Objectives : To assess and compare the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment of depression in Cancer patient's Home Caregivers. Methods : Total 60 cases in Cancer patient's Home Caregivers, who fulfilled the study's eligibility criteria, were recruited and observed(N=40). The individuals were assigned into two groups, the Acupuncture group(N=20) and Control group(N=20). Changes in their Hamilton Depression rating Scale indices, were statistically compared before and after treatment in order to investigate the effectiveness of treatment. Results : 70% Home Caregivers were female and 30% were male, half of the Home Caregivers was patient's spouse or partner and employee. After 6 weeks, Acupuncture group seems to show reduction in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. On the other hand after 8 weeks Control group do not show reduction in the Hamilton Depression rating Scale. Conclusions : The results suggest that acupuncture treatment may provide short-term relief of depressive symptoms in Home Caregivers for Cancer patients. Findings from this non-randomized trial should be interpreted with caution.
Background: Having been known as a virulent disease in 1970s, cancer is now onsidered a chronic disease and 64% of cancer patients live for five years after diagnosis. Home care has gradually gained more importance and it is a great burden on the shoulders of caregivers. Caregivers have to undertake the responsibility of the cancer patient's home management, and organize care and arrange health care services according to the ever-changing condition of patients. Caregivers should be prepared for home care so they can provide accurate and complete care to patients. This descriptive study aims to investigate challenges that caregivers encounter in the home care of patients and the reasons for these challenges. Materials and Methods: The research group consisted of caregivers of outpatients in a daily treatment center in a university hospital. The research sampling consisted of 137 voluntary caregivers of patients who attended the Daily Treatment Center for control, chemotherapy or other supportive cares services between January-June, 2011. Data were collected with face-to-face interviews in the Daily Treatment Center. Ethics Committee approval was taken university hospital; caregivers and their patients were informed about the research and their approval was taken as well. Results: It was found that 54.01% of caregivers help patient's nutrition, 50.36% help medicine use, 26.28% help oral hygiene, 26.28% help to meet urinary needs and 51.82% help to change clothes, 69.34% of caregivers help to change bed sheets, 38.69% help the patient to communicate with their environment and 71.53% help to bring the patient to hospital or outside. Conclusions: This study, it was found that caregivers experience challenges due to following factors: patient nutrition, medicine use, oral and body hygiene, colostomy maintenance and stomach tube feeding, concern of dropping the patient, feeling incompetency in body temperature and fever control, fatigue, and lack of personal time.
This paper constitutes a descriptive investigation and used a structured questionnaire to investigate nurses' and doctors' recognition of cancer patients. The subjects were extracted from the medical personnel working at the internal medicine, the surgery ward, the obstetrics and gynecology department, the pediatrics department, the cancer ward, and the emergency room of five general hospitals located in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province. The research lasted from August, 2001 to September 2001. Total 137 nurses and 65 doctors were included and made out the questionnaires directly distributed by the investigator. The study tool was also developed by the investigator and consisted of such items as the demographic and social characteristics, the medical personnel's recognition degree of cancer and cancer patients, their recognition of the management of cancer patients, and their participation in a hospice. The results were analyzed using the SPSS Window program in terms of technological statistics, ranks, t-test, and ANOVA. The reliability was represented in Cronbach' α=.75. The nurses' and doctors' recognition degree of cancer and cancer patients had an overall average of 3.86 at the 5 point-scale. The items that received an average of 4.0 or more included 'Medical personnel should explain about the cancer cure plans to the cancer patient and his or her family', 'A patient whose case has been diagnosed as a terminal cancer should be notified of it, 'If I were a cancer patient, I would want to get informed of it,' and 'Cancer shall be conquered whenever it is'. In the meantime, the items that received an average of 3.0 or less was 'My relationship with the cancer patient's family has gotten worse since I announced his or her impending death.' And according to the general characteristics and the difference test, the recognition degree of cancer and cancer patient was high among the subgroups of nurses, females, married persons, who were in their 30s, who had a family member that was a cancer patient, and who received a hospice education. The biggest number of the nurses and doctors saw 'a gradual approach over several days'(68.8%) as a method to tell a cancer patient about his or her cancer diagnosis or impending death. Those who usually tell tragic news were the physician in charge(62.8%), the family members or relatives(32.1%) and the clergymen(3.8%) in the order. The greatest number of them recommended a cancer patient's home as the place where he or she should face death because they thought 'it would stabilize his or her mentality'(91.9%) while a number of them recommended the hospital because they 'should give the psychological satisfaction to the patient'(40%) or 'should try their best until the last moment of the patient's death'(30%). A majority of the medical personnel regarded 'smoking or drinking' and 'diet' as the causes of cancer. The biggest symptom of a cancer patient was 'pain' and the pain management of a cancer patient was mostly impeded by the 'excessive fear of drug addiction, tolerance to drugs and side effects of drugs' by medical personnel, the patient, and his or her family. The most frequently adopted treatment plan of a terminal cancer patient was 'to do whatever the patient or his or her family wants' to resort to a hospice' and 'to continue active treatment efforts' in the order. The biggest reasons why a terminal cancer patient went to see a doctor were 'pain alleviation' 'control of symptoms other than pain(intravenous supply)' and 'incapability of the patient's family' in the order. Terminal cancer patients placed their major concern in 'spiritual(religious) matter' 'emotional matters' their family' 'existence' and 'physical matters' in the order. 113(58.5%) of the whole medical personnel answered they 'would recommend' an alternative treatment to a terminal cancer patient mostly because they assumed it would 'stabilize the patient's mentality.' Meanwhile, 80(41.5%) of them chose 'not to recommend it mostly due to the unverified effects and high cost of it(78.7%). A majority of them, I. e. 190(94.1%) subjects said they 'would recommend' a hospice to a terminal cancer patient mostly because they thought it would help the patient to 'mentally prepare'(66.6%) Only 17.3% of them, however, had received a hospice education, most of which was done through the hospital duty education(41.4%) and volunteer training(34.5%). The follows are results of this study: 1. The nurses and the doctors turned out to be still passive and experience confusion in dealing with a cancer patient despite their great sense of responsibility for him or her. 2.Nurses and Doctors realize the need of a hospice, but an extremely small number of them participate in a hospice education or performance. Thus, a whole recognition of a hospice should be changed, for which purpose a hospice education for nurses and doctors should be provided. 3.Terminal cancer patients preferred their home to a hospital as the place to face their impending death because they felt it would bring 'mental stability.' And most of nurses and doctors think it would be unnecessary for them to be hospitalized just for control of their symptoms. Accordingly a terminal cancer patient can be cared at home, and a home hospice care needs to be activated.
This study was conducted from July to December 1990, in order to diagnose nurses' educational need for home care. The study subjects consisted of 145 nursing educators, and the 3 groups of nurses, namely 250 senior nursing students of diploma and collegiate program, 235 health center nurses, 521 university' hospital nurses in Seoul. Four types of questionaires were formulated by Delphi method. Two questionaires for the nursing educators were designed to measure their expectations of nurses' knowledge and of their skill for home care, and another two questionaires for the nurses to measure their actual home care knowledge and skill. The results of the study were as follows : 1) The mean scores of educators' expectation for home care knowledge were 17.68 for the care of dependence on medical equipment, 17.44 for the care of mobility impairment patient, 16.56 for the care of cardiopulmonary impairment patient, 16.40 for the care of nutrition and elimination impairment patient, '1.20 for the care of psychiatric disorder patient and 9.03 for the care of cancer and terminally ill patient,. 2) The mean scores of nurses' home care knowledge tested by 20 items were 14.36 for the care of mobility impairment patient, 13.28 for the c8;re of dependence on medical equipment, 13.78 for the care of cardiopulmonary impairment patient, 12.92 for the care of nutrition and elimination impairment patient, and those of tested by 10 items were 7.08 for the care of psychologic disorder patient, 7.80 for the care of cancer and terminally ill patient. The sum of means marked 69.23. As for the nurses' home care knowledge categorized by tasks in terms of the group, significant difference were shown in the care of mobility impairment(P=0.00), cancer and terminally ill(P=0.03), nutrition and elimination impairment(P=0.00) and psychologic disorder patient(P=0.00). No significant difference were shown in the care of dependence on medical equipment and cardiopulmonary impairment patient. 3) Regard to educational need of nurses' home care knowledge categorized by task according to the group it was found that all sampled nurses had educational need in the care of mobility impairment, dependence on medical equipment, cardiopulmonary impairment, cancer and terminally ill patient. It was found that health center nurses had educational need in the care of psychologic disorder. No educational need were found in the health center nurses whose career less than 2 years, in the care of mobility impairment, cardiopulmonary impairment and psychologic disorder patient, and in those of career with 2-5 year in the care of psychologic disorder patient. No educational need were found in the hospital nurses whose career more than 15 years, in the care of cardiopulmonary impairment patient and in those of career with 11-15 year, in the care of cancer and terminally ill patient. 4) The mean scores of educators' expectation for home care skill measured by Likert 5 points scale were 4. 21 for assessing, 4.49 for planning, 4.29 for basic care, 4.42 for curative care, 4.40 for rehabilitative care, 4.36 for emergency care, 4.53 for medication, 4.31 for nutritional care, 4.32 for other means for care, and 4.38 for evaluation. 5) Regard to nurses' home care skill measured by Likert 5 points scale of self evaluation, there was a significant difference between the nurses' home care skill and group(P=0.00l). The higher scores reported by students were vital sign checking and basic care while the scores of below medium were curative care and emergency care. The higher scores reported by health center nurses were vital sign checking, other means for care and care of specimen while the scores below medium were curative, emergency and nutritional care. The higher scores reported by hospital nurses were vital sign checking, care of specimen and basic care, while the score below medium was emergency care. 6) Regard to educational need of nurses' home care skill by nursing process activity according to the group it was found that health center nurses had educational need in all nursing skills including vital sign checking, care of specimen, health assessment, socioeconomic assessment, nursing diagnosis, care plan, basic care, curative care, rehabiitative care, psychological care, emergency care, medication, nutritional care, other means for care and evaluation. And students had educational need in all nursing skills except vital sign checking, and hospital nurses had educational need in all nursing skills except vital sign checking, care of specimen and basic care. 7) In short, the result of this study suggests that the curriculum should be organized in accordence with nurses' educational background and their career for the education of nurses for home care. It should be considered to develop the short term educational program focused on curative and rehabilitative care for health center nurse or community health nurse practitioner and which was focused on family care for hospital nurse. Concerning about this field practice for home care nurse, they are required not only community practice but also . clinical practice including emergency, curative and rehabilitative care.
Journal of Korean Academic Society of Home Health Care Nursing
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data required for quality improvement of home health care nursing and development of nursing services for cancer patients by examining the frequency of practices, level of service needs and satisfaction for nursing services. Methods: The subjects were 231 patients who agreed in participating on this study and were receiving home health care nursing services by the home health care advanced practice nurse from two national hospitals and four subsidiary general hospitals, located in Seoul from September 30, 2008 to February 28, 2009. Data were analyzed by frequency, percentage, t-test and ANOVA, using SPSS WIN 12.0 program. Results: The most frequent practices were 'checking vital sign' and 'explaining what patient want to know.' Total service need had an average of 3.03 point and emotional domain showed the highest average of 3.44 point. Total satisfaction had an average of 4.23 point and satisfaction along diseases had the highest average of 3.65 point in case of non-metastasis cancer. Conclusion: The subjects were highly satisfied with home health care nursing services which gave positive effect to them. It will be helpful to give cancer patients physical and spiritual care complementally when home health care nurses provide nursing services.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the current state of the home-based cancer patient management project of public health centers throughout the country. The results of the investigation is employed to identify obstacles to the execution of the program and, finally, to develop an efficient management program of home-based cancer patients. Methods: Data on the home-based cancer patient management project were collected and analyzed through visiting interviews or telephone interviews with 225 public health centers throughout the country for six months from July to December, 2006. Results: Obstacles to the present execution of the home-based cancer patient management project were identified. Some of them are : (1) patients' low trust in cancer patient management by local health centers, (2) absence of programs customized to local communities, (3) lack of personnel and vehicles for home-based cancer patient management, (4) lack of education program for personnel in charge of home-based cancer patient management, (5) problems in public health doctors, weak connection to private medical institutions, (6) absence of medical institutions and hospice facilities for cancer patients, and (7) non-standardized volunteer workers, so on. Considering all these problems, some effective management methods are proposed. The basic concept is to keep the autonomy and variety of the local helath centers. And based on this concept, three models of (1) public health center controlled model, (2) medical institutions and hospice facilities-entrusted model and (3) medical institutions and hospice facilities-cooperative model are developed. Conclusion: By adopting an adequate model among proposed three models, the public health centers are expected to achieve an efficient utilization of material resources and manpower. In addition, by inventing their own programs that are proper for the local societies, they can improve the home-based cancer patient management.
With the occurrence of cancer, most cancer patients experience various emotional changes such as anxiety, depression, and emotional shock. Especially in our country, cancer has been recognized as an incurable disease resulting in death. The number of cancer patients increases daily. But as the survival rate of cancer patients is also increasing, there is a need to find the better methods of nursing care for cancer patients. The purposes of this paper are as follows : 1) To understand family support and hope and quality of life for the cancer patient both during hospitalization and at home. 2) To determine the relationship between family support, hope and quality of life. To examine the problems. we used a questionnaire and obtained data form the records of 45 home care and 90 hospitalized (in 3 university hospitals) patients in Taegu area from the period of June 15 to August 15, 1996. SPSS /PC was used for the data analysis and the statistical methods used were the T-test and ANOVA. The results of this paper are as follows : 1) In the aspect of family support, there is no difference between hospitalized and home care cancer patients(t=1.63, P>0.01). 2) In the aspect of hope, hospitalized cancer patients have a higher score than home care cancer patients(t=3.08, P>0.01). 3) In the aspect of quality of life, hospitalized cancer patients have a higher score than home care patients(t=2.96, P<.01). 4) There is a correlation between quality of life and hope with a correlation coefficient r=0.5195 and P=0.000. In addition, the correlation coefficient between quality of life and family support is 4179 with P=0.000. 5) The family support of the cancer patient is influenced by sex(F=9.1863, P<0.01), education(F=4.3641, P<0.01) and the level of life (F=5.5002, P<0.01), 6) The hope of cancer patients is influenced by the number of hospitalizations(F=3.6413, P<.05), education(F=6.0113, P<.01). and the level of life(F=5.0649, P<.01). 7) The quality of life of cancer patients is influenced by the number of hospitalization(F=5.1167, P<0.05), education(F=3.1590, P<0.01) and the level of life(F=5.6942, P<0.01).
Purpose: This research aims to assess the effect of group education of hospice and palliative care program on recognition of home hospice care for terminal cancer patients and their family members. Methods: The terminal cancer patients or their family members who have visited Sam Anyang Hospital from January to September in 2004 participated in group education of hospice and palliative care program on one time a week. Of those, 32 patients or family members who were called education group has participated in group education more than 4 times and responded to a questionnaire. Sixty three patients or family members who were called non-education group have never participated in group education of hospice and palliative care program during the same period. Data were collected and done comparative analysis about both group. Results: A knowledge difference on definition of hospice and palliative care come out 29 people(91%) in education group and 26 people(41%) in non-education group. The recognition of home hospice care in education group(32 people, 100%) was significantly higher than non-education group(15 people,24%). A intention to home hospice care in education group(23 people, 72%) was significantly higher than non-education group(10 people,16%) and practically number of home hospice care was 15 people(50%) in education group and 8(13%) in non-education group. The recognition about cancer of patients was not significant differences in both group. People that the response to the question about 'Did you let your patient know to be the terminal cancer patient?' is 'yes' was 12 people(38%) in education group and 13(21%) in non-education group. Patients in education group had insight about terminal cancer significantly higher than non-education group. Conclusion: If we educated effective hospice and palliative care program in terminal cancer patients or their family members, we think the recognition of cancer and hospice and palliative care improve, and the home hospice care be activated more and more.
Journal of Korean Academic Society of Home Health Care Nursing
Purpose: To investigate the duration of each nursing activity performed by home care nurses for non-cancer patients and the relationship between patients' palliative prognostic index (PPI) and duration of each nursing activity. Methods: Nursing activities performed for six non-cancer terminal patients were timed using a stopwatch, and 18 parameters were measured by visiting each patient thrice. The mean and standard deviations of duration for each category of nursing activities were computed. The relationship between category-specific duration of nursing activities and PPI was analyzed with Spearman's correlation and multiple regression analysis. Results: Among nursing activities, the highest greatest duration of time was spent on traffic time (11.91 min), followed by urinary catheter management (10.65 min) and insertion and management of nasogastric tube (9.03 min). In terms of nursing categories, after excluding movement time, the greatest duration of time was spent on excretion care (5.48 min), nutrition care (5.40 min), and medication (3.82 min). PPI correlated with hygiene care, excretion care, and patient and information management. Multiple regression analysis revealed that PPI increased with increasing duration of hygiene care. Conclusion: These study findings provide grounds for the increased nursing time of hygiene care for people reaching the end of life.
Journal of Korean Academic Society of Home Health Care Nursing
Purpose: This study sought to provide basic information for the establishment of home care nursing system in cancer patients. Methods: Data were collected by the descriptive questionnaires consisting of 42 articles from five fields of nursing services. Patient's symptoms were investigated by the Korean version of EORTC QLQ-C30. Data were analysed using SPSS-PC 12.0. Results: Among the cancer patients (n=182), 40.1% had serious limitations on their usual lives. 74.7% had serious economic burdens. 79.7% agreed strongly with the necessity of home care nursing system, 74.2% were willing to use home care nursing, and 91.2% felt that home care nursing should be mandatory in cancer centers. There was no correlation between the frequency of symptoms or nursing items and the degree of home care nursing requirements. Digestive symptoms, symptoms requiring procedures, and symptoms to meet educational help displayed a high degree of requirement. Conclusion: Home care nursing should be activated for cancer patients as a bridge between hospital-based acute care and community-based chronic care which could increase the quality of care and reduce insurance related payments.
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