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Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Reproductive Traits in Yorkshire (요크셔종의 번식형질에 대한 유전모수 추정)

  • Song, Kwang-Lim;Kim, Byeong-Woo;Roh, Seung-Hee;Sun, Du-Won;Kim, Hyo-Sun;Lee, Deuk-Hwan;Jeon, Jin-Tae;Lee, Jung-Gyu
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.55-64
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to estimate genetic parameters for reproductive traits using multivariate animal models in Yorkshire breed. For the study, 4,989 records for litter traits collected between the year 2001 and 2005 from Yorkshire pigs in K GGP were used. The effects of environmental factors such as farrowing year, parity, weaning to estrus interval (WEI), and suckling period were statistically significant (p<0.05), but farrowing season was not significant, for reproductive traits. The estimates genetic correlations and phenotypic correlations in total number of born and number of suckling, was shown to highly correlated. The genetic correlations were higher than phenotypic correlation. The estimates of heritabilities for reproductive traits, considering permanent environment effects (PE) were much lower than those obtained when permanent environment effects were not considered (NPE) in the model. The estimates of heritabilities were 0.240 and 0.076 for total number of born and 0.187 and 0.096 for number of suckling in NPE, and PE, respectively. These results itivcate that PE should be considered in the statistical mode to estimate more acco ate breeding values.

Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Growth Traits in Yorkshire (요크셔종의 산육형질에 대한 유전모수 추정)

  • Song, Kwang-Lim;Kim, Byeong-Woo;Roh, Seung-Hee;Sun, Du-Won;Kim, Hyo-Sun;Lee, Deuk-Hwan;Jeon, Jin-Tae;Lee, Jung-Gyu
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.41-52
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits using multivariate animal models in Yorkshire breed. For the study, 16,202 records for growth traits collected between the year 1999 and 2005 from Yorkshire pigs in K GGP were used. The effects of environmental factors such as sex, birth year, birth season, parity and birth weight group affected growth traits significantly (p<0.01). Birth weight tended to be positively correlated with average daily gain (ADG) and lean percent. But it seemed to affect age at 90 kg, average adjusted backfat thickness (BF), and eye muscle ares (EMA) negatively. For average pig suckling weight (ASW) and total weight at suckling (TWS), the higher birth weight is the better performance. But, in case of total number of born and number of suckling, the result was shown vice versa. Approximately 10~30% lower heritability estimates were obtained for growth traits by using the model that includes descriptions of common litter effects (CL) than by using the model that ignores those (NCL) for more accurate estimation of heritability. The estimates of heritabilities were 0.468, and 0.328 for ADG, 0.474 and 0.326 for age at 90 kg, 0.452, and 0.396 for BF, 0.240 and 0.200 for EMA and, 0.458, and 0.380 for lean percent in NCL and CL, respectively. Therefore, in order to estimate optimal genetic parameters, it could be inferred that the statistical model which considers litter effects must be applied.

Effect of Asteraceae Plant Extracts on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation Characteristics (국화과 추출물이 반추위의 발효성상에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Shin Ja;Kang, Han Byeol;Lee, Su Kyoung;Kim, Hyun Sang;Eom, Jun Sik;Lee, Sung Sill
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.39-49
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Asteraceae plant extracts on in vitro on rumen fermentation and methane production. One hanwoo cow, surgically fitted with a ruminal cannula, consuming 0.60 timothy and 0.40 concentrate was used as rumen fluid donor. On fermentation day, the rumen fluid 15 ml of mixture contained McDougall's buffer and rumen fluid in the ratio 2 to 1, was dispensed anaerobically into 50 ml serum bottles. Rumen fluid contents were collected and in vitro fermentation and prepared control(timothy hay, 0.3 g), Chrysanthemum, Dandelion, Toothed ixeris, Masculine wormwood and Sunflower extracts were added at the level of 5% against 0.3 g of timothy as a substrate(v/w) and incubated for 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. pH values was nomal range to 6.29 to 7.44. The dry matter digestibility can see that the fermentation time increased over time. Total gas emission was significantly (p<0.05) higher in dandelion, toothed ixeris, masculine wormwood and sunflower treatments than in control on 48 h. Carbon dioxide emission was significantly(p<0.05) higher in dandelion, toothed ixeris, masculine wormwood and sunflower treatments than in control on 48 h. Methane emission weas significantly(p<0.05) higher in dandelion, toothed ixeris, masculine wormwood and sunflower treatments than in control on 48 h. The rumen microbial growth rate was significantly (p<0.05) higher in masculine wormwood and sunflower than in control on 48 h. Acetic acid was significantly(p<0.05) higher in dandelion, toothed ixeris, masculine wormwood and sunflower than in control on 48 h. Propionic acid was significantly(p<0.05) higher in toothed ixeris, masculine wormwood and sunflower than in control on 48 h. A/P ratio was significantly(p<0.05) lower in dandelion, masculine wormwood and sunflower treatments than in control on 24 h. As a result, supplementation of the asteraceae plant extracts did not affect fermentation characteristics, but not effect of reducing the methane.

Effects of Permeable Cryoprotectants on Viability of Mammalian Embryo Model (침투성 동결보호제가 포유류 초기배자의 생존성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyun;Cho, Sang-Rae;Kim, Dong Kyo;Choe, Changyong;Seong, Hwan-Hoo
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.195-200
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicities of permeable cryoprotectants and finally to establish the cryopreservation method of surplus embryos obtained during assisted reproductive technology (ART). Toxicities of permeable cryoprotectants, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG), Glycerol, and 1,2-PROH were investigated using a murine embryo model. Female $F-{_1}$ mice were stimulated with gonadotropin, induced ovulation with hCG and mated. Two cell embryos were collected and cultured after exposure to among DMSO, EG, Glycerol, and 1,2-PROH. Embryo development was evaluated up to the blastocyst stage. The total cell count of blastocysts that were treated with DMSO and Glycerol at the 2-cell stage was significantly lower than that were treated with EG ($81.1{\pm}15.1$), 1,2-PROH ($88.0{\pm}21.1$) or the control ($99.9{\pm}21.3$) (p<0.001). On comparison of four cryoprotectant treated groups, the DMSO and Glycerol treated group showed a decreased cell count compared with the EG and 1,2-PROH treated group (p<0.05). Both DMSO ($14.7{\pm}1.3$), EG ($12.1{\pm}1.1$), Glycerol ($15.2{\pm}1.8$), and 1,2-PROH ($11.5{\pm}1.3$) treated groups showed higher apoptosis rates of cells in the blastocyst compared with the control ($6.5{\pm}0.7$, p<0.0001). In addition, the DMSO or Glycerol treated group showed more apoptotic cells than the EG or 1,2-PROH treated group (p<0.001). The potential toxicity of cryoprotectants was uncovered by prolonged exposure of murine embryos to among DMSO, EG, Glycerol, and 1,2-PROH at room temperature. When comparing four permeable cryoprotective agents, EG and 1,2-PROH appeared to be less toxic than DMSO and Glycerol at least in a murine embryo model.

Verification of ET and AI Derived Offspring Using on the Genetic Polymorphisms of Microsatellite and Coat Color Related Genes in Jeju Black Cattle (제주흑우 집단에서 모색 관련 유전자와 microsatellite marker의 다형현상을 이용한 수정란이식 및 인공수정 유래 후대우 검증)

  • Han, Sang-Hyun;Ko, Jin-Cheul;Kim, Young-Hoon;Kim, Nam-Young;Kim, Jae-Hwan;Ko, Moon-Suck;Jeong, Ha-Yeon;Cho, In-Cheol;Yang, Young-Hoon;Lee, Sung-Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.381-387
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    • 2010
  • To find offspring of Jeju Black cattle (JBC) produced by embryo transfer (ET) and artificial insemination (AI), a molecular genetic study was carried out in candidate cattle populations collected from cattle farms in Jeju Island, Korea. The genetic marker set was composed of 11 ISAG microsatellite (MS) markers, 11 SAES MS markers selected by our preliminary analysis for population diversity of JBC and two major coat color related genes: MC1R and ASIP. The results showed a combined non-exclusion probability for first parent (NE-P1) that was higher than that recommended by ISAG (above 0.9995), and a combined non-exclusion probability for sib identity of $5.3{\times}10^{-10}$. Parentage analysis showed that the cases identified the candidate's father only (77.0%), mother only (54.0%), and both parents (40.5%) in the candidate offspring population. The ET and AI calves were identified as 14.7% in the in vitro fertilized eggs provided and 32.4% in total population, respectively. However, the result from ISAG marker analysis showed 3 identical allele-combinations in 7 calves, and that from ISAG/SAES MS marker combination also showed 1 identical allele-combination in 2 calves. Data from MS and coat-color gene analyses provided information for complete identification of all animals tested. Because the present JBC population was mostly bred using small nuclear founders through bioengineering techniques such as AI and ET, the genetic diversity levels obtained from MS analysis in the JBC population were relatively lower than those of other cattle populations, including Hanwoo. The results suggested that the more efficient marker combinations, including coat color related genotypes, should be studied and used for constructing a system for identification and molecular breeding of JBC as well.

Effects of Applying Cattle Manure on Carrying Capacity of Organic Livestock per Unit Area of Summer Forage Crops (우분뇨 시용이 하계사료작물의 단위면적당 유기가축 사육능력에 미치는 영향)

  • Jo, Ik-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.185-198
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    • 2011
  • This study was carried out to select a proper forage crop, and to estimate the proper level of application of cattle manure and carrying capacity of organic livestock per unit area. Corns and forage sorghum hybrids were cultivated with different types of livestock manures and different amount of them to produce organic forage. For both corns and forage sorghum hybrids, no fertilizer plots had significantly (p<0.05) lower annual dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yields than those of other plots, whereas the N-P-K (nitrogen-phosphorous-kalium) plots ranked the highest yields, followed by 150% cattle manure plots and 100% cattle manure plots. DM, CP and TDN yields of in cattle manure plots were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of no fertilizer and P-K (phosphorous-kalium) plots. The yields of in cattle slurry plots tended to be a little higher than those of in composted cattle manure plots. Assuming that corn and forage sorghum hybrids produced from this trial were fed at 70% level to 450kg of Hanwoo heifer for 400g of average daily gain, the carrying capacity (head/year/ha) of livestock ranked the highest in 150% cattle slurry plots (mean 6.0 heads), followed by 100% cattle slurry plots (mean 5.3 heads), 150% composted cattle manure plots (mean 4.7 heads), 100% composted cattle manure plots (mean 4.4 heads), and no fertilizer plots (mean 2.8 heads) in corns (or the cultivation of corns). Meanwhile, in the case of forage sorghum hybrids, 150% cattle slurry plots (mean 6.4 heads) ranked the highest carrying capacity, followed by 150% composted cattle manure plots (mean 4.8 heads), 100% cattle slurry plots (mean 4.4 heads), 100% composted cattle manure plots (mean 4.1 heads), and no fertilizer plots (mean 2.8 heads). The results indicated that the application of livestock manure to cultivated soil could enhance not only DM and TDN yields, but also the carrying capacity of organic livestock as compared with the effect of chemical fertilizers. In conclusion, the production of organic forage with reutilized livestock manure will facilitate the reduction of environmental pollution and the production of environmentally friendly agricultural products by resource circulating system.

Effects of Terpenoids-Rich Plant Extracts on Ruminal-fermentation and Methane Production (Terpenoid 함유 식물 추출물의 첨가가 반추위 발효와 메탄 발생에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang, Hee-Soon;Ha, Dong-Uk;Lee, Su-Kyoung;Lee, Il-Dong;Lee, Shin-Ja;Lee, Sung-Sill
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.629-646
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to investigate effects of terpenoids-rich plant extracts (TRPE) on the in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics and methane production. The ruminal fluid was collected from a cannulated Hanwoo cow fed concentrate and timothy in the ratio of 6 to 4. The TRPE as Mint (Mentha arvensis var. piperascens), Pine (Pinus densiflora), Japan cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), Sichuan pepper (Zanthoxylum piperitum), Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtuse) and Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) were used in this study. The 15 mL of mixture, contains McDougall buffer and rumen fluid in the ratio of 2 to 1. The mixture was dispensed anaerobically 50 mL serum bottles and it is contained 0.3 g timothy substrate and 5% TRPE. The bottles were incubated at $39^{\circ}C$ for 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. The pH value decrease by increased incubation times and the pH values at all times were significantly (p<0.05) higher in treatments than in control. The digestibility of dry matter at 3 hours was significantly (p<0.05) higher in mint treatment than in control. Productions of total gas and carbon dioxide at before 12 hours was significantly lower (p<0.05) in treatments than in control. The methane production at 24 hours was significantly (p<0.05) lower in treatments than in control. The concentrations of acetic acid and propionic acid at 24 hours were significantly higher (p<0.05) in mint and pine treatments than in control. In conclusion, the terpenoid-rich plant extracts were shown to decreased methane emission and without adversely affected ruminal fermentation. Therefore, the terpenoid-rich plant extracts as mint and pine were shown to decreased methane production and it has potential possibility for ruminal fermentations.

Genetic Correlation of Carcass and Meat Production Traits with Hormones and Metabolic Components in Hawoo (가축의 혈청 호르몬 및 대사물질 농도와 도체 및 산육형질에 대한 유전상관에 관한 연구)

  • Jeon G. J.;Juong H. Y.;Cho K. H.;Kim M. J.;Kim I. C.;Kim J. B.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.255-269
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    • 2005
  • This study was aimed to investigate genetic relationships, variables, and correlations between economic traits and metabolic materials in serum components according to bleeding periods and breeding locations for the castrated and not castrated Hanwoo cattle at National Livestock Research Institute. Analysis of variance for serum hormones and metabolic materials showed significant differences by breeding locations except for testosterone and globulin. Statistical differences for serum components were detected by birth year except for cortisol, total protein, globulin and creatinine, and by castration except for total protein and BUN. All the serum components were tended to have sire effects except for testosterone resulting in some degree of additive gene actions. Breeding locations showed statistical significances for carcass weight and back fat thickness, but not in carcass rate, KPH, live weight and transportation weight loss. Effects of breeding locations and castration were significant for all weight measurement periods except for 9 month and 6 month, respectively. A significant sire effect was observed in all weight measurements. Least squared means for concentration of serum components by breeding year, season and castration were not significant. High concentration of cortisol, creatinine and triglyceride and low concentration of IGF-1 and glucose were detected in castrated cattle. Concentration of testosterone with castrated cattle was $5.2\%$ corresponding to non castrated cattle. Estimation of heritabilities of serum components using a sire model with restricted maximum likelihood were ranged 0.07 to 0.58. High heritabilities were estimated for total protein, albumin, globulin, cortisol, creatinine and BUN were 0.53, 0.54, 0.42, 0.45, 0.58 and 0.54, respectively. Low heritabilities were estimated fur calcium, testosterone and IGF-1 for 0.07, 0.15 and 0.12, respectively. Heritabilities for carcass weight, back fat thickness, meat yield index, KPH, and IMF were estimated as 0.39, 0.45, 0.30 0.13, and 0.93. Heritabilities of weights on 18, 12, 9, 6, and 24 month were estimated as 0.78, 0.76, 0.62, 0.58 and 0.58. Estimated heritabilities for average daily gain on 6${\~}$2, 12${\~}$18, and 18${\~}$24 month were 0.80, 0.75 and 0.19, respectively.

Sex Detection and In Vitro Development of Biopsied Bovine Embryo for LAMP Based Embryo Sexing (LAMP 방법에 의한 소 수정란의 성 판별과 Biopsy에 따른 수정란의 체외발달)

  • Cho S. R.;Choi S. H.;Kim H. J.;Han M. H.;Choe C. Y.;Chung Y. G.;Son D. S.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.169-176
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    • 2005
  • Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is novel DNA amplification methods that amplifies a target sequence specifically under isothemal condition. The present study was to assess the in vitro viability afier biopsy and sexing rate of different types of embryo biopsied. In vivo compact morulae and blastocyst embryos were obtained from Korean Native Cow (KNC) superovulated with FSH (Antorin, R-10) on 7 Day after artificial insemination. in vitro compact morulae and blastocyst embryos were obtained with KNC or Holsteins that were gained on 6, 7 or 8 day after in vitro fertilization(IVF) with frozen semen. Biopsy of bovine embryo was carried out in a $80{\mu}l$ drop with $Ca^{2+}-Mg^{2+}$ free D-PBS and the viability of biopsied embryos were evaluated in IVMD (IFP, Japan) medium at 12 hrs culture time. The sex ratio of biopsied Hanwoo embryos were male vs. female of $43.5\%\;vs.\;56.5\%$ in vivo and $33.9\%\;vs.\;49.2\%$ in vitro respectively, and male rate of biopsied Holstein embryos were significantly higher than female $(70.8\;vs.\;29.2\%)$. and indefinite rate of in vitro embryos was $16.9\%$ and in vivo was not. The degeneration rate of biopsied embryo, in vitro embryos were significantly higher than in vivo $(13.2\%\;vs,\;0.0\%,\;p<0.05)$. The survivability of in vivo embryo were between biopsied following punching method was significantly (P<0.05) higher than bisection method produced embryos $(100\%\;vs.\;83.3\%)$ and in vitro had no difference. However, the degeneration rate of biopsied embryo by bisection method was significantly higher than punching methods between in vivo and in vitro $(16.7\;vs.\;22.6\%,\;respectively,\;p<0.05)$. In conclusion, these results indicate that punching method was optimal and survivability after embryo biopsy was useful for reducing the damage caused by the embryo biopsy procedure for LAMP-based embryo sexing.

Transfer, Cryopreservation and Production of Bovine Embryos Cultured in Serum-Free System (Serum-Free Medium에서 배양한 한우 배의 내동성과 이식)

  • Im, Y.-J.;Kim, J.-H.;Song, H.-B.;Jung, Y.-G.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.133-145
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    • 2004
  • Serum-contain is commoly used for the production of in vitro-derived bovine embryos. However, were biological activity of serum varies from lot to lot, time consuming to choose better serum with good quality and risks of virus, bacteria and mycoplasma infection. This study established serum-free culture systems of in vitro embryo development to efficiently obtain a large number of blastocysts from ovaries of Hanwoo and oocytes maturation, cell number, tlerance of cryopreservation. Secondly, serum-contain medium is suspected of contributing to the large calf size, dystocia, cersarean sections, calf mortality and confirmed these blastocysts are high quality in terms of cyotolerance, high rates of pregancy and normal birth. For these reasons, Culture media (IVMD101 and IVD101) designed specifically for the preimplantation bovine embryo are rather simplistic, being based on salt solutions with additional energy substrates and growth factors. An improved serum-free medium (IVMD101) was developed for bovine oocytes maturation in vitro. Proportions of embryos developing to the blastocyst stage cultured in both IVD101(32.4%) and IVD101(34.5%) serum-free media were higher than in TCM199+10% FBS(12.4%) serumcontaining medium. Futhermore, the cell numbers per blastosyst obtained in the serum-free media were superior to those of blastocysts developed in serum-supplemented medium. Also, cell numbers of blastocysts obtained in the serum-free media were similar with blastocysts derived in vivo. Survival rate blastocysts after 24 hr incubation after thawing, the blastocysts cultured in both IVD101(94.5%) and IVD101(95.8%) serum-free media were higher than in TCM199+10% FBS (52.5%) serum-containing medium. After 72 hr incubation after thawing, hatching rates of blastocysts developed in IVD101(78.4%) and IVMD101(83.7%) were sighnificantly higher than that developed in the serum-supplemented medium(32.0%). The pregnancy rates almost not different between fresh blastocysts(38.2%) and frozen blastocysts(34.9%). The results suggested that the improved serum-free media(IVMD101 and IVD101) offer several advantages over culture in serum-cotaining medium, including increased rates of blastocyst formation and high cel numbers. Additionally, the survival and hatching rates of embryos product in serum-free media after post-thaw culture were superior to those of embryos produced in the serum-containg medium and useful for the production of high quality bovine embryos for cryo-preservation. These improved serum-free media are beneficial not only for the study of the mechanisms of early embryogenesis but also for mass production of good quality embryos for embryo transfer, cloning and transgenesis.