude protein yield without decreasing of dry matter yield in comparison with corn monocropping system for corn silage.

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Studies on Corn-Legume intercropping System V. Effect of corn-legume intercropping system ondry matter yield and chemical composition in silage (Silage용 옥수수와 두과작물의 간작에 관한 연구 V. Silage용 옥수수 ( Zea mays L. ) 와 두과작물의 간작이 건물수량과 silage의 영양성분함량에 미치는 영향)

  • 이성규
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.110-114
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    • 1990
  • Although corn is regarded as the most feasible forage corp, its relatively low content of protein is the critical we a kness for animal feeding. Many researches have been carried out to improve protein level in corn forage, however, there are no indicatable results but corn-legume intercropping. Plot test and proximate analysis were fullfill to compare dry matter yield and available nutrients of silage corn mono-culture system with those of corn-legume intercropping system of forage plant and silage. The MO culture system were observed by two stage of maturity, milk stage (Aug. 3), yellow stage (Aug. 24), and obtained following results. 1. Dry matter yields per 10 a at milk stage in corn mono-culture system was 596.2kg and corn-legume intercropping systems were 609.0 kg (corn-cowpea), 591.0 kg (corn-soybean) and 563.1 kg (corn-frenchbean), respectively. And comparable to them, 1508.9 kg (corn mono.), 1482.8 kg (corn-cowpea), 1482.6 kg (cornsoybean), 1379.1 kg (corn-frenchbean) were harvested at yellow stage. 2. The general trends of chemical composition by stages of maturity in corn mono-culture systems were higher than that of corn-legume intercropping system. 3. Crude protein content in corn-legume silages were significantly higher than corn mono-culture at yellow stage, except corn-frenchbean intercropping system. 4. Crude fiber content in corn-legume silage was higher than corn mono-culture silage harvested at yellow stage. 5. Consequently, corn-legume intercropping improved nutritional quality of silage than that of corn-monocultivated silage.

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Studies on Corn-Legume Intercropping System Ⅱ. Effect of corn-cowpea intercropping system on chemical composition and yield (Silage용 옥수수와 荳科作物의 間作에 關한 硏究 Ⅱ. Silage용 옥수수 (Zea mays L.)와 동부 (Vigna sinensis King)의 間作이 營養成分含量 및 收量에 미치는 影響)

  • Lee, Seung-Kyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.128-134
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    • 1988
  • This experiment was carried out to compare chemical composition of corn-cowpea inter cropping and corn monocropping plants at different harvestion time and obtained the following results. 1. In both cropping systems, the contents of crude fat and nitrogen free extract (NFE) were significantly increased (P<0.01), while that of crude protein crude fiber and crude ash were decreased (P<0.01) with each harvesting time. 2. The acid detergent fiber (ADF) and crude fiber contents were decreased same patterns in growing period, however, according to maturing of corn ears the difference between ADF and crude fiber contents reduced. 3. At mature stage, crude protein yields per 10a in corn monocropping and corn-cowpea intercropping system were 127.6kg and 152.1kg, respectively. The difference of crude protein content between corn-cowpea intercropping and corn monocropping system was 19.2%. 4. TDN yields of each cropping system, at mature stage, obtained similar results and TDN yields per 10a of corn monocropping and corn-cowpea intercropping system were 1006.1kg and 990.1, respectively. 5. Conseqently, corn-cowpea intercropping system could be increased protein yield without decreasing of dry matter yield in comparison with corn monocropping system.

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Effect of plant density ratios and weed control on the performance of maize-bean intercropping

  • Sadeghi, Hossein;Kazemeini, Seyed Abdolreza;Edalat, Mohsen
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.313-322
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    • 2012
  • A 2-year study (2010-2011) was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of bean and maize intercropping. The experiment tested five different cropping systems: sole cropping of each crop, as well as intercropping of maize/bean with the ratios of 1:3 ($M_1B_3$), 2:2 ($M_2B_2$) and 3:1 ($M_3B_1$), each of which took place in the presence of two weed management systems (no weed control and weed eradication through manual removal), in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design using three replicates. Tests of homogeneity of variance for combined data over two years showed that data of both years could be analyzed together. The results showed that the effect of intercropping treatments on all measured traits in maize and bean were significantly different. A minimum land equivalent ratio (LER) for maize (0.78) was obtained for $M_3B_1$ under conditions of no weed control, while the highest LER (1.03) was observed in $M_3B_1$ under weed-free conditions. The highest (0.99) and lowest (0.70) LER values for beans were recorded for $M_1B_3$ under weed-free conditions and $M_3B_1$ under conditions of no weed control, respectively. $M_1B_3$ under weed-free conditions showed the highest total LER (2.02), while $M_3B_1$ under conditions of no weed control showed the lowest (1.48). Results of this study indicated that intercropping bean and maize can be an effective method to increase total productivity, and that the $M_1B_3$ system was the best cropping system for high productivity.

Enhancing yield and nutritive value of forage through corn soybean intercropping strategy at seventeen different places in Republic of Korea

  • Song, Yowook;Kim, Dong Woo;Kim, Jeongtae;Fiaz, Muhamad;Kwon, Chan Ho
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.101-107
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    • 2017
  • Corn is basal forage for livestock species in Republic of Korea but it lacks protein and needs nitrogenous fertilizer. This study was designed with main objective to achieve optimum growth, yield & nutritive value of forage for livestock through implementing corn-soybean intercropping strategy at 17 different places under Korean condition. Two treatments; corn as monocrop (control treatment) and corn-soybean intercrop were compared under Randomized Block Design from $28^{th}$ May to $8^{th}$ October, 2015. Each treatment had three replicates in each block, whereas seventeen different places were considered as blocks. Data were analyzed through SAS-9.1.3 software. Difference between two treatment means was tested through T-test. Findings depicted that intercropping pattern could not influence (P>0.05) corn plant & ear height, corn lodged stalk No. and corn stalks number. However, corn-soybean intercropping enhanced (P<0.05) forage productivity in terms of total fresh yield ($16.4{\pm}0.7^b$ vs. $19.9{\pm}0.7^atons\;ha^{-1}$), total dry matter yield ($5.38{\pm}0.25^b$ vs. $6.41{\pm}0.31^atons\;ha^{-1}$) and total digestible nutrients yield ($3.94{\pm}0.17^b$ vs. $4.59{\pm}0.21^atons\;ha^{-1}$). Dry matter percentage in corn stalks and corn ears was not different (P>0.05) between two treatments. It was concluded that corn-soybean intercropping strategy was promising technique in enhancing forage productivity though positive symbiotic relation between two crops.

Intercropping in Rubber Plantation Ontology for a Decision Support System

  • Phoksawat, Kornkanok;Mahmuddin, Massudi;Ta'a, Azman
    • Journal of Information Science Theory and Practice
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.56-64
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    • 2019
  • Planting intercropping in rubber plantations is another alternative for generating more income for farmers. However, farmers still lack the knowledge of choosing plants. In addition, information for decision making comes from many sources and is knowledge accumulated by the expert. Therefore, this research aims to create a decision support system for growing rubber trees for individual farmers. It aims to get the highest income and the lowest cost by using semantic web technology so that farmers can access knowledge at all times and reduce the risk of growing crops, and also support the decision supporting system (DSS) to be more intelligent. The integrated intercropping ontology and rule are a part of the decision-making process for selecting plants that is suitable for individual rubber plots. A list of suitable plants is important for decision variables in the allocation of planting areas for each type of plant for multiple purposes. This article presents designing and developing the intercropping ontology for DSS which defines a class based on the principle of intercropping in rubber plantations. It is grouped according to the characteristics and condition of the area of the farmer as a concept of the rubber plantation. It consists of the age of rubber tree, spacing between rows of rubber trees, and water sources for use in agriculture and soil group, including slope, drainage, depth of soil, etc. The use of ontology for recommended plants suitable for individual farmers makes a contribution to the knowledge management field. Besides being useful in DSS by offering options with accuracy, it also reduces the complexity of the problem by reducing decision variables and condition variables in the multi-objective optimization model of DSS.

Influence of Maize and Cowpea Intercropping on Fodder Production and Characteristics of Silage

  • Azim, A.;Khan, A.G.;Nadeem, M.A.;Muhammad, D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.781-784
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    • 2000
  • A study was conducted to examine the influence of maize (Zea mays) and cowpea (Vigna unguniculata) intercropping on fodder biomass production and silage characteristics. Maize fodder was cultivated alone and intercropped with cowpea at seed ratio of 85:15 and 70:30. Fodder was harvested at heading stage (at about 35% dry matter). The data indicated significant increase in biomass and crude protein production of maize intercropped with cowpea at seed ratio 70:30 followed by seed ratio 85:15 as compared to maize alone. However, no (p>0.05) difference was observed in TDN production among the three treatments. Four types of silages from, I) maize alone, II) maize and cowpea (85:15), III) maize and cowpea (70:30) and IV) maize supplemented with 2.5% urea were prepared. After 60 days of ensiling period, silage samples were analysed for proximate composition and fermentation characteristics. Crude protein and lactic acid values of silages I, II, III and IV were 8.52, 9.82, 14.90 and 13.96% and 9.00, 9.38, 10.86 and 7.43%; respectively. In situ dry matter digestibility was maximum in silage III followed by silages II, IV and I. The results suggested that intercropping of maize and cowpea at seed ratio 70:30 increased fodder production and produced quality silage.