• Title/Summary/Keyword: Hanwoo steers

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A study on the changes of carcass muscle distribution in the high quality meat production of Hanwoo steers in Kyungnam (경남지역 거세한우의 고급육 생산을 위한 도체 근육부위별 분포도 차이에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Cheol-Ho;Kim, Taeg-Seog;Kim, Chung-Hui
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2020
  • A grading system is implemented to evaluate the meat quality of Hanwoo. In the grading system, grade 1++A is the highest grade. Livestock farms breed Hanwoo with good quality feed in order to obtain the highest grade. In this process, the content ratios of muscles in individual regions can be changed. To find out the muscle distribution ratios of Hanwoo steers, grade 1A, 1+A, and 1++A Hanwoo steers were compared with grade 1+A Hanwoo female. Grade 1A Hanwoo steers had higher ratios of shank (SK), brisket and flank (BF), neck chain (NC), and inside skirt (IS) meats and a lower ratio of striploin (SL) meat compared to grade 1+A Hanwoo feamle. Grade 1++A Hanwoo steers had higher ratios of neck (NK) and loin (LN) meats and lower ratios of inside skirt (IS), tenderloin (TL), top round (TR), eye round (ER), bottom round (BR), bottom sirloin triangle (BST), and knuckle (K) meats compared to grade 1+A Hanwoo steers. In comparison between grade 1A and 1++A Hanwoo steers, the ratio of shank (SK) was significantly lower in higher quality meats. If the changes are continuously studied to improve the process so that the ratios of partial meats of the regions highly preferred by consumers can increase, it will contribute to increases in the incomes of livestock farms and enable Hanwoo to grow into a global brand.

Change of performance, serum metabolite, and carcass characteristics on high energy diet of Hanwoo steers

  • Jang, Sun Sik;Yang, Seung Hak;Lee, Eun Mi;Kang, Dong Hun;Park, Bo Hye;Kim, Hye Jae;Kwon, Eung Gi;Chung, Ki Yong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.810-817
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    • 2016
  • The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of a high-energy diet on the level of serum metabolites and on carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. High energy diets have been used for enhancing intramuscular adipose tissue in high quality beef cattle. However, there is not much information about the physiological reactions to this diet. We hypothesized that a high energy diet would increase blood metabolites and the meat quality of Hanwoo steers during the early and final fattening periods. A $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement (High, Control, and Early, Final) in a completely randomized design was used to feed 24 Hanwoo steers. Two steers were kept in the same pen and 12 pens were used for the experiment. Blood was drawn from each steer on the first week of every other month from 11 to 28 months. Overall Average Daily Gain (ADG) and feed efficiency were not different between high energy and control diets (p > 0.05). However, Dry Matter Intake (DMI greater with the control diet than DMI with the high energy diet during the final fattening period (p < 0.05). Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were greater in the control diet group than in the high energy diet group during the final fattening period (p < 0.05). However, serum albumin, glucose, total protein, triglyceride, and phosphorus were greater in the high energy group than those of the control group (p < 0.05). Carcass traits or physico-chemical characteristics were not different between high energy diet treatment and the control. These data indicated that a high energy diet (+ 3% TDN) increased serum triglyceride during early fattening periods and decreased non-esterified fatty acids during final fattening periods in Hanwoo steers.

Effects of weaning and castration ages on growth performance, blood metabolites, and carcass characteristics in Hanwoo steers

  • Lim, Hwan;Ahn, Jun Sang;Kim, Min Ji;Son, Gi Hwal;Park, Joong Kook;Shim, Jae Yoon;Kim, Il Young;Kim, Ji Hyung;Cho, Sung Myoun;Kwon, Eung Gi;Shin, Jong Suh;Park, Byung Ki
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.60 no.12
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    • pp.30.1-30.11
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    • 2018
  • Background: Recently, as production costs have been increasing owing to rising feed prices worldwide, shortening the age of slaughter has been recognized as a way to increase farm income. In Korea, the raising period for Hanwoo steers is over 31 months with the delay of weaning and castration stated as one of the reasons for the increase in the raising period. Thus far, studies on age of weaning and castration have been conducted individually, and there have been no studies on the combined effects of weaning and castration ages on the growth performance and carcass characteristics in Hanwoo steers. Methods: Weaning ages were calculated at 80 or 130 days of age, and castration ages were calculated at 90 days and 180 days of age. Calves were allocated to one of the four treatment groups: W80C90 (weaning at 80 days of age and castration at 90 days of age), W80C180, W130C90, and W130C180. Results: For the entire experimental period, weaning and castration ages did not significantly affect growth performance of Hanwoo steers. In addition, weaning and castration ages did not affect the overall yield and quality traits of carcass in Hanwoo steers. Conclusion: Weaning and castration ages had small effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics in Hanwoo steers. Therefore, the early weaning and castration ages are recommended to reduce the slaughter age without any negative effects on meat quality grade.

Effects of dietary levels of tapioca residue on growth performance and carcass characteristics in Hanwoo steers

  • Park, Byung Ki;Lee, Dong Kyo;Ahn, Jun Sang;Park, Joong Kook;Kim, Min Ji;Son, Gi Hwal;Shin, Jong Suh
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.8
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    • pp.1128-1136
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    • 2019
  • Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary levels of tapioca residue on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat composition in Hanwoo steers. Methods: Twenty-eight steers were randomly assigned to one of four dietary groups; T0 (0% tapioca residue), T6.7 (6.7% tapioca residue), T9 (9% tapioca residue), and T12 (12% tapioca residue). Results: Supplementation with tapioca residue had no effect on overall growth performance. The concentration of plasma total cholesterol was higher in T6.7 than in other treatments (p<0.05). Dietary levels of tapioca residue did not affect carcass yield or the quality traits of Hanwoo steers. The lightness, redness, and yellowness of the longissimus muscle of Hanwoo steers were higher in T6.7 than in other treatments (p<0.05). Cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and resilience were lower in T6.7 than in other treatments (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that supplementation with tapioca residue does not exert any negative effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat composition in Hanwoo steers. However, as the dietary level of tapioca residue increased, the intake of concentrate intake decreased, and tapioca supplementation greater than 6.7% did not substantially improved the marbling score.

The Effects of Total Mixed Ration Feeding with High Roughage Content on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Meat Quality of Hanwoo Steers

  • Ku, Min Jung;Mamuad, Lovelia;Nam, Ki Chang;Cho, Yong Il;Kim, Seon Ho;Choi, Young Sun;Lee, Sang Suk
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.45-58
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    • 2021
  • This study investigated the dietary effect of total mixed ration (TMR) based on high roughage content on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of Hanwoo steers. Twenty-four Hanwoo steers (average body weight, 195.3±4.7 kg; age, 8.5 mon) were randomly allocated to three experimental groups according to forage and concentrate ratio (DM basis): 25:75 (control), 50:50 (T50), and 70:30 (T70). Productivity in the fattening period and final body weight were significantly higher in the control. Average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were the same among treatments. Serum parameters, cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, and total protein were higher in the control. Carcass weight was comparable in the control and T50 but feeding more roughage was significantly correlated with a higher intramuscular fat. Shear strength and drip loss were higher while n-6/n-3 was lower in T70 compared to the other groups. However, meat color was not significantly different among treatments. In terms of free amino acid contents, glutamic acid and glycine were higher in the control than T50 and T70. Overall, feeding Hanwoo steers with high forage content TMR had the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio of fatty acid content but highest intramuscular fat, shear strength, and drip loss. High forage content TMR is the best feed for Hanwoo steers that gives more benefits for human health and consumption but also provides the best meat grade and quality, which is important in the beef market in Korea.

The effect of a finishing diet supplemented with γ-aminobutyric acids on carcass characteristics and meat quality of Hanwoo steers

  • Barido, Farouq Heidar;Lee, Chang Woo;Park, Yeon Soo;Kim, Do Yeong;Lee, Sung Ki
    • Animal Bioscience
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.621-632
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    • 2021
  • Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation with rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on carcass characteristics and meat quality of Hanwoo steers. Methods: Eighteen Hanwoo steers with an average initial weight of 644.83±12.91 kg were randomly allocated into three different groups. Each group consisted of 6 animals that were treated with different diets formulated based on the animals' body weights. The control (C) group was fed a basal diet consisting of concentrate and rice straw with 74% total digestible nutrients (TDNs) and 12% crude protein (CP). The two other groups were treatment groups; one group was fed a basal diet (74% TDNs and 12% CP) supplemented with rumen-protected GABA at a dose of 150 mg/kg feed, and the other group was fed a basal diet (74% TDNs and 12% CP) supplemented with GABA at a dose of 300 mg/kg feed. Results: The GABA supplementation significantly contributed to better growth performance (p<0.05), especially the weight gain and average daily gain. It also contributed to the lower cooking loss (p<0.05), improvements in essential antioxidant enzymes and stable regulation of antioxidant activities in the longissimus lumborum of Hanwoo steers, as represented by the lower formation of malondialdehyde content within the meat, the inhibition of myoglobin oxidation indicated by the retention of the oxymyoglobin percentage, and the suppression of metmyoglobin percentage during cold storage (p<0.05). Conclusion: Higher doses of GABA may not significantly promote better animal performance and meat quality, suggesting that dietary supplementation with GABA at a dose of 100 ppm is sufficient to improve the meat quality of Hanwoo steers.

Effects of Feeding Charcoal Powder and Vitamin A on Growth Performance, Serum Profile and Carcass Characteristics of Fattening Hanwoo Steers (활성탄과 비타민 A의 급여가 거세 한우의 성장, 혈액성상 및 도체 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, B.K.;Kim, Y.J.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.233-242
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    • 2005
  • Effects of supplemental charcoal powder and vitamin A on growth performance, serum profile and carcass characteristics with 24 Hanwoo steers were inves$\ell$ated. The Hanwoo steers were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments: 1) Control(commercial feed), 2) Tl(commercial feed supplemented with 2% charcoal powder and 0.2 % vitamin A), 3) T2(commercial feed with 2 % charcoal powder). In the age 26 month, body weight of control Tl and T2 were 633.8 kg, 621.0 kg, 619.4 kg, respectively, with not significantly different(P> 0.05). The daily weight gain of control was the highest followed by Tl and T2. The contents of vitamin A(retinol) and total cholesterol in the blood of Tl was higher Tl(56.32 $\ell$ / dt, 163.83 mg/ dz) than the other treatment groups(P < 0.05). The average of WBC value in the blood was 6.86-" 9.83 k / ${\mu}\ell$, RBC value was 7.98 - 11.26 k / ${\mu}\ell$ and blood platelet was 236.7 - 287.0 k / ${\mu}\ell$. But The serum profile in blood was not significantly different between control and treatment groups. The carcass grade and characteristics of all treatments in Hanwoo steers were not significantly different except the texture.

Effects of Feeding Level of Concentrate and Age on the FAS Activities of Adipose Tissues in Hanwoo Steers

  • Choi, S.H.;Song, M.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.1696-1700
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    • 2001
  • An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of different feeding levels of concentrate (85, 100 and 115%) and age (15, 18 and 24 month) on fatty acid synthetase (FAS) activities in the 4 locations of adipose tissues (intermuscular, ITER; intramuscular, ITRA; kidney, KIDN and subcutaneous, SUBC) of 36 Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) steers. Steers of 100% feeding group were fed the amount of concentrate to meet the daily nutrient requirements, and the steers of second and third groups were fed concentrates at the levels of 85% and 115% of that of control group, respectively, up to 18 month of age. Thereafter, the steers were fed ad libitum up to 24 month of age. Feeding level of concentrates tended to affect the FAS activity of various adipose tissues in Hanwoo steers of each age. The FAS activity of ITER adipose tissue had the decreasing trend as the age of steers advanced while those of ITRA and SUBC adipose tissues had the slightly increasing tendency with age. The FAS activity based on the pooled data increased with the feeding level of concentrates (115%) in which the activities from all 4 adipose depots were higher than those with the lowest (85%) feeding level. Similar trend was observed from the pooled data of feeding level of concentrates by age of steers in which the FAS activities for all 3 ages were increased with feeding levels of concentrates. But the response in the FAS activity to the feeding level varied with age.

Nutrient requirement for maintenance and nutritional changes of the Hanwoo steers in early-fattening stage under heat stress

  • Choi, Chang Weon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.74-83
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    • 2018
  • Four early-fattening Hanwoo steers weighing $247{\pm}13.5kg$ were used within a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design to establish a nutrient requirement for maintenance and to investigate nutritional changes in the steers under heat stress condition. The steers were fed four different energy level diets: 100% (control) and 100%, 115% and 130% of total digestible nutrients (TDN) requirement of the early-fattening Hanwoo steers for maintenance based on the Korean Feeding Standard for Hanwoo. The steers in the control were housed with no stress (temperature $24^{\circ}C$ and humidity 60%), whereas the steers in the other groups were under heat stress (temperature $30^{\circ}C$ and humidity 70%). True digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and other nutrients were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by heat stress (i.e., control vs T100). This may be the result of a lower DM intake than that of the Korean feeding standard due to the establishment of the nutrients requirement under heat stress. Heat stress and different energy intake levels did not affect the blood metabolite concentrations. Average daily gain (ADG) for T100 (-69.6 g) was lower than that of the control (-44.6 g, numerically), T115 (44.6 g, p < 0.05) and T130 (83.3 g, p < 0.05), respectively. Based on the ADG and TDN intake, the equation (Y = 0.1814X + 111.5) for the TDN requirement of the early fattening Hanwoo steers for maintenance was calculated, indicating that 11.5% of TDN requirement for maintenance under heat stress may be additionally supplied.

Effects of feeding ethanol on growth performances, carcass characteristics, and lipid metabolism of finishing Korean cattle (Hanwoo) steers

  • Choi, Chang Bon;Kwon, Hana;Hwang, Kyung Hyun;Lee, Hyun-Jeong;Kim, Jong Yeon
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.366-374
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    • 2019
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of feeding ethanol on growth performances, carcass characteristics, and lipid metabolism of finishing Korean cattle (Hanwoo) steers. Methods: Thirty (30) Hanwoo steers (average 25.1 months of age, body weight 660.1 kg) were assigned to three treatments: control (0% ethanol), E-3 (1.44% ethanol for 3 months), or E-5 (0.72% ethanol for 2 months followed by 1.44% ethanol for 3 months). The animals were allotted by treatment group into six pens and fed concentrate and perennial ryegrass. Ethanol (30%, v/v) was supplemented into drinking water twice a day to meet final concentrations based on average water consumption of finishing Hanwoo steers. Results: There were no statistical differences among the groups in final body weight, average daily gain, or carcass yield grade indices such as cold carcass weight, fat thickness, and loin area. The marbling score tended (p = 0.228) to increase with the highest score (6.7) in the E-5 group followed by 6.3 and 6.0 in E-3 and control groups, respectively. The appearance frequencies of quality grades of $1^{{+}{+}}$ (the best), $1^{+}$, 1, and 2, were; 30%, 50%, 0%, and 20% for control, 10%, 80%, 10%, and 0% for E-3, and 10%, 80%, 0%, and 10% for E-5 groups, respectively, indicating improvements of quality grades by feeding ethanol. Concentrations of serum glucose tended to decrease whereas those of insulin and non-esterified fatty acid to increase by feeding ethanol (E-3 and E-5; p>0.05). Conclusion: Feeding ethanol directly into drinking water of finishing Hanwoo steers stimulated lipogenesis in intramuscular adipose tissue (marbling) and thereby improved carcass quality grade. The serum metabolites results supported the hypothesis of lipolysis of existing adipose tissue, such as abdominal fats, and lipogenesis in intramuscular adipocytes.