• Title, Summary, Keyword: Hanwoo

Search Result 1,509, Processing Time 0.058 seconds

Repeated Records Animal Model to Estimate Genetic Parameters of Ultrasound Measurement Traits in Hanwoo Cows (반복모형을 이용한 한우 초음파 측정형질의 유전모수추정)

  • Park, Cheol-Hyeon;Koo, Yang-Mo;Kim, Byung-Woo;Sun, Du-Won;Kim, Jung-Il;Song, Chi-Eun;Lee, Ki-Hwan;Lee, Jae-Youn;Jeoung, Yeoung-Ho;Lee, Jung-Gyu
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.54 no.2
    • /
    • pp.71-75
    • /
    • 2012
  • The present study data were obtained from 36,894 cows in Korea Animal Improvement Association from 2001 to 2009 which was subjected for ultrasound measurements (eye muscle area, back-fat thickness, marbling score) and descent. Repeated record models were carried out using 7,913 of 36,894 of total animal traits. The ultrasound measured traits and performance test data were used to study the chest girth, body condition score, eye muscle area, back-fat thickness and marbling score with genetic correlation and parameters for the ultrasound measured traits using REMLF90 program. Genetic correlation of eye muscle area with back-fat thickness, marbling score and back-fat thickness with marbling score were noticed in repeated records animal model as 0.69, 0.54, and 0.59, whereas in multiple trait animal model method were 0.07, 0.66, and 0.39, respectively. Repeated records of animal models were used as positive correlation of traits. Multiple trait animal models were used as negative correlation of eye muscle area with marbling score. The analysis on repeat records of animal models using ultrasound measurements about Korean cattle showed positive effects for each traits. In comparison differences between the repeat records of animal models and multiple trait animal models was found with higher traits of her, the heritability and repeatability was found higher in repeat records animal models. In light of these assessments, carcass traits by ultrasound measurements are expected to help and improve an accurate analysis of each trait and if the research analysis using repeat records of animal models continue when we estimate genetic ability of these traits.

Assessment of Regional Nitrogen Loading of Animal Manure by Manure Units in Cheorwon-gun (분뇨단위 설정에 의한 철원군 지역의 가축분뇨 질소부하 평가)

  • Ryoo, Jong-Won
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
    • /
    • v.18 no.1
    • /
    • pp.45-56
    • /
    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to give basic information of the animal manure management by manure units determination for recycling farming in Cheorwon-gun. Manure units (MU) are used in the permitting, registration, and the environmental process because they allow equal standards for all animals based on manure nutrient production. An MU is calculated by multiplying the number of animals by manure unit factor for the specific type of animal. The manure unit factor for MU determination was determined by dividing amounts of manure N produced 80 kg N/year. Conversion to manure units is a procedure used to determine nutrient pollution equivalents among the different animal types. In this study, the manure unit factor based on nitrogen in Hanwoo, dairy cow, pig were 0.36, 0.8 0.105, respectively. The analysis of manure unit per ha shows that the N loading by MU is quite different by region. The nitrogen loading of manure unit (MU) per ha of cultivated land was the highest in the Galmal-eup on province with 2.4 MU/ha, which is higher than the appropriate level. The Seo-myeon province came next with 1.92 MU/ha. To be utilized as a valid program to build the recycling farming system, diverse measures shall be mapped out to properly determine manure units, evaluate N-loading and to properly manage their nutrient balance of each region.

Evaluation of nutritive value of chestnut hull for ruminant animals using in vitro rumen fermentation (밤 가공 부산물의 반추가축용 사료 가치 평가: in vitro 반추위 배양)

  • Jeong, Sin-Yong;Jo, Hyeon-Seon;Park, Gi-Su;Kang, Gil-Nam;Jo, Nam-Chul;Seo, Seongwon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
    • /
    • v.39 no.3
    • /
    • pp.335-340
    • /
    • 2012
  • During the manufacturing process of chestnut, 50% of biomass is produced as chestnut shell (CS) or chestnut hull (CH), a forestry by-product. Due to its high fiber content and economic benefit, there is a possibility of using chestnut hull as a supplement for a ruminant diet. Few studies, however, have been conducted on evaluating nutritive value of chestnut hull for ruminant animals. The objective of this study were thus to analyze chemical composition of CS, a by-product after the first processing of chestnut, and CH, a by-product after the second processing, and access in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics of them. For the in vitro fermentation using strained rumen fluid obtained from a fistulated Hanwoo steer, commercial total mixed ration (TMR) for dairy goat was used as a basal diet and was replaced with different proportions of chestnut shell and hull. A total number of 13 treatments were carried out in this study: 100% TMR, 100% CS, 100% CH, a mix with 50% CS and 50% of CH (MIX), TMR replaced with 5%, 10%, or 15% of CS, CH, or MIX, respectively. For each treatment, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and pH after 48 hours of rumen fermentation were measured. Gas production at 6, 12, 24, 48 hours of incubation was also analyzed. Compared to CH, CS contains higher level of fiber (NDF, ADF, lignin) and consequently has a lower amount of non-fiber carbohydrate, but no difference was observed in the other nutrients (i.e. crude protein, crude fat, and ash). IVDMD was significantly (p<0.05) the highest in 100% CH (71.97%) and the lowest in 100% CS (42.80%). Addition of CH by replacing TMR did not affect IVDMD, while an increase in the proportion of CS tended to decrease IVDMD. The total gas production after 48 hours of incubation and the rate of gas production were also the highest in 100% CH and the lowest in 100% CS (P<0.05). Likewise, the pH after 48 hours of fermentation was significantly (p<0.05) the lowest in 100% CH (6.33) and the highest in 100% CS (6.50), and no significant difference in gas production was observed when TMR was replaced with CS or CH up to 15% (P>0.05). In conclusion, CH may successfully be used for a supplement in a ruminant diet. The nutritive value of CS is relative low, but can replace, if not 100%, low quality forage. This study provides valuable information about the nutritive value of CS and CH. An in vivo trials, however, is needed for conclusively accessing the nutritive value of CS and CH.

Utilization Survey and Forage Quality of Phragmites communis and Native Grasses in Haenam, Pyeongchang and Wonju Regions, 2010 (2010 해남, 평창, 원주지역 갈대 등 야초 류의 이용실태와 사료가치 평가)

  • Seo, Sung;Han, Dae-Duk;Jang, Sun-Sik;Kim, Won-Ho;Jung, Min-Woong;Choi, Jin-Hyuck;Kim, Jin-Sook;Kim, Ha-Young;Lee, Joung-Kyong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.32 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-8
    • /
    • 2012
  • This study was carried out in 2010 to investigate the utilization and forage quality of native grasses, such as $Phragmites$ $communis$ which might reduce the cost of feeding domestic cattle. The regions surveyed were the Haenam ranch in Haenam, Pyeongchang, Wonju, and Yeonggwang. In Haenam, yearly silage production harvested from 300 ha was 2,000 MT (7 MT/ha). All of those round bale silages were self-consumed in that region, and marketing price was 50,000~55,000 won per roll (110 won/kg). $Phragmites$ $communis$ of 150 cm in length contained 8.4% crude protein (CP) with relative feed value (RFV) 71.9 and 60.1% in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), which was somewhat more favorable than forage quality of rice straw. The silage quality of $Phragmites$ $communis$ varied greatly by the time of harvest (CP 4.7~6.4%, RFV 62.2~78.9, and IVDMD 41.9~53.9%), even with the same district and of the same original forage materials. Generally, the quality of $Phragmites$ $communis$ silage of was poorer than that of sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid. In Pyeongchang, forage quality of $Phragmites$ $communis$ was decreased from 13.9% to 7.6% in CP, 90.7 to 76.1 in RFV, and 72.9% to 54.7% in IVDMD, as plant was getting mature, from 79 cm to 117 cm, 121 cm or to 142 cm in length. In Wonju, the quality values of $Phragmites$ $communis$ of 130 cm in length were 8.5% CP, 82.3 RFV and 70.2% IVDMD, while those of matured grasses of 220 cm in length were lower (10.2% CP, 65.1 RFV and 48.9% IVDMD), but this was a little more favorable than quality of rice straw. In Yeonggwang, feeding $Phragmites$ $communis$ was tried in a Hanwoo feed, but stopped due to low profitability. In conclusion, the overall quality of most native grasses including $Phragmites$ $communis$ in this survey was poor. Therefore, we recommend that $Phragmites$ $communis$ and native grasses should be harvested on June or July to obtain richer forage quality in forage values than rice straw.

Effect of the Climatic Condition on the Growth Characteristic of Domestic Corn Hybrids in Alpine Region (고랭지에서 기후조건이 국내육성 옥수수 품종의 생육특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Meing-Jooung;Lee, Seung-Ho;Chang, Sun-Sik;Kim, Tae-Il;Choi, Sun-Ho;Cho, Won-Mo;Hong, Seong-Gu;Lee, Sang-Rak;Kim, Myeong-Hwa
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.31 no.4
    • /
    • pp.371-382
    • /
    • 2011
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between climates, growth characteristic and yield of silage corn at Hanwoo Experiment Station, National Institute of Animal Science, Daegwallyeong in Gangwon Province located at altitude of 760 m, from 2009 to 2010. The mean minimum temperature was $12.29^{\circ}C$ from seeding to harvest in 2009, $14.30^{\circ}C$ in 2010, the mean maximum temperature was $21.66^{\circ}C$, $23.48^{\circ}C$, respectively. The mean temperature was $16.85^{\circ}C$ in 2009 and $18.55^{\circ}C$ in 2010, respectively. Duration of sunshine was 711.3 hours in 2009 and 663.8 hours in 2010, and precipitation was 893.8 mm in 2009 and 752.1 mm in 2010, respectively. In 2009, for all Kwangpyeongok, Gangdaok, Cheonganok, Cheongsaok, Pyeonganok, the early growth was good with 1.2, while in 2010 the growth for Pyeonganok was good with 1.3 comparing to others, which showed worse growth than in the previous year with 2.4~3.0. There was significant difference in the ear height between 2009 and 2010, showing mean value of 85.8 cm and 105 cm for all the species in 2009 and in 2010, respectively (p<0.001). In 2010, stem diameter for all the species were larger, and there was significant difference in mean value of the diameter between 2009 and 2010 (p<0.001). There was significant difference in the plant height and ear height between 2009 and 2010, showing 200 cm and 258 cm in 2009 and 2010, respectively (p<0.001). There was significant difference in the average days to silk, showing 103.8 days in 2009, 90 days in 2010, respectively (p<0.001). There was no lodging or disease-insect damage in all hybrid silage corn in both 2009 and 2010. The mean ear rates were 23.4% in 2009, but almost doubled, 52.1%, in 2010. There was significant difference in fresh yield between the two years, showing 54,611 kg/ha in 2009 and 78,733 kg/ha in 2010, respectively (p<0.001). Dry matter yields were higher in 2010 than in 2009. TDN yields of Gangdaok and Cheonganok were higher in 2009, whereas that of Cheongsaok and Pyeonganok were higher in 2010. Crude protein contents were higher in 2010 than in 2009 for all the species.

Effects of Thawing Temperature of Frozen rare Breed Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle) Semen on Viability of Refrozen Spermatozoa (융해 온도가 유전자원 활용을 위한 희소한우(칡소, 흑우 및 백우) 동결 정액의 재 동결 후 정자의 생존성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Min Su;Choi, Arum;Kim, Chan-Lan;Kim, Dongkyo;Seong, Hwan-Hoo;Kim, Sung Woo
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
    • /
    • v.32 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-8
    • /
    • 2017
  • Cryopreservation of germ cells from genetically proven animals could be a source of restoration tools from the risk of extinction or disappearance of wanted characteristics. Using frozen semen, the genetic gains of Korean native cattle have been increased greatly for 70 years. The preservation of genetic resources as a form of frozen semen straw has limited availability due to the numbers. To circumvent this weakness of frozen semen, we tested two re-freezing methods with different initial thawing temperatures using frozen Korean proven semen and rare breed semen from albino, black and chikso breeders. It has been known that human sperm could resist to cryo-damages by repeated freeze-thaw cycles, but not for Korean proven bulls number (KPN) or for rare breeds. Total 7 frozen semem from brindled(2), black(1), Korean Albino(2) and KPN(1) bulls were used for our research. After thawing straws under $5^{\circ}C/2min$ or $37^{\circ}C/40sec$ with low temperature water bath and thermo jug, spermatozoa were re-diluted with triladyl diluents after first thawing and re-frozen. Sperm motilities were compared between animals and treated groups after re-thawing. Mean values of motility and viability of refrozen/thawed sperm for expansion of the number of straws were significantly higher in $5^{\circ}C$ than in $37^{\circ}C$ (P < 0.05). However, the activity of viable sperm thawed at $5^{\circ}C$ was significantly decreased before refreezing. It is estimated that re-freezing of frozen semen from rare Korean native cattle is possible with resistant properties of survived spermatozoa.

Studies on Natural Plant Extracts for Methane Reduction in Ruminants (반추동물의 메탄감소를 위한 천연식물 추출물에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Shin-Ja;Eom, Jun-Sik;Lee, Su-Kyoung;Lee, Il-Dong;Kim, Hyun-Sang;Kang, Han-Beyol;Lee, Sung-Sil
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
    • /
    • v.25 no.4
    • /
    • pp.901-916
    • /
    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to evaluate natural plant extracts for methane gas reduction in ruminants. Rumen fluid was collected from cannulated Hanwoo cow ($450{\pm}30kg$) consuming 400 g/kg concentrate and 600 g/kg timothy. The 15 ml of mixture comparing McDougall's buffer and rumen fluid in the ratio 2 to 1, was dispensed anaerobically into 50 ml serum bottles. Rumen fluid contents were collected and in vitro fermentation prepared control (timothy, 300 mg), ginseng, balloon flower, yucca plant, camellia, tea plant and ogapi extracts were added at the level of 5% against 300 mg of timothy as a substrate (v/w) and incubated for 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. In vitro pH values range 6.55~7.41, this range include rumen titration. The dry matter digestibility was not differ between all treatments and control. Total gas emission was significantly higher (p<0.05) in ginseng and balloon flower treatments on 24 h than in control. Carbon dioxide emission was not differ all treatments on 9 h than in control and significantly higher (p<0.05) yucca plant, camellia and tea plant treatments on 12 h than control. Methane emission was not differ all treatments on 6 h than in control. The rumen microbial growth rate was significantly higher (p<0.05) in ginseng, balloon flower on 12 h and significantly higher (p<0.05) in ginseng, yucca plant, tea plant and ogapi treatments on 24 h than in control. Total VFA was significantly higher (p<0.05) in tea plant and ogapi treatments on 12 h than in control and significantly higher (p<0.05) in ginseng, balloon flower treatments on 48 h than in control. Acetic acid was significantly lower (p<0.05) in ginseng and balloon flower treatments on 24 h than in control. Propionic acid was significantly higher (p<0.05) in ginseng and balloon flower treatments on 48 h than in control. As a results, sixth natural plant extracts had no significant effect dry matter digestibility and negative on rumen fermentation, but not effect methane reduction.

Current Status of Cattle Genome Sequencing and Analysis using Next Generation Sequencing (차세대유전체해독 기법을 이용한 소 유전체 해독 연구현황)

  • Choi, Jung-Woo;Chai, Han-Ha;Yu, Dayeong;Lee, Kyung-Tai;Cho, Yong-Min;Lim, Dajeong
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.25 no.3
    • /
    • pp.349-356
    • /
    • 2015
  • Thanks to recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, diverse livestock species have been dissected at the genome-wide sequence level. As for cattle, there are currently four Korean indigenous breeds registered with the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations: Hanwoo, Chikso, Heugu, and Jeju Heugu. These native genetic resources were recently whole-genome resequenced using various NGS technologies, providing enormous single nucleotide polymorphism information across the genomes. The NGS application further provided biological such that Korean native cattle are genetically distant from some cattle breeds of European origins. In addition, the NGS technology was successfully applied to detect structural variations, particularly copy number variations that were usually difficult to identify at the genome-wide level with reasonable accuracy. Despite the success, those recent studies also showed an inherent limitation in sequencing only a representative individual of each breed. To elucidate the biological implications of the sequenced data, further confirmatory studies should be followed by sequencing or validating the population of each breed. Because NGS sequencing prices have consistently dropped, various population genomic theories can now be applied to the sequencing data obtained from the population of each breed of interest. There are still few such population studies available for the Korean native cattle breeds, but this situation will soon be improved with the recent initiative for NGS sequencing of diverse native livestock resources, including the Korean native cattle breeds.

Effects of Extruded Linseed Supplementation on Methane Production in Holstein Steers (Extruded linseed 첨가가 홀스타인 거세우 장내발효 메탄발생량에 미치는 효과)

  • Woo, Yang Won;Lee, Chang Hyun;Rajaraman, Bharanidharan;Yeo, Joon Mo;Lee, Won Young;Kim, Do Hyung;Jang, Seon-Sik;Kim, Kyoung Hoon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.37 no.4
    • /
    • pp.315-321
    • /
    • 2017
  • The present experiment was designed to investigate the effects of extruded linseed supplementation on methane production in Holstein steers. Four Holstein steers fitted with permanent cannulas were assigned to two dietary treatments in a duplicated $2{\times}2$ Latin square design: a control diet consisting of tall fescue straw (65%) and concentrate (35%), and a treatment diet supplemented with 3.8% extruded linseed by replacing a part of ingredients in the concentrate of the control diet. The concentrates of the control and the treatment diet were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. Extruded linseed supplementation did not affect dry matter intake but significantly (P<0.05) increased the intake of lipid. Rumen pH was significantly (P<0.05) lower for control than for treatment. Although there was no significant difference between treatments, the concentration of total VFA in control was 21% higher than in treatment. The concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid were not different between treatments. Extruded linseed supplementation significantly (P<0.05) reduced methane output(g/d) and emission factor. Methane conversion rate was lower for treatment than for control but no significant difference was found. The results of the present study showed that extruded linseed supplementation in the diet of Holstein steers could reduce methane output.

Effects of Processing Methods of Corn and their Thickness on in situ Dry Matter Degradability and in vitro Methane Production (옥수수 가공방법 및 두께가 in situ 건물 분해율과 in vitro 메탄 발생에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Do Hyung;Lee, Chang Hyun;Woo, Yang Won;Rajaraman, Bharanidharan;Kim, Jong Nam;Cho, Kwang Hyeon;Jang, Sun Sik;Kim, Kyoung Hoon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.37 no.4
    • /
    • pp.308-314
    • /
    • 2017
  • This study was conducted with two ruminally cannulated Holstein steers to examine the effect of micronized and steam flaked corn on ruminal fermentation characteristics. The in situ dry matter degradability after 48 h incubation was the highest (P<0.05) at micronized corn (2.5 mm thickness) compared with steam flaked corn treatments. The steam flacked corn (3.3 mm thickness) was degraded lower (P<0.05) than the 2.9 and 3.1 mm thickness of steam flacked corn. Effective dry matter degradability and the rate of constant were the highest (P<0.05) at micronized corn (2.5 mm thickness) compared with steam flaked corns as well. The in vitro dry matter degradability after 48 h incubation was tended to higher (P=0.088) at micronized corn (2.5 mm thickness) than steam flaked corns, whereas there is no significantly difference between steam flaked corn treatments. Total volatile fatty acid concentration was higher at steam flaked corn (2.9 mm thickness) than micronized corn (2.5 mm thickness) and steam flaked corn (3.1 and 3.3 mm thickness). The acetate : propionate ratio was the highest (P=0.008) at steam flaked corn (2.9 mm thickness) and the lowest (P=0.008) at micronized corn (2.5 mm thickness). Total gas and methane production after 48h ruminal incubation was the highest (P=0.001) at micronized corn (2.5 mm thickness) compared with steam flaked corns. According to these results, the thickness of steam flaked corn as resulted corn processing is believed to do not affect methane production. However, further study is needed to better understand the present results to verify the correlation between corn processing method and their thickness on methane production using the same thickness corns by difference processing methods.