• Title/Summary/Keyword: Hepatic

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Anatomical studies on pattern of branches of bile and hepatic ducts in Korean native cattle (한우의 담관 및 간관의 분지에 관한 해부학적 연구)

  • Kim, Chong-sup
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 1994
  • The distribution of the bile and hepatic ducts within the liver of 24 Korean native cattle were observed. Vinylite solution was injected into common bile ducts on 13 cases for cast preparation. The angiography was prepared in 11 cases which were injected 30% barium sulfate solution into the common bile ducts and then radiographed on X-ray apparatus. The results were summarized as follows; 1. The dorsal, intermediate and ventral ducts of left hepatic lobes, ducts of quadrate lobes, and ducts of papillary process were collected into left hepatic ducts. The dorsal and ventral ducts of right hepatic lobe, ducts of caudate process and papillary process were collected into right hepatic ducts. 2. The bile ducts in the left hepatic lobes were collected into dorsal, ventral and intermediate ducts of left hepatic lobes. The intermediate ducts of left hepatic lobes was absent in some cases(5 cases, 20.83%). 3. In some cases, the ventral ducts of right hepatic lobes were collected into right hepatic ducts directly. 4. The ducts of quadate lobes were collected into left hepatic ducts(8 cases, 33.33%), ventral ducts of left hepatic lobes(13 cases, 54.17%), and dorsal duct of left hepatic lobes, intermediate and ventral ducts of left hepatic lobe, common trunk collected into intermediate and ventral duct of left hepatic lobe and left hepatic duct(1 cases, 4.17%) respectively. 5. The ducts of papillary process were collected into left and right hepatic ducts(12 cases, 50%), left hepatic ducts only(11 cases, 45.83%) or right hepatic duct only(1 cases, 4.17%). 6. The average length of right hepatic ducts was 26.87(6-45.8)mm. The average length of left hepatic ducts was 56.68(6-127)mm. The length of gallbladder was 128.60(104-160)mm on the average. The breadth of gallbladder was 67.16(38.4-153.4)mm on the average. But there was a difference in the length and the breadth according to the quantity of bile. 7. The ramified angles of dorsal, intermediate and ventral ducts of left hepatic lobes, ducts of quadrate lobes, ducts of papillary processes and caudate processes, dorsal and ventral ducts of right hepatic lobes and cystic ducts were 130-170, 160-200, 190-250, 240-300, 90-140, 320-350, 30-100, 270-330 and 240-300 degrees respectively.

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Diffusion-Weighted Imaging for the Left Hepatic Lobe has Higher Diagnostic Accuracy for Malignant Focal Liver Lesions

  • Han, Xue;Dong, Yin;Xiu, Jian-Jun;Zhang, Jie;Huang, Zhao-Qin;Cai, Shi-Feng;Yuan, Xian-Shun;Liu, Qing-Wei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.15
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    • pp.6155-6160
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    • 2014
  • Background: This study was conducted to investigate whether apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements by dividing the liver into left and right hepatic lobes may be utilized to improve the accuracy of differential diagnosis of benign and malignant focal liver lesions. Materials and Methods: A total of 269 consecutive patients with 429 focal liver lesions were examined by 3-T magnetic resonance imaging that included diffusion-weighted imaging. For 58 patients with focal liver lesions of the same etiology in left and right hepatic lobes, ADCs of normal liver parenchyma and focal liver lesions were calculated and compared using the paired t-test. For all 269 patients, ADC cutoffs for focal liver lesions and diagnostic accuracy in the left hepatic lobe, right hepatic lobe and whole liver were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: For the group of 58 patients, mean ADCs of normal liver parenchyma and focal liver lesions in the left hepatic lobe were significantly higher than those in the right hepatic lobe. For differentiating malignant lesions from benign lesions in all patients, the sensitivity and specificity were 92.6% and 92.0% in the left hepatic lobe, 94.4% and 94.4% in the right hepatic lobe, and 90.4% and 94.7% in the whole liver, respectively. The area under the curve of the right hepatic lobe, but not the left hepatic lobe, was higher than that of the whole liver. Conclusions: ADCs of normal liver parenchyma and focal liver lesions in the left hepatic lobe were significantly higher than those in the right hepatic lobe. Optimal ADC cutoff for focal liver lesions in the right hepatic lobe, but not in the left hepatic lobe, had higher diagnostic accuracy compared with that in the whole liver.

LPS-induced Imbalanced Expression of Hepatic Vascular Stress in Hepatic Ischemia and Reperfusion

  • Kim, Sung-Ho;Park, Sun-Mee;Lee, Sun-Mee
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.125.2-125
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    • 2003
  • Hepatic ischemia and reperfusion predisposes the liver to secondary stresses such as endotoxemia possibly via dysregulation of the hepatic microcirculation secondary to imbalanced regulation of vascular stress gene. In this study, we determined the effect of endotoxin on hepatic vasoregulatory gene expression in response to hepatic ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Rats were subjected to 90 min of hepatic ischemia and 6 h of reperfusion. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally after reperfusion. (omitted)

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Pharmacokinetics of Verapamil and Its Major Metabolite, Norverapamil from Oral Administration of Verapamil in Rabbits with Hepatic Failure Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride

  • Choi Jun Shik;Burm Jin Pil
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.483-487
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    • 2005
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic changes of verapamil and its major metabolite, norverapamil, after oral administration of verapamil (10 mg/kg) in rabbits with slight, moderate and severe hepatic failure induced by carbon tetrachloride. The plasma verapamil concentrations in all groups of hepatic failure were significantly higher (p<0.01) than the control. However, the plasma norverapamil concentrations in severe hepatic failure were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the control. The peak concentrations ($C_{max}$) and the areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of verapamil in the rabbits were significantly (p<0.01) higher than the control. The absolute bioavailability ($F_{A.B}$) and the relative bioavailability ($F_{R.B}$) of verapamil in the rabbits with hepatic failure were significantly higher ($13.6-22.2\% and 150-244\%$, respectively) than the control ($9.1\% and 100\%$, respectively). Although the AUC and $C_{max}$ of its major metabolite, norverapamil, in slight, moderate hepatic failure were not significantly lower than the control, the metabolite-parent AUC ratio in all groups of hepatic failure was decreased significantly (p<0.05, in slight group; p<0.01, in moderate and severe group) than the control. This could be due to decrease in metabolism of verapamil in the liver because of suppressed hepatic function in the hepatic failure groups because verapamil is mainly metabolized in the liver. From our data, it would seem appropriate that in patients with liver disease, doses of verapamil should be decreased by degree of hepatic failure.

Suppressive Effects of Platycodon grandiflorum on the Progress of Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis

  • Lee, Kyung-Jin;Kim, Ji-Young;Jung, Kyung-Sik;Choi, Chul-Yung;Chung, Young-Chul;Kim, Dong-Hee;Jeong , Hye-Gwang
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.27 no.12
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    • pp.1238-1244
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    • 2004
  • The suppressive effects of Platycodi Radix (Changkil: CK), the root of Platycodon grandiflorum A. DC (Campanulaceae), on the progress of acute carbon tetrachloride $(CCl_4)$-induced hepatic fibrosis were investigated in the rat. CK significantly suppressed $(CCl_4)$-induced hepatic necrosis and inflammation, as determined by the serum enzymatic activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase and serum tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ levels, in dose-dependent manners. In addition, the increased hepatic fibrosis after acute $(CCl_4)$ treatment was suppressed by the administration of CK. CK also significantly prevented the elevation of hepatic ${\alpha}$ 1(I) procollagen (type I collagen) mRNA and ${\alpha}$ -smooth muscle actin (${\alpha}$ -SMA) expressions in the liver of $(CCl_4)$-intoxicated rats and also suppressed the induction of ${\alpha}$ -SMA and type I collagen in cultured hepatic stellate cells, in dose-dependent manners. These results suggest that the suppressive effects of CK against the progress of acute $(CCl_4)$-induced hepatic fibrosis possibly involve mechanisms related to its ability to block both hepatic inflammation and the activation of hepatic stellate cells.

Effects of Fasting on Hepatic Metabolism of Sulfur Amino Acids in Rats (절식이 랫트 간의 황함유 아미노산 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sang-Kyum
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.74-77
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    • 2009
  • Food deprivation decreases hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels, which is ascribed to alterations in availability of hepatic cysteine, a rate limiting factor for the GSH synthesis. The present study examines the effects of food deprivation on hepatic metabolism of sulfur amino acid in male rats. In rats fasted for 24 or 48 hours, hepatic GSH levels were decreased from $6.70{\pm}0.16{\mu}mol/g$ liver to $4.02{\pm}0.20$ or $4.06{\pm}0.07{\mu}mol/g$ liver, respectively. Hepatic S-adenosylmethionine levels were also decreased in fasted rats, but S-adenosylhomocysteine levels were increased. Hepatic methionine levels were not changed by food deprivation for 48 hours. On the other hand, hepatic cysteine or taurine levels were increased from $106.2{\pm}4.1$ to $130.0{\pm}2.7$ nmol/g liver or from $2.45{\pm}0.43$ to $5.07{\pm}0.78{\mu}mol/g$ liver, respectively, in 48-hour fasted rats. Activity of cystathionine beta-synthase catalyzed homocysteine to cystathionine, was markedly decreased, but activity of betaine homocysteine methyltransferase was increased in fasted rats, indicating that methylation of homocysteine to methionine is activated. Also activity of cysteine dioxygenase, involved in taurine synthesis, was increased. These results suggested that hepatic methionine levels were maintained in rats fasted for 48 hours through increase in homocysteine methylation, and hepatic GSH may serve as a cysteine supplier reservoir in fasting state.

Hepatic Scintigraphic Findings of Budd-Chiari Syndrome due to Inferior Vena Caval Obstruction (하대정맥 폐색으로 인한 Budd-Chiari 증후군의 간신티그램 소견)

  • Kim, Sung-Hoon;Chung, Soo-Kyo;Byun, Jae-Young;Lee, Sung-Yong;Shinn, Kyung-Sub;Kim, Choon-Yul;Bahk, Yong-Whee
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.47-53
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    • 1988
  • Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is a rare clinical entity characterized by post-sinusoidal portal hypertension caused by the obstruction to the hepatic vein outflow The diagnosis is suggested by hepatic scintigraphy and is usually confirmed by hepatic venography, inferior vena cavography and biopsy. The scintigraphic finding of BCS caused by the obstruction of main hepatic vein has been reported to consist typically of hypertrophy of the caudate lobe with increased radionuclide accumulation. Such a typical finding has been accounted for by the fact that the venous outflow from the caudate lobe is preserved when the main hepatic vein is obstructed. But usually, the hepatic venous outflow from the caudate lobe is also obstructed in BCS due to inferior vena caval obstruction. So hepatic scintigraphic findings of BCS due to inferior vena caval obstruction show different findings as compared with the BCS due to hepatic vein obstruction. We evaluate the hepatic scintigrams of the 13 cases of BCS due to inferior vena caval obstruction and review the literatures. The results are as follows : 1) We cannot observe the caudate lobe hypertrophy with increased uptake, which is known as a classic finding in BCS due to hepatic vein obstruction. 2) The most prominent hepatic scintigraphic findings of BCS are nonhomogenous uptake in the liver with extrahepatic uptake in the all cases. 3) We can see cold areas at the superior aspect of right hepatic lobe in 7 cases (54%). This is a useful finding suggesting BCS due to inferior vena caval obstruction.

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Aberrant Left Hepatic Artery Arising from Left Gastric Artery at Curative Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer

  • An, Chansik;Lim, Joon-Seok
    • Journal of International Society for Simulation Surgery
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.87-89
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    • 2014
  • An aberrant left hepatic artery is one of the most common variants of hepatic arteries, and its prevalence has been reported 6.5-30%. During D2 lymph node dissection for gastric cancer, an aberrant left hepatic artery arising from left gastric artery is ligated which may lead to hepatic damage. In this case report, a 66-year-old male patient underwent total gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection during which the aberrant left hepatic artery was ligated. Post-operative liver function tests revealed elevated liver enzymes, and ischemic changes in the left lateral hepatic section was seen on the CT scan. On retrospective review of preoperative CT images, a replaced left hepatic artery from left gastric artery could have been identified. The information on the presence of aberrant LHA and its supplying area is clinically important when planning curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer, because extended lymph node dissection requires division of the left gastric artery and this may lead to severe liver damage. By using preoperative CT scan, detection of aberrant left hepatic artery could be done.

Pharmacokinetics of Acebutolol and Its Main Metabolite, Diacetolol After Oral Administration of Acebutolol in Rabbits with Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Failure

  • Choi, Jun-Shik;Burm, Jin-Pil
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.541-545
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    • 2002
  • Pharmacokinetic characteristics of Acebutolol and its main metabolite, diacetolol, following a single 10 mg/kg oral dose, were investigated in rabbits with carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic failure. Plasma concentrations of acebutolol and diacetolol were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography assay. The area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration ($C_{max}$) of acebutolol were significantly increased in moderate and severe carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic failure rabbits. The ratio of the diacetolol to total acebutolol in plasma (i.e., metabolite percentage rate) was significantly decreased in moderate and severe carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic failure rabbits. Volume of distribution ($V_{d}$) and total body clearance ($CL_{t}$) of acebutolol were significantly decreased in moderate and severe carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic failure rabbits. Slope of terminal phase ($\beta$) of acebutolol was significantly decreased in hepatic failure rabbits. These findings suggest that the $V_{d},{\;}CL_{t}$ and $\beta$ of acebutolol were significantly decreased as a result of inhibition of the hepatic metabolism in moderate to severe hepatic failure rabbits. Therefore, dose adjustment may be necessary for acebutolol in hypertensive patients with hepatic damage.

Noninvasive diagnosis of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

  • Yang, Hye Ran
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.45-51
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    • 2013
  • Because nonalcoholic steatohepatitis can progress towards cirrhosis even in children, early detection of hepatic fibrosis and accurate diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are important. Although liver biopsy is regarded as the gold standard of diagnosis, its clinical application is somewhat limited in children due to its invasiveness. Noninvasive diagnostic methods, including imaging studies, biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, hepatic apoptosis, hepatic fibrosis, and noninvasive hepatic fibrosis scores have recently been developed for diagnosing the spectrum of NAFLD, particularly the severity of hepatic fibrosis. Although data and validation are still lacking for these noninvasive modalities in the pediatric population, these methods may be applicable for pediatric NAFLD. Therefore, noninvasive imaging studies, biomarkers, and hepatic fibrosis scoring systems may be useful in the detection of hepatic steatosis and the prediction of hepatic fibrosis, even in children with NAFLD.