• Title, Summary, Keyword: IUCN

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A Study on the Application of IUCN Category to the Protected Areas of Korea (우리나라 보호지역에 IUCN 카테고리 적용 방안에 관한 연구)

  • Heo, Hag-Young;Kim, Hyun;Lee, Yeong-Joo;Kim, Seong-Il
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.71-96
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    • 2007
  • This study aimed at effectively applying the IUCN category system to the protected areas in Korea. In addition, in order to change IUCN category of national parks to IUCN category II and to review the application of IUCN category classification key, a case study was conducted in Sobaeksan National Park. In order to apply the IUCN category system to the protected areas in Korea, a flexible approach appropriate to characteristics in Korea is required for management objectives of protected areas, including protection of wildemess, sustainable use of resources and preservation of cultural and traditional features. In addition, considerations of restrictions on use area and use districts, relative comparison of use types (visit, use of resources, residence) by IUCN category and use of combined classifications are necessary. Principles for the application of the IUCN category include (1)exclusion of wilderness protected areas (Ib), (2) extremely limited use regarding the sustainable use of natural resources(sum of natural preservation area and natural environment area is over 95%), (3) considerations of management conditions, including residential occupation level, (4) preservation of ecosystem services, and (5) use of combined classifications. In addition, in accordance with these principles, IUCN category classification key was suggested. When this was applied to the case study area, Sobaeksan National Park was classified as IUCN Category II and Taxus cuspidata community, which is designated as a natural monument, was classified to be Category Ia. Classification key suggested in this study may be used as basic data for applying categories in the future. Since detailed review on the practical improvement direction of laws and regulations and systematic alternatives, which are required before introducing IUCN category, are poor, in order to manage the protected areas efficiently by applying the IUCN category in the future, studies on management means appropriate to the conservation objectives of each category are necessary. This would allow management differentiated for each category.

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Study on Application of IUCN Management Category System on Baekdudaegan Protected Area (백두대간보호지역의 IUCN 관리 카테고리 적용 연구)

  • Kim, Seongil;Kang, Mihee
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.100 no.3
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    • pp.494-503
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    • 2011
  • This study was aimed at applying the IUCN category system to the Baekdudaegan Protected Area. A classification key was developed to apply the system to the overlapped designated protected areas inside of Baekdudaegan Protected Area. Korea national parks and forests managers' and experts' opinions were collected and they all agreed to the use of multiple classification in Baekdudaegan Protected Area. For example, the type of natural forests among the Forest Genetic Resources Reserves was classified to be IUCN Category Ia while other types of Forest Genetic Resources Reserve was classified to be Category IV. And the Protected Forest Landscape was classified to be Category V while the other types of protected forests were classified to be Category VI. The study suggests the need of classification of forest protected areas including Baekdudaegan Protected Area using IUCN system accompanying with protected areas management effectiveness evaluation.

Comparison of Protected Areas in South and North Korea Based on International Conservation Criteria (국제 기준에 근거한 남북한 자연보호지역의 실상 비교)

  • 우형택
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to compare protected areas of South and North Korea based on international conservation criteria and recommend new fundamental directions for nature conservation policy. International conservation criteria used by this research were the 1994 IUCN protected area categories, composed of 6 management categories. Despite a variety of types and names of protected areas created by different domestic legislations, South Korea was revealed to have only two types of protected areas, Category IV and V, indicating the significant lack of ecological diversity and representativeness in its protected area system. Shockingly, there are no national parks meeting IUCN criteria in South Korea. On the other hand, North Korea has three IUCN Categories of II, III, IV and thus more balanced and ecologically representative protected area network than South Korea. Especially, North Korea maintains 9 national parks to be officially recognized by IUCN and UN. However, both South and North Korea should make sincere effort to have new and well-designed protected area system including all IUCN Categories I -Ⅵ and particularly a minimum area in the stricter protected area categories.

Application of IUCN Category Regarding the Designation of Overlapping Protected Areas (중복지정된 보호지역을 고려하기 위한 IUCN 카테고리 적용)

  • Kil, Sung Ho;Lee, Dong-Kun;Sung, Hyun Chan;Lee, Gwan-Gyu;Kim, Ho Gul;Koo, Meehyun;Mo, Yong Won
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.157-167
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to seek the application of IUCN categories of overlapping protected areas which is legally designated in South Korea. Different government departments in South Korea have managed and designated as protected areas. However, the protected areas due to different management agencies can be confused with restricting behaviors and supporting residents. The IUCN presents the reasonal standardization classifying the protected areas which could be applied all over the world. Six categories issued by the IUCN could be applied to deal with the problems of the overlapping protected areas. We suggested the application of the IUCN categories compared with legal frame in South Korea. Most areas are overlapped in designation, but the areas are important for ecology and landscape. Moreover, each protected areas in South Korea have zone districts. Comprehensively considered all these things, we made rationale matrix correlated with the IUCN categories and the zone districts of the protected areas in South Korea. For the result of this study, this matrix could be helped to the application of the IUCN categories in domestic protected areas. Although the protected areas has been recognized as regulatory regions, it is expected to expand and sustain the areas based on the matrix.

An Assessment and Review of IUCN Red List for Vascular Plants in Korean Peninsula (한반도 관속식물 IUCN 적색목록 평가와 문제점)

  • Chang, Chin-Sung;Kim, Hye Won;Kim, Hui
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.106 no.2
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    • pp.111-120
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    • 2017
  • The best source of information on the conservation status of species at a global scale is the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Until now, 236 vascular plants from Korean peninsula have been evaluated using the IUCN red list categories and criteria. It indicated that five taxa were considered as critically endangered, 20 as endangered and nine as vulnerable species as a threatened status. On the other hand, the rest (189 taxa) were assessed as a least concern, which did not qualify for threatened species categories. Korea Ministry of Environment published a revised version of 57 species list by re-classifying endangered species with idiosyncratic qualitative criteria for two levels (I and II) followed by status reviews in 2011. However, two thirds species proposed by Ministry of Environment do not qualify as threatened. The major difficulties found in applying IUCN Red List criteria at the global scale was a lack of knowledge on the status of species at broader geographic scales and the perceived difficulty the causes. The lack of consistency between two lists constrains the prioritization of species-based conservation work at the national level. Due to a lack of centralized monitoring data for most species, this status is largely qualitatively and so it carries a high level of uncertainty. This is reflected in the high number of species with an unknown population trend. The current list of endangered species of flora and fauna by the Ministry of Environment should be recognized as the national list (local and population extinction), which is different from the IUCN Red list due to the different geographical contexts. Also, it is necessary to improve the quality of evaluation and conservation management system rather than presenting massive number of endangered species list.

Assessing Red List categories to a Korean endangered species based on IUCN criteria - Hanabusaya asiatica (Nakai) Nakai- (멸종위기식물의 IUCN 적색목록 보전지위 평가 -금강초롱꽃에 대하여-)

  • Park, Soo-Kyung;Kim, Hui;Chang, Chin-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.128-138
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    • 2013
  • The conservation status of an endemic perennial herb, Hanabusaya asiatica (Nakai) Nakai (Campanulaceae) was determined by applying the IUCN risk assessment criteria from our field study and available specimen data. Also, the GIS technology was used to develop a species distribution map to calculate the extent of occurrence (EOO) and area of occupancy (AOO) for the taxon. After two years of continuous field studies, 269 mature individuals were found in four localities in 2011, while 216 mature individuals were confirmed in three localities in 2012. Based on the following data, such as EOO (2,742 $km^2$), AOO (76 $km^2$) and estimated population size of mature individuals, the taxon, which is known as 20 localities in Korean peninsula, is evaluated as the category of Endangered (EN). A major difficulty in application of IUCN criteria to Korean rare plants were the lack of essential biological information and understanding the correct knowledge of the IUCN criteria in previous Korean studies. Sound conclusions regarding the conservation status of individual species require more intensive population studies, observations, and applying IUCN assessment procedures correctly.

The Current Status and Future Prospective of Protected Areas in Korea - Case study in Protected Areas of Australia - (한국 자연보호구역 현황 및 향후 개선방안 -호주의 사례를 중심으로-)

  • Kim, Min-Jeong;Choi, Jong-Kwan;Lee, Sang-Don
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.779-786
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    • 2011
  • This study aimed at comparing protected areas of Korea and Australia based on international conservation criteria by IUCN and analyzing what we need to improve for future management of protected areas of Korea. The registration status of protected areas of Korea listed on IUCN were 11 places in the Ia, 17 in II, 7 in IV, 7 in V; in total 42 places were recorded. However, the lists were missing many important areas. In Korea, we have only 4 protected area categories out of 6 indicating ecological diversity and management in its protected area system are insufficient. On the other hand, 9340 protected areas of Australia were listed on IUCN and evenly distributed in the total of six categories. Therefore, Korea should investigate measures for system establishment which ensures the diversity and indicative of our natural ecosystems and establish balanced system of protected areas including all IUCN categories I-VI through revaluation of natural, cultural, economic and social conditions and the needs.

Reconsideration of Rare and Endangered Plant Species in Korea Based on the IUCN Red List Categories (IUCN 적색목록 기준에 의한 환경부 멸종위기 야생식물종에 대한 평가)

  • Chang, Chin-Sung;Lee, Heung-Soo;Park, Tae-Yoon;Kim, Hui
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.305-320
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    • 2005
  • Recently 64 species in Korea have been ranked as rare and endangered taxa by the Ministry of Environment using two categories, I and II. The original threat categories produced by the Ministry of Environment were developed to provide a standard for specifying animals and plants in danger of extinction and has been influential sources of information used in species conservation in Korea. However, the criteria by Ministry of Environment were applied to the whole taxa only by regional boundaries, especially in South Korea, rather than international context, and it also lacked an explicit framework that was necessary to ensure repeatability among taxa because of the absence of quantitative criteria to measure the likelihood of extinction. The World Conservation Union (IUCN) has developed quantitative criteria for assessing the conservation status of species. The threatened species categories, the 2000 IUCN Red List, proposed by SSC (Species Survival Commission) of IUCN have become widely recognized internationally. Details of threatened Korean plants, identified by applying the IUCN threat categories and definitions, were listed and analyzed. The number of species identified as threatened was only 34 out of 64 taxa (48.4%), while the rest of taxa were rejected from the original lists. Many of the species (51.6%, 33 taxa) excluded from the original list proposed by Ministry of Environment do not qualify as Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable because these taxa were widely distributed either in Japan or in China/far eastern Russia and there is no evidence of substantial decline in these countries. An evaluation of taxa in Korea has been carried out only based on subjective views and qualitative data, rather than quantitative scientific data, such as rates of decline, distribution range size, population size, and risk of extinction. Therefore, the national lists undermine the credibility of threatened species lists and invite misuse, which have been raised by other cases, qualitative estimate of risk, political influence, uneven taxonomic or geographical coverage. The increasing emphasis on international responsibilities means that global scale is becoming more significant. The current listings by Environment of Ministry of Korea should be challenged, and the government should seek to facilitate the resolution of disagreements. Especially the list should be flexible enough to handle uncertainty and also incorporates detailed, quantitative data. It is suggested that the highest priorities for the Red List should be given to endemic species in Korea first. After setting up the list of endemic species to Korea, quantitative data on population size and structure, distributional range, rated of decline, and habitat fragmentation should be collected as one of long term projects for the Red list categories. Transparency and accountability are the most important key factors. Also, species assessors are named and data sources referenced are required for the future objective evaluations on Korean plant taxa.

독도의 바다사자는 살아 있다-제14차 IUCN 총회보고 연설요지

  • the National parks of Association of Korea
    • 공원문화
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    • pp.38-38
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    • 1978
  • 우리나라 독도 부근에 있는 세계적 보호동물인 바다사자가 보호불족과 람화으로 감종된 것으로 보인다는 외국의 그릇된 주장을 반박논명하는 뜻에서 한국국립공원협회 이사김헌규박사가 제14회 IUCN 총회에서 행한 보고총설의 내용을 옮긴다.

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Developing System and Site Level Framework of Management Effectiveness Evaluation for the Forest Genetic Resources Reserve in Korea (산림유전자원보호구역의 관리효과성 평가를 위한 시스템 및 현장 수준의 평가틀 개발)

  • Lee, Dong-Ho;Kang, Mihee;Kim, Seong-il
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.105 no.4
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    • pp.472-485
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    • 2016
  • The main purpose of this research was to develop a multi-level evaluation framework for the management effectiveness of the Forest Genetic Resources Reserve (FGRR) at both the system level and the site level. The initial system level Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE) framework for FGRR was developed based on the MEE Framework designed by IUCN WCPA and MEE framework for Korean National Parks that was designed jointly by IUCN, the Korean Ministry of Environment, and the Korea National Park Service. Several indicators were added or modified considering characteristics of the FGRR. The final system level MEE frameworks consisted of 6 categories with total of 39 criteria and 42 indicators based on expert survey results. The initial site-level MEE framework was developed based on the site level MEE framework for Korean National Parks that was designed jointly by IUCN, the Korean Ministry of Environment, and the Korea National Park Service. The final site level MEE framework consisted of 6 categories with total of 16 criteria and 40 indicators based on both an expert survey and an intensive workshop with the officers in charge of managing the FGRR from the Korea Forest Service and local governments.