• Title, Summary, Keyword: Hanwoo

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Methods for Genetic Parameter Estimations of Carcass Weight, Longissimus Muscle Area and Marbling Score in Korean Cattle (한우의 도체중, 배장근단면적 및 근내지방도의 유전모수 추정방법)

  • Lee, D.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.509-516
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    • 2004
  • This study is to investigate the amount of biased estimates for heritability and genetic correlation according to data structure on marbling scores in Korean cattle. Breeding population with 5 generations were simulated by way of selection for carcass weight, Longissimus muscle area and latent values of marbling scores and random mating. Latent variables of marbling scores were categorized into five by the thresholds of 0, I, 2, and 3 SD(DSI) or seven by the thresholds of -2, -1, 0,1I, 2, and 3 SD(DS2). Variance components and genetic pararneters(Heritabilities and Genetic correlations) were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood on multivariate linear mixed animal models and by Gibbs sampling algorithms on multivariate threshold mixed animal models in DS1 and DS2. Simulation was performed for 10 replicates and averages and empirical standard deviation were calculated. Using REML, heritabilitis of marbling score were under-estimated as 0.315 and 0.462 on DS1 and DS2, respectively, with comparison of the pararneter(0.500). Otherwise, using Gibbs sampling in the multivariate threshold animal models, these estimates did not significantly differ to the parameter. Residual correlations of marbling score to other traits were reduced with comparing the parameters when using REML algorithm with assuming linear and normal distribution. This would be due to loss of information and therefore, reduced variation on marbling score. As concluding, genetic variation of marbling would be well defined if liability concepts were adopted on marbling score and implemented threshold mixed model on genetic parameter estimation in Korean cattle.

Relationship between Monounsaturated Fatty Acid Composition and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase mRNA Level in Hanwoo Liver and Loin Muscle (한우 간 및 등심 조직에서 불포화지방산의 조성비율과 Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase mRNA의 발현 양상)

  • Lee, S.H.;Yoon, D.H.;Hwang, S.H.;Cheong, E.Y.;Kim, O.H.;Lee, C.S.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2004
  • The Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase(SCD) is a key enzyme, which converting palmitic acid(16:0) and stearic acid (18:0) to pahnitoleic acid(16:1) and oleic acid(l8:1), respectively. The concentration of oleic acid(18:1) in meat of beef cattle could influence both palatability and perception of meat. This experiment has conducted to determine relationship between the compositions of monounsaturated fatty acids and the SCD mRNA level in bovine liver and loin muscle tissue. The compositions of palmitoleic acid(16:1) and oleic acid(18:1) in loin muscle were 5% and 46% of total lipid and in liver were 2% and 20% of total lipid, respectively. On the other hand, the compositions of palmitic acid(16:0) and stearic acid(18:0) in loin muscle were 25% and 45% of total lipid and in liver were 14% and 43% of total lipid, respectively. The ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fatty acids(the desaturation index) was used as a measure of SCD activity in tissues. The average desaturation index in loin muscle was higher about 3.6-fold than that in liver. The desaturation index of oleate/stearate and palmitoleatelpalmitate in loin muscle were higher 8-fold and 1.8-fold than those in liver, respectively, showing that the substrate specificity of SCD enzyme was very different between liver and muscle tissues. To determine whether the composition of monounsaturated fatty acids in liver and muscle are dependent on SCD expression, SCD mRNA level was examined by RT-PCR analysis. The SCD mRNA level in loin muscle was higher about 3-fold than that in liver. Thus, the quantitative relationship between the desaturation index of fatty acid and SCD mRNA was observed in liver and muscle. The difference in the compositions of monounsaturated fatty acids between bovine liver and muscle tissues may be due to different level of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase mRNA.

Studies on In situ and In vitro Degadabilities, Microbial Growth and Gas Production of Rice, Barley and Corn (쌀, 보리, 옥수수의 반추위내 In situ 및 In vitro 분해율, 미생물 성장과 Gas 발생량에 대한 연구)

  • 이상민;강태원;이신자;옥지운;문여황;이성실
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.699-708
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    • 2006
  • Ground rice, barley and corn were fed separately to the ruminally cannulated Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) for comparing their in situ and in vitro degradabilities, microbial growth, pH and gas production. It has been found that nearly all the dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) in barley and rice disappeared during 24 hr suspension in the rumen, but those in corn were only reduced by around 67%. Water soluble DM and OM fractions(‘a’), ranked from highest to lowest was corn, then rice and finally barley, but the order was reversed for content ‘b’, degradable fraction during time ‘t’. Judging by the degradation parameter of ‘b’ fraction, degradation rates per hour of DM and OM for barley were 38.3% and 37.2% respectively, significantly higher than those for rice (7.7% and 5.6%) and corn (4.1% and 1.3%). In general, results obtained from in vitro degradability of DM and OM were lower than those from in situ trials, but the ranking order of degradability was in agreement between both trials. In particular, ground rice has relatively lower in vitro microbial growth than corn or barley, but exhibited higher gas production. In addition, in vitro microbial growth of ground rice increased with up to 12 hr of incubation period, thereafter experienced a decrease with extended incubation time. pH of in vitro solution of rice decreased following 9 hr of incubation but gas production increased rapidly during the same period. From the results of DM and OM degradabilities and pH changes of in vitro solution with incubation time, it is concluded that rice represents a good source of energy for stability of rumen fermentation.

Effects of Alcoholic Feeds on In vitro Ruminal pH, Ammonia, Alcohol and Volatile Fatty Acids Concentrations (Alcohol 사료가 In vitro 반추위내 pH, Ammonia, Alcohol 및 Volatile Fatty Acids 농도에 미치는 영향)

  • 신종서;박병기
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.91-100
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    • 2006
  • In this study, changes of ammonia, alcohol and volatile fatty acid(VFA) concentrations or pH in in vitro ruminal fluid were studied to determine the effects of alcoholic feeds on in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics. To formulate the alcoholic feeds, alcohol was added to commercial formulated feed at the levels of 1, 3, and 5 %. Experiments were done with four treatment groups, control(commercial feed), AF-1(commercial feed+1% alcohol), AF-3(commercial feed+3% alcohol), and AF-5(commercial feed+5% alcohol). Ammonia concentrations of AF-1 and AF-5 were significantly lower than that of control for the 12h incubation(p<0.05). Ruminal alcohol concentration was increased with the addition level of alcohol increased(p<0.05). TVFA concentrations of AF-1, AF-3 and AF-5 were significantly higher than those of control at 12h(p<0.05). Significant decrease of molar percentage of acetate was observed in control from 8 to 12h incubation, but molar percentage of acetate for AF-1, AF-3 and AF-5 was constant. Molar percentage of propionate was increased in control compared with AF-1, AF-3 and AF-5 from 8 to 12h incubation(p<0.05). Molar percentages of butyrate and valerate were higher in AF-1, AF-3 and AF-5 than in control(p<0.05). Molar percentage of caproate for AF-1, AF-3 and AF-5 was 0.05, 0.58 and 0.47M% at 8h, respectively, but that was not detected for control. Present results may indicate that the alcoholic feeds show positive effects on in vitro ruminal ammonia, alcohol and VFA concentrations or pH. Furthermore, the results of this study implies that the addition level of 5% could be more effective to ruminal fermentation than other addition levels.

Treatment of Contaminated Sediment for Water Quality Improvement of Small-scale Reservoir (소하천형 호수의 수질개선을 위한 퇴적저니 처리방안 연구)

  • 배우근;이창수;정진욱;최동호
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 2002
  • Pollutants from industry, mining, agriculture, and other sources have contaminated sediments in many surface water bodies. Sediment contamination poses a severe threat to human health and environment because many toxic contaminants that are barely detectable in the water column can accumulate in sediments at much higher levels. The purpose of this study was to make optimal treatment and disposal plan o( sediment for water quality improvement in small-scale resevoir based on an evaluation of degree of contamination. The degree of contamination were investigated for 23 samples of 9 site at different depth of sediment in small-scale J river. Results for analysis of contaminated sediments were observed that copper concentration of 4 samples were higher than the regulation of hazardous waste (3 mg/L) and that of all samples were exceeded soil pollution warning levels for agricultural areas. Lead and mercury concentration of all samples were detected below both regulations. Necessary of sediment dredge was evaluated for organic matter and nutrient through standard levels of Paldang lake and the lower Han river in Korea and Tokyo bay and Yokohama bay in Japan. The degree of contamination for organic matter and nutrient was not serious. Compared standard levels of Japan, America, and Canada for heavy metal, contaminated sediment was concluded as lowest effect level or limit of tolerance level because standard levels of America and Canada was established worst effect of benthic organisms. The optimal treatment method of sediment contained heavy metal was cement-based solidification/stabilization to prevent heavy metal leaching.

Study of Surfactant Enhanced Remediation Methods for Organic Pollutant(NAPL) Distributed over the Heterogeneous Medium (계면활성제를 이용한 불균질 매질에서 유기오염물(NAPL)의 정화효율에 관한 실험)

  • 서형기;이민희;정상용
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 2001
  • Column and box tests were performed to investigate the removal efficiency of NAPL using the surfactant enhanced flushing In heterogeneous medium. Homogeneous Ottawa sand and heterogeneous soil were used to verify the increase of remediation efficiency for the surfactant enhanced flushing in column test. Box tests with two different heterogeneous sub-structure were performed to quantify the capability of the surfactant enhanced flushing as a remediation method to remove NAPL from the heterogeneous medium. Two different grain size sand layers were repeated in the box to simulate the heterogeneous layer formation and the modified fault structure was built to simulate the fault system in the box. O-xylene as a LNAPL and PCE as a DNAPL were used and oleamide as a non-ionic surfactant. The maximum NAPL effluent concentration with 1% oleamide flushing in the homogeneous column test increased about 460 times compared to that with only water flushing and about 250 times increased in the real soil column test. In heterogeneous medium, the maximum effluent concentration increased about 150 times in 1% oleamide flushing and most of NAPL were removed from the box within 8 pore volume flushing, suggesting that the removal efficiency increased very much compared to in only water flushing. Results investigated the capability of the surfactant enhanced remediation method to remove NAPL even in heterogeneous medium.

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A Study on DNA Polymorphism of the Bovine c-KIT Receptor Gene (소 c-KIT Receptor 유전자의 다형성에 관한 연구)

  • Jang, Y.S.;Kim, T.H.;Yoon, D.H.;Park, E.W.;Lee, H.W.;Lee, H.K.;Cheong, I.C.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.653-660
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    • 2002
  • We considered KIT gene as a candidate gene for the white-spotting pattern in cattle. This study was carried out to detect genetic variation of c-KIT receptor gene and to investigate association between the mutation and the white-spotting pattern in cattle. PCR-RFLP analysis within intron 6 of c-KIT receptor gene were performed with 8 cattle breeds including Hanwoo, Angus, Brown Swiss, Charolais, Hereford, Holstein, Limousin and Simmental. When PCR product of approximately 2,440 bp including intron 6 of c-KIT receptor gene was sequenced, four nucleotide substitutions were found within intron 6 of the bovine c-KIT receptor gene. In PCR-RFLP analysis, three alleles (A, B and C), two alleles (A and B) and two alleles (A and B) at each locus were identified by MspⅠ, BsrBⅠ and NdeⅠ, respectively. Although frequencies of allele at each locus were different among cattle breeds, we could not get any evidence related with white or white spotting phenotypes in these mutations on intron 6 of c-KIT receptor gene. However, we can not entirely exclude the possibility that c-KIT receptor gene is responsible for white spotting phenotype in cattle. Thus, further studies need to detect other mutations in c-KIT receptor gene and to test association of those mutations and coat color phenotypes in cattle.

Effect of Bovine Somatotropin (bST) Treatment on Embryo Recovery and Pregnancy Rate in Hanwoo (한우에서 bST 처리가 수정란 회수 및 수태율에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, S. H.;Lee, J. W.;Son, B. H.;Go, J. S.;Mun, M.;Cho, S. S.;Choi, S. B.;Son, S. G.;Jeong, G. I.;Bae, I. H.;Cho, S. G.;Kong, I. K.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.79-85
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of bST treatment on embryo recovery and pregnancy rate following embryo transfer. Donor cows were superovulated with Folltropin-V and PGF$_2$$\alpha$ combination method and then inseminated with frozen semen 3 times 12 hrs interval. Donor and recipient cows were assigned to control and bST group, of which was given a single injection of bST (500 mg, im) at insemination or estrus detection. Embryo collection of superovulated cows were flushed nonsurgical method at 7 to 8 days after artificial insemination. The percentare and Mean$\pm$S.E. of transferable embryo was not significantly different between control and bST treatment (72.8%/5.9$\pm$4.5 vs. 83.7%15.1 $\pm$ 1.6). The percentage and Mean$\pm$S.E. of transferable embryo in non-summer season was significantly higher than in summer (81.8%/5.4$\pm$2.1 vs. 68.7%14.774.6; P<0.05). The pregnancy rate after embryo transfer in bST treatment was significantly higher than in control (64.0 vs. 47.1%; P<0.05). There was no significant difference in pregnancy rate between summer and non-summer (51.6 vs. 61.5%; P>0.05). The results indicated that InST treatment in recipient cows could improve the efficiency of transferable embryo production and pregnancy rate after embryo transfer, and non-summer season may be better far superovulation treatment and embryo transfer.

Monitoring the Rate of Frozen Denaturation of Bovine Myosin by Competitive Indirect ELISA Method (Competitive Indirect ELISA를 이용한 Bovine Myosin의 동결 변성도 측정)

  • Kim, Seong-Bae;Lee, Ju-Woon;Park, Jong-Heum;Do, Hyung-Ki;Hyun, Chang-Kee;Shin, Heuyn-Kil
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.862-870
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    • 1998
  • This study shows the application of Ci-ELISA method for monitoring the denaturation of myosin by the frozen treatment in order to differentiate thawed beef from chilled. Hanwoo M.Semitendinosus (n=25) was treated under the two different frozen process as follows; simple frozen treatment (Exp-1) at 4 different temperatures, -10, -20, -50 and $-80^{\circ}C$, respectively, and repeated thawing-refreezing treatment (Exp-2) stored at 4 different temperatures, -10, -20, -50 and $-80^{\circ}C$, respectively. Antibodies (Abs) were produced from rabbits immunized with myosin whole molecule (MWM) isolated from beef round, heavy meromyosin S-1 (S-1) and light meromyosin (LMM) prepared by digestion of MWM. Each immunoglobulin G (IgG) was separated from antiserum. At 6 month storage, IA of anti-MWM IgG for myosin was decreased to 32.67, 32. 23, 51.52 and 34.27% in Exp-1 and to 14.82, 15.61, 25.3 and 23.7% in Exp-2 at -10, -20, -50 and $-80^{\circ}C$, respectively (P<0.05). In Exp-1, the reactivities of anti-LMM IgG were decreased to 25.12, 21.42, 49.05 and 28.96%, and those of Exp-2 were to 11.88, 9.56, 20.63 and 12.64% at -10, -20, -50 and $-80^{\circ}C$, respectively, at 6 times thawing (P<0.05). Conclusively, myosin was denaturated by freezing treatment and LMM or myosin rod part might have suffered from more extreme demage than HMM S-1, and samples at $-50^{\circ}C$ were slightly injured less than others by freezing treatment.

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Survey on the Effect of the Herd Size on Reproductive Traits of Korean Native Cows (사육규모에 따른 한우 번식 실태 조사)

  • 백광수;고응규;성환후;이명식;최순호;김영근
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.367-373
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    • 1998
  • A survey was carried out to investigate the effect of the herd size on the reproductive traits of Hanwoo(Korean native cows). Data on the reproductive traits of 670 Korean native cows were collected from January, 1996 to December, 1997 and analyzed by the herd size. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. The average ages at first breeding were 437.9, 425.5 and 452.9 days in herd size 1 (less than 20 heads), 2 (21∼50 heads) and 3 (more than 51 heads), respectively (the over all average was 443.0 days). However, there was no significant difference between herd sizes (p>0.05). 2. The average ages at first conception were 452.8, 438.4 and 467.1 days in herd size 1, 2 and 3, respectively (the over all average was 460.0 days). However, there was no significant difference between herd sizes (p>0.05). 3. The average ages at first calving were 741.2, 730.2 and 755.9 days in herd size 1, 2 and 3, respectively (the over all average was 746.6 days). However, there was no significant difference between herd sizes (p>0.05). 4. The average days to first estrus after calving was 70.1 days and it was shortest in herd size 3 (64.8 days) and longest in herd size 1(82.1 days). 5. The average numbers of services per conception were 1.54, 1.61 and 1.48 in herd size 1, 2, and 3, respectively (the over all average was 1.53). However, there was no significant difference between herd sizes (p>0.05). 6. The average days to first conception after calving were 115.6, 99.1 and 80.6 days in herd size 1, 2 and 3, respectively (the over all average was 91.2 days). There was a trend that it was shorter as the herd size increased(p<0.05). 7. The average length of calving interval was 375.3 days and it was shortest in herd size 3 (367. 4 days) and longest in herd size 1 (389.5 days).

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