• Title, Summary, Keyword: Half-time (T1/2)

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The Mean Transit Time of the CBD and the Afferent Loop Using $^{99m}Tc-DISIDA$ Scintigram in Truncal Vagotomy (미주신경간절제술에 있어서 $^{99m}Tc-DISIDA$ 신티그램을 이용한 총수담관 및 Afferent loop의 평균지연시간)

  • Moon, Tae-Yong;Kim, Dong-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.199-203
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    • 1988
  • The authors observed functional change of the CBD and the afferent loop with the transit time of $^{99m}Tc-DISIDA$ scintigram in patients treated by the surgical operation of gastric ulcers and cancer at Busan National University Hospital from June, 1987 to April, 1988. So authors estimated the time between the peak activity of the CBD and the afferent loop (TCA), the half transit time of the CBD activity (t 1/2 CBD) and the half transit time of the afferent loop activity (t 1/2 A-loop) in 9 patients undergone truncal vagotomy, who have no specific symptoms at 2 to 6 months after the operation, 5 patients undergone the operation without truncal vagotomy, and 7 persons as a control group. The results were as follows: I) In control group, the mean TCA, t 1/2 CBD and t 1/2 duodenum were $8.6{\pm}9.0$ min, $38.7{\pm}17.3$ min. and $28.6{\pm}10.9$ min, respectively. 2) In the operation group without truncal vagotomy, the mean TCA, t 1/2 CBD and t 1/2 A-loop were $10.0{\pm}7.1$ min. $48.2{\pm}22.3$ min. and $39.4{\pm}26.7$ min. respectively. 3) In the operation group with truncal vagotomy, the mean TCA, t 1/2 CBD and t 1/2 A-loop were $15.0{\pm}8.7$ min., $36.1{\pm}16.5$ min. and $42.6{\pm}24.4$ min, respectively. From the above results, we concluded that the transit time of the CBD and the afferent loop is not affected by truncal vagotomy.

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${T_2}weighted$- Half courier Echo Planar Imaging

  • 김치영;김휴정;안창범
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : $T_2$-weighted half courier Echo Planar Imaging (T2HEPI) method is proposed to reduce measurement time of existing EPI by a factor of 2. In addition, high $T_2$ contrast is obtained for clinical applications. High resolution single-shot EPI images with $T_2$ contrast are obtained with $128{\times}128$ matrix size by the proposed method. Materials and methods : In order to reduce measurement time in EPI, half courier space is measured, and rest of half courier data is obtained by conjugate symmetric filling. Thus high resolution single shot EPI image with $128{\times}128$ matrix size is obtained with 64 echoes. By the arrangement of phase encoding gradients, high $T_2$ weighted images are obtained. The acquired data in k-space are shifted if there exists residual gradient field due to eddy current along phase encoding gradient, which results in a serious problem in the reconstructed image. The residual field is estimated by the correlation coefficient between the echo signal for dc and the corresponding reference data acquired during the pre-scan. Once the residual gradient field is properly estimated, it can be removed by the adjustment of initial phase encoding gradient field between $70^{\circ}$ and $180^{\circ}$ rf pulses. Results : The suggested T2EPl is implemented in a 1.0 Tela whole body MRI system. Experiments are done with the effective echo times of 72ms and 96ms with single shot acquisitions. High resolution($128{\times}128$) volunteer head images with high $T_2$ contrast are obtained in a single scan by the proposed method. Conclusion : Using the half courier technique, higher resolution EPI images are obtained with matrix size of $128{\times}128$ in a single scan. Furthermore $T_2$ contrast is controlled by the effective echo time. Since the suggested method can be implemented by software alone (pulse sequence and corresponding tuning and reconstruction algorithms) without addition of special hardware, it can be widely used in existing MRI systems.

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Study on the Measurement of $^{51}Cr-tagged$ Red Cell Survival - Reevaluation of its method & the effect of Blood loss on red cell suruival with $^{51}Cr$ - (방사성동위원소(放射性同位元素) $^{51}Cr$을 이용(利用)한 적혈구수명(赤血球壽命) 측정(測定)에 관(關)한 고찰(考察) -$^{51}Cr$-적혈구수명(赤血球壽命) 측정법(測定法)의 재평가(再評價)와 실혈(失血)이 수명측정(壽命測定)에 미치는 영향(影響)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Choi, Hak-Yong;Koh, Chang-Soon;Lee, Moon-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.55-66
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    • 1970
  • Reappraisal measurements of apparent half survival time of red cell by $^{51}Cr$ method was made and effects of blood-letting over red cell survival were observed. The study was performed on 53 normal male subjects under three different experimental conditions. 1. Group 1 Mean $^{51}Cr$ red cell half survival by ACD wash method was 29.7 days. $T\frac{1}{2}$ of Ascorbic acid method was 29.0 days in group with 100 mg dose and 29.1 days in group with 50 mg dose respectively. There was no difference between these two methods in regards to red cell half survival. No difference were noted in amount of ascorbic acid administered. 2. Group 2 As daily amount of blood loss is increased the shortening of red cell half survival was noted. Rapid phase was seen when blood loss ranged 10 to 25 ml per day, while slow phase noted when more loss amounted 25 ml or more daily. Thus, it was clear that there was more than an exponential relation between $T\frac{1}{2}$ and the amount of blood loss. 3. Group 3 $T\frac{1}{2}$ measured by cpm per whole blood was within normal range and $T\frac{1}{2}$ measured by cpm per red cell mass showed shortening tendency when compared with the former in the group measured after blood loss (from 25 ml daily up to 100 ml daily in 10 days). In the group with rather constant blood loss of 100 ml daily for 10 consecutive days revealed the significant difference in two measurements (P<0.01). 4. $T\frac{1}{2}$ in non-steady state When red cell production is increased compared with red cell destruction, $T\frac{1}{2}$ measured by cpm per red cell mass being shorter than that by cpm per whole blood. Shortening of $T\frac{1}{2}$ measured by cpm per whole blood is more prominent. if red cell destrction is enhanced and exceeds production. 5. It is clear that when expressing red cell destruction rate, $T\frac{1}{2}$ measured by cpm per whole blood is more adequate and production more consistent with cpm red cell mass. 6. $T\frac{1}{2}$ measured during blood-letting, when corrected by amount of blood loss, it remains normal. It is erroneous to use conventional equational when measuring $T\frac{1}{2}$ in non-steady. $T\frac{1}{2}$ measured by cpm per whole blood is considred more applicable in clinical evaluation.

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GET Imaging Evaluation of Patients with Esophageal Cancer (식도암 환자의 GET 영상 평가)

  • Moon, Jong Wun;Lee, Chung Wun;Seo, Young Deok;Yun, Sang Hyeok;Kim, Yong Keun;Won, Woo Jae
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Measure gastric emptying time (GET: Gastric Emptying Time) is a non-invasive and quantitative evaluation methods, mainly by endoscopic or radiological examination confirmed no mechanical obstruction in patients with symptoms of congestion is checked. Such tests are not common gastric emptying time measured esophageal cancer patients (who underwent esophagectomy) patients after surgery for gastric emptying time was measured test. And the period of time for more than one year after the gastric emptying time measurement was performed. By comparing the two kinds of tests in the chest cavity after surgery as the evaluation of gastrointestinal function tests evaluate the usefulness of GET, and will evaluate the characteristics of the image. Materials and Methods: 93 patients who underwent esophagectomy with gastric emptying time measurement of subject tests immediately after surgery and after 1 year or longer were twice. Preparation of the patient before the test is more than 12 hours of overnight fasting is important, in addition to the medicine or to stop smoking, and diabetes insulin injections should be early in the morning is ideal to test. Generally labeled with $^{99m}Tc-DTPA$ resin which is used to make steamed egg, seaweed and fermented milk with a high viscosity after eating, three hours in the standing position was measured. Evaluation of gastric emptying curves on the way intragastric radioactivity level by 50% the time (half-time [T1/2]) was calculated, based on the half-life was divided into three steps: over 180 minutes was defined as delayed gastric emptying, within 180minutes was defined as intermediate gastric emptying and when all the radioisotopes were dumped into the jejunum as soon as swallowed, was defined as rapid gastric emptying. Results: Gastric emptying time of a typical images stomach of antrum and fundus additional images appear stronger over time move on to the small intestine. but esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy side of the thoracic cavity showed a strong image. Immediately after surgery, the half-time (T1/2) of rapid gastric emptying appeared to 12.9%, intermediate gastric emptying appeared to 52.7%, delay gastric emptying appeared to 34.4%. After more than a year the results of the half-life after surgery, 67% of rapid gastric emptying to intermediate gastric emptying was changed, 69% of delay gastric emptying to intermediate gastric emptying changed. Intermediate gastric emptying worse in patients rapid gastric emptying and the delay gastric emptying is 24% in the case. Conclusion: Esophagectomy for esophageal cancer who underwent half-time measurement test (T1/2) rapid gastric emptying and delay gastric emptying are the result of the comparison over time, changes were observed intermediate gastric emptying. Mainly seeing of gastric emptying time measurement in the esophagus instead of thoracic cavity to check the evaluation of gastrointestinal function can be useful even means. And segmentation criteria and narrow time interval of checking if more accurate information and analysis of the clinical diagnosis and evaluation seems to be done.

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Correlation Analysis between Gastric Emptying Measurement by Ultrasonography and Korean Medical Questionnaires (초음파 위배출 측정과 한의설문 간의 상관성 분석)

  • Cho, Soo-ho;Lee, Jae-hong;Ko, Seok-jae;Kim, Jin-sung;Park, Jae-woo
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.570-591
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    • 2018
  • Objective: This study was designed to investigate the correlation between gastric emptying measurement by ultrasonography and the findings of various questionnaires of functional dyspepsia (FD) or in Korean medicine to explore the possibility of quantification of questionnaires. Methods: Eighty-eight patients (44 patients with FD and 44 healthy controls) were recruited from October 2016 to November 2017. Gastric emptying half-time (T1/2) was measured by ultrasonography at fasting, and at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after meals (apple juice, 500 ml, 224 kcal). The average half-time (average T1/2) was calculated by averaging all measured half-times. A visual analogue scale (VAS), food retention questionnaire (FRQ), damum questionnaire (DQ), cold and heat questionnaire (CHQ), deficiency and excess questionnaire (DEQ), spleen-qi deficiency questionnaire (SQDQ), Nepean dyspepsia index-Korean version (NDI-K), and quality of life of NDI (NDI-QoL) were filled out by all participants. Correlation between the average T1/2 and questionnaires were analyzed for 79 patients (37 patients with FD and 42 healthy controls) after excluding missing and erroneous data. Results: The FRQ, DEQ, SQDQ, NDI-K, and NDI-QoL scores, especially for some gastrointestinal symptoms and general weakness-related symptoms, showed statistically significant correlations with average T1/2. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gastric emptying measurement by ultrasonography may be a quantitative substitute method for some Korean medical questionnaires or for some dyspepsia-related and deficiency-related items among them. However, further studies using various measurements of gastric emptying will be needed.

Clinical Study on Measurement Intervals in the Ultrasonographic Gastric Emptying Test for Functional Dyspepsia (기능성 소화불량에서 초음파 위배출능 측정간격에 대한 임상연구)

  • Kim, Keum-ji;Jeon, Hye-jin;Ko, Seok-jae;Park, Jae-woo
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.1030-1051
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    • 2020
  • Objective: This study investigated the measurement interval in the ultrasonographic gastric emptying test for patients with functional dyspepsia (FD) and the correlation between gastric emptying and the findings of various questionnaires. Methods: In total, 119 patients (59 patients with FD and 60 healthy controls) were recruited from July 2018 to June 2020. Gastric volume (GV) and gastric emptying half-time (T1/2) were measured by ultrasonography at fasting and again at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after meals (apple juice, 500 mL, 224 kcal), and the average half-time (average T1/2) was calculated. Questionnaires on food retention (FRQ), phlegm pattern e (PPQ), cold and heat (CHQ), deficiency and excess (DEQ), and spleen-qi deficiency (SQDQ), stomach qi deficiency pattern (SSDQ), visual analogue scale (VAS), and Nepean dyspepsia index-Korean version (NDI-K) were completed by all participants. The differences in GV and T1/2 were analyzed in participants whose maximal GV occurred at 0 min versus after 0 min. The correlation of the average T1/2 with the questionnaire scores was also analyzed after excluding erroneous data. Results: Patients with FD who took a certain amount of time to reach maximal GV after meals had a greater gastric volume up to about 30 minutes after meals, and the PPQ, DEQ, and NDI-K scores, especially for upper gastrointestinal symptoms and general weakness-related symptoms, showed statistically significant correlations with average T1/2. Conclusions: Ultrasonography can be a quantitative evaluation tool for FD. However, further studies on measurement methods based on FD physiopathology are required.

Correlation between skeletal and dental changes after mandibular setback surgery-first orthodontic treatment: Cone-beam computed tomography-generated half-cephalograms

  • Rhee, Chang-Hoon;Choi, Youn-Kyung;Kim, Yong-Il;Kim, Seong-Sik;Park, Soo-Byung;Son, Woo-Sung
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.59-65
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    • 2015
  • Objective: To investigate skeletal and dental changes after application of a mandibular setback surgery-first orthodontic treatment approach in cases of skeletal Class III malocclusion. Methods: A retrospective study of 34 patients (23 men, 11 women; mean age, $26.2{\pm}6.6years$) with skeletal Class III deformities, who underwent surgery-first orthodontic treatment, was conducted. Skeletal landmarks in the maxilla and mandible at three time points, pre-treatment (T0), immediate-postoperative (T1), and post-treatment (T2), were analyzed using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-generated half-cephalograms. Results: The significant T0 to T1 mandibular changes occurred $-9.24{\pm}3.97mm$ horizontally. From T1 to T2, the mandible tended to move forward $1.22{\pm}2.02mm$, while the condylar position (Cd to Po-perpendicular plane) shifted backward, and the coronoid process (Cp to FH plane) moved vertically. Between T1 and T2, the vertical dimension changed significantly (p < 0.05). Changes in the vertical dimension were significantly correlated to T1 to T2 changes in the Cd to Po-perpendicular plane (r = -0.671, p = 0.034), and in the Cp to FH plane (r = 0.733, p = 0.016), as well as to T0 to T1 changes in the Cp to Po-perpendicular plane (r = 0.758, p = 0.011). Conclusions: Greater alterations in the vertical dimension caused larger post-treatment (T2) stage skeletal changes. Studying the mandibular position in relation to the post-surgical vertical dimension emphasized the integral importance of vertical dimension control and proximal segment management to the success of surgery-first orthodontic treatment.

Pharmacokinetic Behavior and Tissue Distribution of Verapamil and Its Enantiomers in Rats by HPLC

  • He, Langchong;Wang, Sicen
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.26 no.9
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    • pp.763-767
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    • 2003
  • The differences in pharmacokinetic behavior and tissue distribution of verapamil and its enantiomers were investigated in rats. In high-performance liquid chromatographic method, an achiral ODS column (150 mm $\times$ 4.6 mm i.d.) with the mobile phase consisting of methanol-water (73:30, v/v) was used for the determination of the concentration for racemic verapamil, and a Chiralcel OJ column (250 mm$\times$4.6 mm i.d.) with the mixture of n-haxane-ethanol-triethylamine (85:15:0.2, v/v/v) as mobile phase was used to determine the concentrations of verapamil enantiomers. A fluorescence detector in the analytical system was set at excitation and emission wavelengths of 275 nm and 315 nm. The differences between enantiomers were apparent in the pharmacokinetics in rats. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of S-(-) verapamil was higher than that of R-(+) verapamil. The half-distribution time ($T_{1/2(\alpha)}$) of S-(-) verapamil which distributing to tissue from blood was shorter than that of R-(+) verapamil, but the elimination half-time ($T_{1/2(\beta)}$) was longer in rat following oral administration of racemic verapamil. At 1.3 h after oral administration of racemic verapamil, however, there were no significant differences between enantiomers for the distributions in major tissues such as heart, cerebrum, cerebellum, liver, spleen and kidney.

Nutrient dynamics in decomposing litter from four selected tree species in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

  • Okoh, Thomas;Edu, Esther
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.376-384
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    • 2019
  • Background: Nutrient release during litter decomposition was investigated in Vitex doniana, Terminalia avecinioides, Sarcocephallus latifolius, and Parinari curatellifolius in Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria (January 10 to March 10 and from June 10 to August 10, 2016). Leaf decomposition was measured as loss in mass of litter over time using the decay model Wt/W0 = e-kd t, while $Kd=-{\frac{1}{t}}In({\frac{Wt}{W0}})$ was used to evaluate decomposition rate. Time taken for half of litter to decompose was measured using T50 = ln 2/k; while nutrient accumulation index was evaluated as $NAI=(\frac{{\omega}t\;Xt}{{\omega}oXo})$. Results: Average mass of litter remaining after exposure ranged from 96.15 g, (V. doniana) to 78.11 g, (S. lafolius) in dry (November to March) and wet (April to October) seasons. Decomposition rate was averagely faster in the wet season (0.0030) than in the dry season (0.0022) with P. curatellifolius (0.0028) and T. avecinioides (0.0039) having the fastest decomposition rates in dry and wet seasons. Mean residence time (days) ranged from 929 to 356, while the time (days) for half the original mass to decompose ranged from 622 to 201 (dry and wet seasons). ANOVA revealed highly significant differences (p < 0.01) in decomposition rates and exposure time (days) and a significant interaction (p < 0.05) between species and exposure time in both seasons. Conclusion: Slow decomposition in the plant leaves implied carbon retention in the ecosystem and slow release of CO2 back to the atmosphere, while nitrogen was mineralized in both seasons. The plants therefore showed effectiveness in nutrient cycling and support productivity in the ecosystem.

Comparison of Effects between Alteplase and Pamiteplase on MMPs Regulation (Alteplase와 pamiteplase에 의한 MMPs 조절 효과 비교)

  • Jung, Jae-Chang;Lee, Sun-Ryung
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.1019-1022
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    • 2007
  • Thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) can improve the clinical outcome of ischemic stroke patients. However, its clinical application is limited by narrow therapeutic time windows and elevated risks of cerebral hemorrhage and brain injury. In part, these effects of tPA has been related to matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) dysregulation. Here, we investigate that the effects of alteplase (tPA with short half-life) and pamiteplase (a modified tPA with long half-life) on the MMP-9 regulation in neurovascualr unit. The total levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in neuronal cells are lower than astrocytes. Alteplase (1-10 ${\mu}g/ml$) induced upregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in rat cortical neurons and astrocytes, respectively. Whereas pamiteplase in a wide range of dose did not affect the MMP-2 and MMP-9 responses in both of cells. These results suggest that pamiteplase with long half-life can be provided as a agent that overcome the side effects of alteplase.