• Title, Summary, Keyword: Independent game

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The Effect of Feedback on Somesthetic Video Game Training for Improving Balance of Stroke Patients (뇌졸중 환자의 균형 증진을 위한 체감형 전자게임 훈련에 적용되는 되먹임 방식에 따른 효과)

  • Ahn, Myung-Hwan;Park, Ki-Dong;You, Young-Youl
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Physical Medicine
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.401-409
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    • 2012
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess the difference in the effect of provision of feedback on knowledge of performance and knowledge of result in the training using somesthetic video game aimed at enhancement of balance of hemiparalysis patients due to stroke. METHODS: 20 stroke patients participated in the study. The participants were randomly divided into 2 groups, namely, the knowledge of performance feedback group (KP group, n=10) and the knowledge of result feedback group (KR group, n=10). Both groups received somesthetic video game training 5 times (30 minutes each) a week for total of 4 weeks. The KP group received feedback on the patterns of movement in execution of somesthetic video game. The KR group received feedback on the scores acquired following execution of somesthetic video game. Verification of the significance of the data was performed through paired t-test and independent t-test. RESULTS: Both groups displayed significant reduction in the movement of center of pressure (COP) and Timed up and Go (TUG), and significant increase in the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) following the training. Although the movement of COP was reduced for the KP group in comparison to the KR group, it was not statistically significant, and there was significant reduction in TUG and significant increase in BBS. CONCLUSION: The above results illustrate that provision of feedback on knowledge of performance is more effective than feedback on knowledge of result in somesthetic video game training for the purpose of enhancement of balance in stroke patients. Therefore, provision of feedback on knowledge of performance is necessary in somesthetic video game training for stroke patients.

An Empirical Study for Identifying Players′ Loyalty factors in Online Games (온라인 게임의 소비자 충성도 유인에 관한 실증적 연구)

  • 정재진
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.484-495
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    • 2004
  • In this paper appears that in this extremely attractive and growing services segment, academics, as well as practitioners, would benefit from investigating the relationships among the players' loyalty, word of mouth and flow, and the impacts of several other key game-related constructs on consumer behavioral intentions. A conceptual framework is proposed and a structural equation model is developed. This paper develops the exploratory LISREL model for identifying the factors affecting the players' loyalty for some specific brand of online games. The concept of flow, feedback, challenge, etc, are all introduced into the model, as the independent variables affecting the loyalty directly and indirectly. Statistical results show that depending upon the types of games, the configuration of structural equation model is a little different from each other, but overall results are very much intuitive in that challenge positively enforces flow, and flow strengthens loyalty. Other interesting results concerning game development strategy are also provided. It is hoped that this result might provide the useful guidelines for developing the successful online game contents. With a better understanding of the players' behavioral intentions, online game developers should be able to make adjustments in their development and marketing plans, providing them with a sustainable advantage over their competition.

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Incentives to Pioneer the Next Generation Market for Two Firms with Asymmetric Conditions (비대칭적 조건하에서 기업간의 신시장 개척 유인 분석)

  • Lim, Jong-In;Oh, Hyung-Sik
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.189-207
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    • 1996
  • In this paper, a market share competition model for two firms with asymmetric conditions is considered with. In the model, the asymmetry between two firms is given by the difference of market shares In the existing market and the change of market share is supposed to be occurred only through pioneering a new market. Since the timing decision of market pioneering is based on the continuous time domain, a super game structure which has infinitely many numbers of subgames is employed for the modeling. In the course of equilibrium finding, we show that there exists no subgame-perfect pure strategy equilibrium In this game. So, we apply a mixed strategy concept and find a unique subgame-perfect equilibrium behavior strategy. As a result of equilibrium analysis, we know that the relative sizes of pioneering Incentives between two firms are varying with parameter conditions. However, the global speed of market pioneering is proven to be independent with the level of asymmetry between two firms.

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A Cooperative Game Embedding Transmission Pricing in the Competitive Electricity Market (송전요금을 고려한 게임이론적 전력거래분석)

  • Kang, Dong-Joo;Kim, Bal-Ho
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.3-5
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    • 2000
  • It has been the paradigm of game theory that more than two utilities compete and determine the price and amount of dispatch. In order for this theory to be available on real power system, it is necessary to consider the transmission costs as well as the generation costs. In addition Independent System Operator(ISO) should be able to mitigate the congestion, recover the transmission costs and provide information for long-term capacity investment by devising reasonable pricing schemes for the transmission services. Generators also have to take the transmission costs into account when building the bidding strategies. This paper proposes an approach to analyzing the profit maximizing game considering the transmission cost in a competitive electricity market.

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An Exploratory Study for Identifying Key Factors in Online Games Development Strategy Utilizing Web Community (온라인게임 개발전략에 관한 탐색적 연구 : 게임 커뮤니티 활용을 중심으로)

  • Jung, Jai-Jin;Chang, Chung-Moo;Kim, Tae-Ung
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartD
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    • v.11D no.4
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    • pp.991-1002
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    • 2004
  • Online game business has emerged as the most lucrative entertainment industry, with over 20 million platers. The popularity of online games can be attributed to the presence of numerous PC Bangs around the country, which have pushed online games into the mainstream culture while broadband internet services facilitated online game play. The age distribution of online game players is expanding and a variety of new games are under development to target certain age groups. While the online game market continues to expand, with many new online game publishers entering the market, relatively little is known about which factors are strategically important for successful development of online games. A conceptual framework is proposed, and a structural equation modeling, for Identifying the factors affecting the market success of online games, is developed. The concept of online game community, idea generation, systematic development strategy, flexible development process, utilizing demo-version, outsourcing, etc, are ail introduced into the model, as the independent variables affecting the success level of online games directly and indirectly. Based on data collected from questionnaire survey, the validity of the model has been tested and interesting conclusions have been developed concerning the relationships between these variables. Statistical results show that utilizing online game community and system atic development strategy is the key for successful online game development. Other interesting results concerning game development strategy are also provided. It is hoped that this result might provide the useful guidelines for developing the successful online game contents. With a better understanding of key success factors, online game developers should be able to make adjustments in their development and marketing plans, providing them with a sustainable advantage over their competition.

Impact of Male Adolescents' Game Addiction on Aggression: Focused on the Mediation Effects of Deficiency on Executive Function (남자 청소년의 게임중독이 공격성에 미치는 영향: 집행기능결함의 매개효과를 중심으로)

  • Lim, Jeeyoung
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.122-130
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to explore the mediation effects of deficiency on executive function for male adolescents' game addiction and aggression. For this study, 120 male high school students in Chungnam areas were included in the analysis. The results showed that game addiction showed significant correlations with both deficiency on executive function and aggression. Adolescents addicted to games tended to exhibit higher aggression and more deficiency on executive function than adolescents without game addiction. Deficiency on executive function (mediator) partially mediated the influence of the adolescents' game addiction (independent variable) on aggression (dependent variable). Based on these results, it was suggested that self-instructional training would be helpful for game-addicted adolescents to enhance self-control. Finally, limitations of this study and suggestions for future research were discussed.

A study on determinants of flow status in smoking simulation game (흡연시뮬레이션 게임에서 몰입 결정요인에 대한 연구)

  • Jang, Han-Jin;Noh, Ghee-Young
    • Journal of Korea Game Society
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.165-174
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    • 2017
  • This research was conducted to find out determinant variables which can influence the degree of flow in smoking simulation game. We set up flow experience as a dependent variable. Several factors including empathy, health concern, and brainwave(${\alpha}$, ${\beta}$) EEG(Electroencephalogram) as a physiological indicator, which was expected to affect flow, were set up as independent variables to perform regression analysis. As a result, empathy, health consciousness, and ${\beta}$ wave had positive influences on flow in smoking simulation game but ${\alpha}$ wave had negative effect. This research empirically analyzed users' experience and neurophysiological changes which can influence on flow in serious game and contributed to theoretical and methodological development in health-related game research.

Mobile digital storytelling using Hamel (하멜을 이용한 모바일 디지털 스토리텔링)

  • Ko, Seok-Ha;Lim, Ji-Hoon;Kim, Seong-Baeg;Moon, Hae-Gyoung;Hyun, Jung-Suk
    • Proceedings of the Korea Contents Association Conference
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    • pp.172-175
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    • 2006
  • Hamel has a scholastic value as the first person, who announces Jeju and Korea to Europe. However, there has been little research on developing digital contents except a few books about Hamel. We develop an educational game on PDA using Hamel, based on Hamel character, Jeju's unique culture, multimedia technology, and so on. Compared with the previous games, it is different from the form of gathering points and has various game scenarios through interactions between Hamel character and game space. The structure of this game, which connects Jeju culture and cyber space together, represents the form of a digital storytelling. You can study through this game. It uses quizzes about Jeju culture, crossword puzzles, finding a sequence, finding differences between two pictures to teach users, and fixing pieces of a figure, etc. When we made the game, we divided it into some independent modules to make new game series easily using contents of the other provinces.

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The Impact of the Internet Channel Introduction Depending on the Ownership of the Internet Channel (도입주체에 따른 인터넷경로의 도입효과)

  • Yoo, Weon-Sang
    • Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.37-46
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    • 2009
  • The Census Bureau of the Department of Commerce announced in May 2008 that U.S. retail e-commerce sales for 2006 reached $ 107 billion, up from $ 87 billion in 2005 - an increase of 22 percent. From 2001 to 2006, retail e-sales increased at an average annual growth rate of 25.4 percent. The explosive growth of E-Commerce has caused profound changes in marketing channel relationships and structures in many industries. Despite the great potential implications for both academicians and practitioners, there still exists a great deal of uncertainty about the impact of the Internet channel introduction on distribution channel management. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the ownership of the new Internet channel affects the existing channel members and consumers. To explore the above research questions, this study conducts well-controlled mathematical experiments to isolate the impact of the Internet channel by comparing before and after the Internet channel entry. The model consists of a monopolist manufacturer selling its product through a channel system including one independent physical store before the entry of an Internet store. The addition of the Internet store to this channel system results in a mixed channel comprised of two different types of channels. The new Internet store can be launched by the independent physical store such as Bestbuy. In this case, the physical retailer coordinates the two types of stores to maximize the joint profits from the two stores. The Internet store also can be introduced by an independent Internet retailer such as Amazon. In this case, a retail level competition occurs between the two types of stores. Although the manufacturer sells only one product, consumers view each product-outlet pair as a unique offering. Thus, the introduction of the Internet channel provides two product offerings for consumers. The channel structures analyzed in this study are illustrated in Fig.1. It is assumed that the manufacturer plays as a Stackelberg leader maximizing its own profits with the foresight of the independent retailer's optimal responses as typically assumed in previous analytical channel studies. As a Stackelberg follower, the independent physical retailer or independent Internet retailer maximizes its own profits, conditional on the manufacturer's wholesale price. The price competition between two the independent retailers is assumed to be a Bertrand Nash game. For simplicity, the marginal cost is set at zero, as typically assumed in this type of study. In order to explore the research questions above, this study develops a game theoretic model that possesses the following three key characteristics. First, the model explicitly captures the fact that an Internet channel and a physical store exist in two independent dimensions (one in physical space and the other in cyber space). This enables this model to demonstrate that the effect of adding an Internet store is different from that of adding another physical store. Second, the model reflects the fact that consumers are heterogeneous in their preferences for using a physical store and for using an Internet channel. Third, the model captures the vertical strategic interactions between an upstream manufacturer and a downstream retailer, making it possible to analyze the channel structure issues discussed in this paper. Although numerous previous models capture this vertical dimension of marketing channels, none simultaneously incorporates the three characteristics reflected in this model. The analysis results are summarized in Table 1. When the new Internet channel is introduced by the existing physical retailer and the retailer coordinates both types of stores to maximize the joint profits from the both stores, retail prices increase due to a combination of the coordination of the retail prices and the wider market coverage. The quantity sold does not significantly increase despite the wider market coverage, because the excessively high retail prices alleviate the market coverage effect to a degree. Interestingly, the coordinated total retail profits are lower than the combined retail profits of two competing independent retailers. This implies that when a physical retailer opens an Internet channel, the retailers could be better off managing the two channels separately rather than coordinating them, unless they have the foresight of the manufacturer's pricing behavior. It is also found that the introduction of an Internet channel affects the power balance of the channel. The retail competition is strong when an independent Internet store joins a channel with an independent physical retailer. This implies that each retailer in this structure has weak channel power. Due to intense retail competition, the manufacturer uses its channel power to increase its wholesale price to extract more profits from the total channel profit. However, the retailers cannot increase retail prices accordingly because of the intense retail level competition, leading to lower channel power. In this case, consumer welfare increases due to the wider market coverage and lower retail prices caused by the retail competition. The model employed for this study is not designed to capture all the characteristics of the Internet channel. The theoretical model in this study can also be applied for any stores that are not geographically constrained such as TV home shopping or catalog sales via mail. The reasons the model in this study is names as "Internet" are as follows: first, the most representative example of the stores that are not geographically constrained is the Internet. Second, catalog sales usually determine the target markets using the pre-specified mailing lists. In this aspect, the model used in this study is closer to the Internet than catalog sales. However, it would be a desirable future research direction to mathematically and theoretically distinguish the core differences among the stores that are not geographically constrained. The model is simplified by a set of assumptions to obtain mathematical traceability. First, this study assumes the price is the only strategic tool for competition. In the real world, however, various marketing variables can be used for competition. Therefore, a more realistic model can be designed if a model incorporates other various marketing variables such as service levels or operation costs. Second, this study assumes the market with one monopoly manufacturer. Therefore, the results from this study should be carefully interpreted considering this limitation. Future research could extend this limitation by introducing manufacturer level competition. Finally, some of the results are drawn from the assumption that the monopoly manufacturer is the Stackelberg leader. Although this is a standard assumption among game theoretic studies of this kind, we could gain deeper understanding and generalize our findings beyond this assumption if the model is analyzed by different game rules.

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Online Recognition of Handwritten Korean and English Characters

  • Ma, Ming;Park, Dong-Won;Kim, Soo Kyun;An, Syungog
    • Journal of Information Processing Systems
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.653-668
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    • 2012
  • In this study, an improved HMM based recognition model is proposed for online English and Korean handwritten characters. The pattern elements of the handwriting model are sub character strokes and ligatures. To deal with the problem of handwriting style variations, a modified Hierarchical Clustering approach is introduced to partition different writing styles into several classes. For each of the English letters and each primitive grapheme in Korean characters, one HMM that models the temporal and spatial variability of the handwriting is constructed based on each class. Then the HMMs of Korean graphemes are concatenated to form the Korean character models. The recognition of handwritten characters is implemented by a modified level building algorithm, which incorporates the Korean character combination rules within the efficient network search procedure. Due to the limitation of the HMM based method, a post-processing procedure that takes the global and structural features into account is proposed. Experiments showed that the proposed recognition system achieved a high writer independent recognition rate on unconstrained samples of both English and Korean characters. The comparison with other schemes of HMM-based recognition was also performed to evaluate the system.