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Analysis of Snowfall Development Mechanism over the Korean Peninsula due to Polar Low (극저기압에 의한 한반도 강설 발달기구 분석)

  • Kim, Jinyeon;Min, Ki-Hong
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.34 no.7
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    • pp.645-661
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    • 2013
  • The synoptic, thermodynamic, and dynamic characteristics of a heavy snowfall event that occurred in Seoul metropolitan area on 27 to 28 December 2010 was investigated. During this period there was a distinctive case that was identified as a polar low. We analyzed surface and upper level weather charts, snowfall amount, sea surface temperature, satellite imagery, sounding, and the National Center for Environmental Prediction global $1^{\circ}{\times}1^{\circ}$ reanalysis data. The polar low developed in an area where there was strong baroclinicity in the lower level aided by strong conditional instability due to 925 hPa warm air advection and 700 hPa cold air advection. The development mechanism of polar low is due, in part, to the tropopause folding, which advected stratospheric air increasing potential vorticity in mid-level and inducing cyclonic vorticity and convergence in low-level. Eventually clouds developed and there were snowfall total of 10 cm in Seoul metropolitan area and as much as 20 cm in southern parts of Korea. During the snowfall development, there was a $-45^{\circ}C$ cold core at 500 hPa and shortwave maintained $3-5^{\circ}$ separation with surface trough, which favored the development of polar low located in the warm sector and cyclonic advection area. The height of the dynamical tropopause lowered to 700 hPa during the peak development and increase in potential vorticity allowed strong vertical motion to occur. Overall, there was a close relationship between the development of snowfall and tropopause undulation. The heaviest snowfall occurred east of the tropopause folding where strong cyclonic vorticity, vertical motion, and moisture advection all coincided while the polar low was passing through the Korean peninsula.

Reviewing the Explosively Deepening Cyclone(Cyclonic Bomb) over the East Sea with the Satellite Observations (위성관측에 의한 동해상의 폭발적 저기압의 고찰)

  • 정효상
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.126-138
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    • 1996
  • The characteristics of rapid development of the low pressure system over the East Sea from 06 to 08 Nov., 1995 has been analyzed in detail by the synoptic numerical products and satellite observations. The Low system was initially triggered the development of the baroclinic leaf cloud over the border of the northern part of Korea and China and moved eastward and then developed explosively com-ma or lambda type cloud system over the East Sea. To forecast well the general development and movement of the coastal winter cyclone over the East Sea popularly in a numerical simulation by several scientists, the large baroclinicity, continuous support of water vapor, and sequential cold outbreak over the warm sea surface have been more commonly concerned about. The cyclone which the central surface pressure was dropped 40hPa within 24 hours has often accompanied strong wind and heavy snow- or rain-fall in the winter season. In all successive observations with 12-hourly satellite imagery and analyzed meteorological variables in this period, the centers of the sea-level pressure and 500hPa geopotential height associated with this cyclone were typically illustrated by moving farther eastward using GMS combined enhanced IR images. The maxi-mum wind sustained by this system with the intensity and central pressure of tropical storm was about 60 knots with the center pressure drop of 44hPa/day similar to the North American cyclonic bomb and Atlantic storm.

Effects of Dietary ${\omega}$-3 and ${\omega}$-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Fatty Acid Composition of Immune Organs in Young Chicks (${\omega}$-3 및 ${\omega}$-6계 지방산 첨가 사료의 급여가 어린 병아리에서 면역기관 내 지방산 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • Ahn, Byeong-Ki;Youn, Je-Yeong;Chee, Kyu-Man
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.289-299
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    • 2003
  • Effects of various combinations of corn oil (CO) and perilla oil (PO) as respective dietary sources of ${\omega}$-6 and ${\omega}$-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on fatty acid profiles of immune organs were studied in young chicks. Seventy-five 1-day-old male (ISA Brown) chicks were assigned to five treatments with three replications. Semi-purified-type diets containing glucose and soybean meal as major ingredients were added with 8% CO, 6% CO+2% PO, 4% CO+4% PO, 2% CO+6% PO and 8% PO and fed for 7 weeks. There were no significant differences in body weight gain, feed intake and relative weights of liver and immune organs (g/100g weight) among dietary groups. Dietary fatty acid patterns were generally reflected in the fatty acid compositions of all immune organs such as spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius. The levels of a-linolenic acid(LNA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid in various immune organs increased with increasing levels of perilla oil in the diets, whilet the levels of linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) decreased. Thymus appeared to have capacity to retain remarkably higher (P<0.05) levels of LA and LNA up to 37 and 22%, respectively, compared to the other organs. Thymic tissue contained ${\omega}$-3 fatty acid and ${\omega}$-6 fatty acid 10~36 times and 3~5 times higher than the other organs, respectively. Spleen tissue was specifically higher (P<0.05) in the levels of AA and EPA and the ratios of AA/LA and EPA/LNA, compared to the other organs, suggesting that the tissue might have high desaturase activity to convert LA or LNA to AA or EPA, respectively. BSA antibody production tended to increase by 18 ~ 32% with higher levels of perilla oil in diet, although the increase was not statistically significant. In conclusion, fatty acid compositions of immune organs very depending on the lipid composition of the diets and each organ appears to respond differently for its fatty acid profile to dietary lipids. Considering AA and EPA are precursors of many important eicosanoids, further studies are required to clarify the responses of the immune organs to the dietary fatty acids.

Oxidative Desulfurization of Marine Diesel Using Keggin Type Heteropoly Acid Catalysts (Keggin형 헤테로폴리산 촉매를 이용한 선박용 경유의 산화 탈황)

  • Oh, Hyeonwoo;Woo, Hee Chul
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.91-97
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    • 2019
  • Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) has received much attention in recent years because refractory sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophenes can be oxidized selectively to their corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones, and these products can be removed by extraction and adsorption. In this work, The oxidative desulfurization of marine diesel fuel was performed in a batch reactor with hydrogen peroxide ($H_2O_2$) in the presence of various supported heteropoly acid catalysts. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, XRF, XPS and nitrogen adsorption isotherm techniques. Based on the sulfur removal efficiency of promising silica supported heteropoly acid catalysts, the ranking of catalytic activity was: $30\;H_3PW_{12}/SiO_2$ > $30\;H_3PMo_{12}/SiO_2$ > $30\;H_4SiW_{12}/SiO_2$, which appears to be related with their intrinsic acid strength. The $30\;H_3PW_{12}/SiO_2$ catalyst showed the highest initial sulfur removal efficiency of about 66% under reaction conditions of $30^{\circ}C$, $0.025g\;mL^{-1}$ (cat./oil), 1 h reaction time. However, through the recycle test of the $H_3PW_{12}/SiO_2$ catalyst, significant deactivation was observed, which was attributed to the elution of the active component $H_3PW_{12}$. By introducing cesium cation ($Cs^+$) into the $H_3PW_{12}/SiO_2$ catalyst, the stability of the catalyst was improved with changing the solubility, and the $Cs^+$ ion exchanged catalyst could be recycled for at least five times without severe elution.