• Title, Summary, Keyword: IL-1$\beta$

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Overexpression of TMP21 Could Induce not only Downregulation of TrkA/ERK Phosphorylation but also Upregulation of p75NTR/RhoA Expression on NGF Receptor Signaling Pathway (γ-Secretase 활성억제단백질인 TMP21의 과발현이 신경세포주에서 NGF 수용체 신호전달과정에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Sun-Il;Jee, Seung-Wan;Her, Youn-Kyung;Kim, Ji-Eun;Nam, So-Hee;Hwang, In-Sik;Lee, Hye-Ryun;Goo, Jun-Seo;Lee, Young-Ju;Lee, Eon-Pil;Choi, Hae-Wook;Kim, Hong-Sung;Lee, Jae-Ho;Jung, Young-Jin;Lee, Su-Hae;Shim, Sun-Bo;Hwang, Dae-Youn
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.1134-1141
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    • 2011
  • Transmembrane protein 21 (TMP21) is a member of the p24 cargo protein family and has been shown to modulate ${\alpha}$-secretase-mediated A${\beta}$ production which was specifically observed in the brains of subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to investigate whether TMP21 could affect nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor signaling pathway, the alteration of NGF receptors and their downstream proteins were detected in TMP21 over-expressed cells. CMV/hTMP21 vector used in this study was successfully expressed into TMP21 proteins in B35 cells after lipofectamin transfection. Expressed TMP21 proteins induced the down-regulation of ${\gamma}$-secretase complex components including Presenlin-1 (PS-1), PS-2, Nicastrin (NST), Pen-2 and APH-1. Also, the expression level of NGF receptor $p75^{NTR}$ and RhoA were significantly higher in CMV/hTMP21 transfectants than vehicle transfectants, while their levels returned to vehicle levels after NGF treatment. However, the phosphorylation of NGF receptor TrkA was dramtically decreased in NGF No-treated CMV/hTMP21 transfectants compared with vehicle transfectants, and increased in NGF treated CMV/hTMP21 transfectants. In TrkA downstream signaling pathway, the phosphorylation level of ERK was also decreased in CMV/hTMP21 transfectants, while the phosphorylation of Akt was increased in the same transfectants. Furthermore, NGF treatment induced the increase of phosphorylation level of Akt and ERK in CMV/hTMP21 transfectants. Therefore, these results suggested that over-expression of TMP21may simultaneously induce the up-regulation of $p75^{NTR}$/RhoA expression and the down-regulation of TrkA/ERK phosphorylation through the inhibition of ${\gamma}$-secretase activity.

A Case Study of Environmental Design from a Viewpoint of Hybrid and Features of User Experience (하이브리드와 이용자체험 특성으로 본 환경설계의 사례연구)

  • Jang, Il-Young;Kim, Jin-Seon
    • Archives of design research
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.201-214
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    • 2006
  • Modern society is an age of vagueness and confusion. In addition, vagueness, complexity and variety are seen throughout art including modern philosophy, literature, and environmental design. A phenomenon like this shows that modern society has integrated different components as an organic relationship frequently crossing the boundary of fields. This feature can be regarded as hybrid related with accepting contradictory components and binding them into one under relationship between part and whole. As new design concept, presented are attitude to accept the two instead of attitude to select one of the alternatives, abundance instead of dearness, and ambiguity instead of simplicity. This principle has a crucial influence on creative design providing opposing contradiction and several alternative plans as non-deterministic form not completed one and, above all, useful information in mutual dependence and mutual relationship. When it comes to hybrid, therefore, a strategy is needed to consider layer of several fields getting out of standardizing space into a single space. As an event of this situation and concept, space experience means behaving freely based on experience of users' body. It can be known that this experience brings about users' more dynamic experience in comparison with the experience of seeing environmental design from a viewpoint of visual ism on the existing simplicity. Such a practical experience is subjective, synesthetic, and non-observational one. Therefore, hybrid has brought active users to the stage, which is distinguished from synesthesia felt through body's experience, not through observational attitude and visual space which achieve former balance and harmony with non-determination. That's because hybrid creatures are turning to a product resulted from creative imagination instead of from reappearance which makes text visualized. Such experience performed by user's active participation collapses the boundary between special elite-centered art and daily life and it is the present progressive form showing creation process of future events and new esthetic experience.

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Radiation Absorbed Dose Calculation Using Planar Images after Ho-166-CHICO Therapy (Ho-166-CHICO 치료 후 평면 영상을 이용한 방사선 흡수선량의 계산)

  • 조철우;박찬희;원재환;왕희정;김영미;박경배;이병기
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.155-162
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    • 1998
  • Ho-l66 was produced by neutron reaction in a reactor at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute (Taejon, Korea). Ho-l66 emits a high energy beta particles with a maximum energy of 1.85 MeV and small proportion of gamma rays (80 keV). Therefore, the radiation absorbed dose estimation could be based on the in-vivo quantification of the activity in tumors from the gamma camera images. Approximately 1 mCi of Ho-l66 in solution was mixed into the flood phantom and planar scintigraphic images were acquired with and without patient interposed between the phantom and scintillation camera. Transmission factor over an area of interest was calculated from the ratio of counts in selected regions of the two images described above. A dual-head gamma camera(Multispect2, Siemens, Hoffman Estates, IL, USA) equipped with medium energy collimators was utilized for imaging(80 keV${\pm}$10%). Fifty-nine year old female patient with hepatoma was enrolled into the therapeutic protocol after the informed consent obtained. Thirty millicuries(110MBq) of Ho-166-CHICO was injected into the right hepatic arterial branch supplying hepatoma. When the injection was completed, anterior and posterior scintigraphic views of the chest and pelvic regions were obtained for 3 successive days. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn over the organs in both the anterior and posterior views. The activity in those ROIs was estimated from geometric mean, calibration factor and transmission factors. Absorbed dose was calculated using the Marinelli formula and Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. Tumor dose of the patient treated with 1110 MBq(30 mCi) Ho-l66 was calculated to be 179.7 Gy. Dose distribution to normal liver, spleen, lung and bone was 9.1, 10.3, 3.9, 5.0 % of the tumor dose respectively. In conclusion, tumor dose and absorbed dose to surrounding structures were calculated by daily external imaging after the Ho-l66 therapy for hepatoma. In order to limit the thresholding dose to each surrounding organ, absorbed dose calculation provides useful information.

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Chemoprevention of Helicobacter pylori-associated Gastric Carcinogenesis in a Mouse Model; Is It Possible?

  • Hahm, Ki-Baik;Song, Young-Joon;Oh, Tae-Young;Lee, Jeong-Sang;Surh, Young-Joon;Kim, Young-Bae;Yoo, Byung-Moo;Kim, Jin-Hong;Ha, Sang-Uk;Nahm, Ki-Taik;Kim, Myung-Wook;Kim, Dae-Yong;Cho, Sung-Won
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.82-94
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    • 2003
  • Although debates still exist whether Helicobacter pylori infection is really class I carcinogen or not, H. pylori has been known to provoke precancerous lesions like gastric adenoma and chronic atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia as well as gastric cancer. Chronic persistent, uncontrolled gastric inflammations are possible basis for ensuing gastric carcinogenesis and H. pylori infection increased COX-2 expressions, which might be the one of the mechanisms leading to gastric cancer. To know the implication of long-term treatment of antiinflammatory drugs, rebamipide or nimesulide, on H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis, we infected C57BL/6 mice with H. pylori, especially after MNU administration to promote carcinogenesis and the effects of the long-term administration of rebamipide or nimesulide were evaluated. C57BL/6 mice were sacrificed 50 weeks after H. pylori infection. Colonization rates of H. pylori, degree of gastric inflammation and other pathological changes including atrophic gastritis and metaplasia, serum levels and mRNA transcripts of various mouse cytokines and chemokines, and NF-${\kappa}B$ binding activities, and finally the presence of gastric adenocarcinoma were compared between H. pylori infected group (HP), and H. pylori infected group administered with long-term rebamipide containing pellet diets (HPR) or nimesulide mixed pellets (HPN). Gastric mucosal expressions of ICAM-1, HCAM, MMP, and transcriptional regulations of NF-${\kappa}B$ binding were all significantly decreased in HPR group than in HP group. Multi-probe RNase protection assay showed the significantly decreased mRNA levels of apoptosis related genes and various cytokines genes like IFN-$\gamma$, RANTES, TNF-$\alpha$, TNFR p75, IL-$1{\beta}$ in HPR group. In the experiment designed to provoke gastric cancer through MNU treatment with H. pylori infection, the incidence of gastric carcinoma was not changed between HP and HPR group, but significantly decreased in HPN group, suggesting the chemoprevention of H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis by COX-2 inhibition. Long-term administration of antiinflammatory drugs should be considered in the treatment of H. pylori since they showed the molecular and biologic advantages with possible chemopreventive effect against H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. If the final concrete proof showing the causal relationship between H. pylori infection and gastric carcinogenesis could be obtained, that will shed new light on chemoprevention of gastric cancer, that is, that gastric/cancer could be prevented through either the eradication of H. pylori or lessening the inflammation provoked by H. pylori infection in high risk group.

MMP-2, MMP-8 Expression in gingival tissue of Chronic Periodontitis associated to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (2형 당뇨병을 동반한 만성 치주염 환자의 치은조직에서 MMP-2, MMP-8의 발현 양상 비교)

  • Kang, Min-Gu;Cha, Hyun-Jeong;Song, Sun-Hee;Park, Jin-Woo;Suh, Jo-Young;Lee, Jae-Mok
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.661-674
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the level of MMP-2, MMP-8 in the healthy, inflammed gingival tissue and inflammed gingival tissue associated with type 2 DM. We investigate whether expression of MMP-2, MMP-8 is increased by chronic periodontitis associated with type 2 DM. Gingival tissue samples were obtained during periodontal surgery or tooth extraction. Based on patient's systemic condition & clinical criteria of gingiva, each gingival samples were divided into three groups. Group l(n=8) is clinically healthy gingiva without bleeding and no evidence of bone resorption or periodontal pockets, obtained from 8 systemically healthy patients. Group 2(n=8) is inflammed gingiva from patients with chronic periodontitis. Group 3(n=8) is inflammed gingiva from type 2 diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis. Tissue samples were prepared and analyzed by Western blotting. The quantification of MMP-2, MMP-8 was performed using a densitometer and statistically analyzed by ANOVA. MMP-2, MMP-8 was expressed in all samples including healthy gingiva and increased in group 3 compared to group 1 and 2, and showed that significant variation was observed between group 1 & 3 in MMP-8 results. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that human gingival tissue with chronic periodontitis associated to type 2 diabetes showed slightly elevated MMP-2, MMP-8 levels compared to healthy gingiva and non-diabetic inflamed gingiva.

Inhibitory Effects of Cabbage Juice and Cabbage-Mixed Juice on the Growth of AGS Human Gastric Cancer Cells and on HCl-Ethanol Induced Gastritis in Rats (양배추즙 및 양배추 혼합즙의 인체위암세포(AGS) 성장 억제효과와 HCl-Ethanol로 유발된 흰쥐의 항위염 효과)

  • Hong, Ye-Ji;Kim, Seong Yoon;Han, Jaegab;Lim, Yaung-Iee;Park, Kun-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.682-689
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    • 2013
  • This study determined the effects of cabbage juice and cabbage-mixed juices on the growth of AGS human gastric cancer cells and their anti-gastritic effects on HCl-ethanol induced gastritis in SD rats. Cabbage juice showed the highest growth inhibition on AGS gastric cancer cells in vitro (42%), compared with chlorella (20%) and kale juice (21%). However, cabbage-chlorella and cabbage-kale juice mixtures (at a 7:3 ratio) showed synergistic effects (57% and 65% inhibitory effects, respectively) on the gastric cancer cells. Inflammatory genes (iNOS, COX-2, TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-$1{\beta}$) were significantly down-regulated in the mixed juices. Tests of DPPH radical scavenging activity and acid-neutralizing capacity with the mixed juices also showed this trend, as cabbage-chlorella and cabbage-kale mixed juices showed synergistic effects compared to cabbage juice alone. The inhibition rate of acute gastritis induced by HCl-ethanol in rats was 46% with high amounts of cabbage (CH; 800 mg/kg), 71% with high amounts of cabbage and chlorella (CChH; 800 mg/kg), 74% with high amounts of cabbage and kale (CKH; 800 mg/kg), and 75% with cimetidine (positive control) compared with the control. In addition, rates with CChH and CKH showed decreasing gastric secretions with increasing pH. These results show that cabbage juice and cabbage-mixed juices, especially with chlorella or kale, exhibit remarkable anti-gastritic effects and can be administered for a long period for the prevention and treatment of gastric cancer and gastritis.

A New Early-Heading and High-Yielding Naked Oat Cultivar for Human Consumption, 'Choyang' (조숙 양질 다수성 식용 쌀귀리 '조양')

  • Han, Ouk-Kyu;Park, Hyoung-Ho;Park, Tae-Il;Seo, Jae-Hwan;Park, Ki-Hun;Kim, Jung-Gon;Heo, Hwa-Young;Hong, Yun-Gi;Kim, Dae-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.512-516
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    • 2008
  • A new naked oat cultivar 'Choyang' (Avena sativa L.) was developed by the breeding team at the Department of Rice and Winter Cereal Crop, NICS, RDA in 2007. It was derived from a cross between 'Sikyonggwiri' and 'Gwiri23'. The cultivar, Sikyonggwiri is early heading while the breeding line Gwiri23 has a high yielding potential with large-size grain. Bulk method combined with pedigree selection program was employed in subsequent generations, and the promising line SO96025-B-303-44-2-5 was selected for agronomic performance in 2002. The line showed both high yield and good husking rate of seed in the Yield Trial tested at Suwon in 2003 to 2004, and was subsequently designated as 'Gwiri57'. Gwiri57 was evaluated for winter hardiness, earliness, and yield in four locations, Gimje, Iksan, Jeongeup and Jinju from 2005 to 2007 and was released as Choyang. Choyang headed 11 days earlier and matured 5 days earlier than the check cultivar 'Sunyang' in the paddy field condition. The new cultivar Choyang had 97 cm of culm length and 23.4 cm of spike length, 658 spikes per $m^2$, 75 grains per spike, 28.8 g of 1,000-grain weight, and 636 g of test weight. Choyang showed better winter hardiness than that of the check cultivar Sunyang, and similar seed quality to the check cultivar in respect to crude protein (12.9%) and ${\beta}$-glucan content (4.7%). However, it showed higher husking rate than the check cultivar. The grain yield of Choyang in the regional yield trial for 3 consecutive years was averaged $4.67MT\;ha^{-1}$, which was 38% higher than that of the check cultivar Sunyang. Choyang is recommended for the fall sowing cropping only in the southern area where daily minimum mean temperatures are averaged higher than $-4^{\circ}C$ in January, and is not recommended the in mountain area where frost damage is presumable.

Virulence Profile and Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli from Flies Captured from Agricultural Environment (농업환경에 서식하는 파리에서 분리된 E. coli의 병원성 유전자 및 항생제 내성 조사)

  • Yun, Bohyun;Jang, Youn Jung;Kim, Yeon Rok;Kim, Hwang-Yong;Kim, Won-Il;Han, Sanghyun;Kim, Se-Ri;Ryu, Jae-Gee;Kim, Hyun Ju
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.147-153
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to isolate Escherichia coli from flies and to assess pathogenic genes and antibiotic resistance of the isolates. A total of 188 flies were captured in agricultural environment including fruits farms (n = 19), fermented soybean farms (n = 9), municipal waste (n = 46), livestock farms (n = 66), slaughterhouses (n = 38), and manure ground (n = 10). E. coli isolates of captured flies were tested for pathogenic gene and antibiotic resistance using PCR methods and VITEK2 systems. As a result, E. coli from 63% (119/188) of the captured flies has been detected, and the detection rate of E. coli was the highest (89%, 31/34) in flies captured at particular slaughterhouse. Of the 34 isolates, 94% (32/34) were pathogenic gene (ST gene) positive. Twenty-six percent (31/119) of the E. coli isolates were observed being resistant to one or more antibiotics. Markedly, one of E. coli isolates from Livestock farms was resistant to 7 antibiotics including ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefazolin, cefotaxime, gentamicin, levofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. In addition, it was ESBL positive. The results of the present study may suggest a risk of transmission of pathogenic and antimicrobial resistant bacteria from flies to livestock environment Therefore, it may need to prevent introducing flies into the agricultural production environment for safe food production.

The biologic effects of safflower(Carthamus tinctorius $Linn\acute{e}$) extract and Dipsasi Radix extract on periodontal ligament cells and osteoblastic cells (홍화 추출물이 치주인대세포, 조골세포 활성도에 미치는 영향)

  • Rhyu, In-Chul;Lee, Yong-Moo;Ku, Young;Bae, Ki-Whan;Chung, Chong-Pyoung
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.867-882
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    • 1997
  • Safflower(Carthamus tinctorius $Linn\acute{e}$ has been traditionally used for the treatment of blood stasis, and Dipsasi Radix has been used as a drug for fracture in Chinese medicine. The purpose of present study was to examine the biologic effects of safflower extract and Disasi radix extracts on the periodontal. ligament cells and osteoblastic cells and on the wound healing of rat calvarial defect. The ethanolic extract of safflower blossom, safflower seed and Dipsasi Radix(125, 250, and 500 ${\mu}g/ml$) were prepared as test group, and PDGF-BB(lOng/ml) and unsafonifiable fraction of Zea Mays L.(125, 250, and 500 ${\mu}g/ml$) were employed as positive control. The effects of each agents on the growth and survival, ALPase activity, expression of PDGF-BB receptor, chemotactic response of PDL cell and ATCC human osteosarcoma MG63 cells in vitro were examined. The tissue regenerative effect of each extracts was evaluated by histomorphometric measuring of newly formed bone on the 8mm defect in rat calvaria after oral administration of 3 different dosages groups : 0.02, 0.1 and 0.35g/kg, per day. It was also employed the same dosages of unsaponifiable fraction of Zea Mays L. as positive controls. Safflower blossom extract, safflower seed extract, and Dipsasi Radix extract stimulate the cellular activity of MG63 cells in concentration range of $125-500{\mu}g/ml$, and safflower bolssom extract and safflower seed extract stimulate also the cellular activity of periodontal ligament cells in concentration range of $250-500{\mu}g/ml$. In activity of ALPase, $250-500{\mu}g/ml$ of safflower blossom extracts showed significant stimulating effects on MG63 cells, and the same concentration range of safflower seed extracts showed significant effect on periodontal ligament cells. In the recovery on PDGF-BB receptor expression which was depressed by $IL-1{\beta}$, $125-250{\mu}g/ml$ of safflower blossom extracts and $250-500{\mu}g/ml$ of safflower seed extracts showed significant increasing effect on MG63 cells, and $500{\mu}g/ml$ of safflower blossom extract and $250-500{\mu}g/ml$ of safflower seed extracts showed significant effect on periodontal ligament cells. In chemotactic response, among all tested group, safflower seed extracts only were chemotactic to MG63 cells and periodontal ligament cells in concentration range of $125-500{\mu}g/ml$. Also in the view of bone regeneration in rat calvarial defect model, the only group that was orally administrated 0.35g/kg, day of safflower seed extract showed significant new bone formation. These results suggested that safflower extracts might have a potential possibilities as an useful drug for adjunct to treatment for regeneration of periodontal defect.

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Effects of Black Soybean and Fermented Black Soybean Extracts on Proliferation of Human Follicle Dermal Papilla Cells (검은콩과 발효검은콩 추출물이 인간 모유두 세포 성장에 미치는 효과)

  • Choi, Ji-Hye;Lee, Myoungsook;Kim, Hyun Jung;Kwon, Jung Il;Lee, Yunkyoung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.671-680
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to examine the effects and potential mechanisms of action of black soybean extracts and fermented black soybean extracts by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium animals subsp. lactis BB-12 (BB-12) on proliferation of human follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPC). We examined changes in pH, total polyphenol, sugar, and reducing sugar contents according to fermentation period of black soybean extracts. Assay using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide was performed to determine cell toxicity levels of the four black soybean extracts [black soybean water extract (BWE), black soybean ethanol extract (BEE), fermented BWE (F-BEW), and fermented BEE (F-BEE)]. Changes in mRNA expression levels of hair growth promoting factors and hair growth inhibiting factors by the four black soybean extracts were measured by real-time PCR. In addition, phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase family proteins were measured by western blot analysis. As a result, fermentation of black soybeans significantly reduced pH, total polyphenols, and sugar/reducing sugar contents. All four black soybean extracts showed no cellular toxicity in HFDPC. In fact, BEE significantly enhanced cell viability of HFDPC at $100{\mu}g/mL$ compared to control. BWE, BEE, and BWE-F significantly increased mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, and all four extracts increased mRNA expression of fibroblast growth factor. However, mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes were not affected by black soybean extracts in HFDPC. Furthermore, BWE, BEE, and BWE-F significantly increased phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase compared to control. Taken together, we demonstrated that black soybean extracts enhanced proliferation of human follicle dermal papilla cells partially via activation of hair growth promoting factors, although no particular significant effects on proliferation were observed by fermentation of black soybeans.