• Title, Summary, Keyword: HMM

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A study on performance improvement of neural network using output probability of HMM (HMM의 출력확률을 이용한 신경회로망의 성능향상에 관한 연구)

  • 표창수;김창근;허강인
    • Proceedings of the Korea Institute of Convergence Signal Processing
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    • pp.157-160
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    • 2000
  • 본 논문은 HMM(Hidden Markov Model)을 이용하여 인식을 수행할 경우의 오류를 최소화 할 수 있는 후처리 과정으로 신경망을 결합시켜 HMM 단독으로 사용하였을 때 보다 높은 인식률을 얻을 수 있는 HMM과 신경망의 하이브리드시스템을 제안한다. HMM을 이용하여 학습한 후 학습에 참여하지 않은 데이터를 인식하였을 때 오인식 데이터를 정인식으로 인식하도록 HMM의 출력으로 얻은 각 출력확률을 후처리에 사용될 MLP(Multilayer Perceptrons)의 학습용으로 사용하여 MLP를 학습하여 HMM과 MLP을 결합한 하이브리드 모델을 만든다. 이와 같은 HMM과 신경망을 결합한 하이브리드 모델을 사용하여 단독 숫자음과 4연 숫자음 데이터에서 실험한 결과 HMM 단독으로 사용하였을 때 보다 각각 약 4.5%, 1.3%의 인식률 향상이 있었다. 기존의 하이브리드 시스템이 갖는 많은 학습시간이 소요되는 문제점과 실시간 음성인식시스템을 구현할 때의 학습데이터의 부족으로 인한 인식률 저하를 해결할 수 있는 방법임을 확인할 수 있었다.

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A study on performance improvement of neural network using output probability of HMM (HMM의 출력확률을 이용한 신경회로망의 성능향상에 관한 연구)

  • Pyo Chang Soo;Kim Chang Keun;Hur Kang In
    • Journal of the Institute of Convergence Signal Processing
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2000
  • In this paper, the hybrid system of HMM and neural network is proposed and show better recognition rate of the post-process procedure which minimizes the process error of recognition than that of HMM(Hidden Markov Model) only used. After the HMM training by training data, testing data that are not taken part in the training are sent to HMM. The output probability from HMM output by testing data is used for the training data of the neural network, post processor. After neural network training, the hybrid system is completed. This hybrid system makes the recognition rate improvement of about $4.5\%$ in MLP and about $2\%$ in RBFN and gives the solution to training time of conventional hybrid system and to decrease of the recognition rate due to the lack of training data in real-time speech recognition system.

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Performance Comparison of GMM and HMM Approaches for Bandwidth Extension of Speech Signals (음성신호의 대역폭 확장을 위한 GMM 방법 및 HMM 방법의 성능평가)

  • Song, Geun-Bae;Kim, Austin
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.119-128
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    • 2008
  • This paper analyzes the relationship between two representative statistical methods for bandwidth extension (BWE): Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and Hidden Markov Model (HMM) ones, and compares their performances. The HMM method is a memory-based system which was developed to take advantage of the inter-frame dependency of speech signals. Therefore, it could be expected to estimate better the transitional information of the original spectra from frame to frame. To verify it, a dynamic measure that is an approximation of the 1st-order derivative of spectral function over time was introduced in addition to a static measure. The comparison result shows that the two methods are similar in the static measure, while, in the dynamic measure, the HMM method outperforms explicitly the GMM one. Moreover, this difference increases in proportion to the number of states of HMM model. This indicates that the HMM method would be more appropriate at least for the 'blind BWE' problem. On the other hand, nevertheless, the GMM method could be treated as a preferable alternative of the HMM one in some applications where the static performance and algorithm complexity are critical.

On-line Handwriting Recognition Based on Substroke HMM (Substroke HMM 기반 온라인 필기체 문자인식)

  • 김춘영;석수영;정호열;정현열
    • Proceedings of the Korea Institute of Convergence Signal Processing
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    • pp.74-77
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    • 2003
  • 본 논문에서는 자연스러운 온라인 필기체 문자 인식을 위하여 획 기반 HMM(Substroke HMM)을 기반으로 한 인식 방법을 채택하고, 획 분류의 정확도 향상을 위한 전처리 과정에 대해 재샘플링 간격 조정을 통한 획 분류실험을 통해 인식률 제고에 관한 실험을 수행하였다 필기체 문자인식을 위한 방법으로 한 문자 전체를 HMM으로 구성하는 Whole-character HMM과 자소단위를 HMM으로 구성하는 character HMM을 주로 이용하였으나, 이러한 방법은 문자의 수에 비례하여 비교적 큰 메모리 용량과 계산량이 요구되는 단점이 있다. 이러한 단점을 개선하기 위한 획 기반 HMM은 문자를 획 단위로 분류한 후 이를 HMM 모델로 구성하므로 소수의 획 기반 HMM 모델만으로 문자를 모두 표현할 수 있는 장점을 가지고 있어, 인식률의 큰 저하 없이 계산량 및 메모리 용량을 크게 줄일 수 있다. PDA상에서 수집한 완성형 한글 데이터베이스를 사용하여 획 분류 실험을 수행한 결과 평활화와 7/100 길이의 재샘플링을 수행한 경우 평활화 과정을 추가하지 않은 기존의 재샘플링 5/100 길이의 경우에 비해 정확도가 평균 3.7% 향상을 나타내었으며, 특히 첨가 에러율이 감소함을 확인할 수 있다.

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Hangel Handwriting generation using HMMs (HMM을 이용한 한글 필기 생성)

  • Sin, Bong-Kee;Kim, Jin-Hyung
    • Annual Conference on Human and Language Technology
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    • pp.152-163
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    • 1995
  • 본 논문에서는 은닉 마르코프 모형(HMM)을 이용하여 사람이 쓴 필기의 통계적 특징을 갖는 글씨를 생성하는 방법에 대해서 기술코자 한다. 온라인 필기처럼 같이 필기 궤적을 시계열 신호로 표현하고, 그 특징을 통계적 모형의 하나인 HMM으로 표현한다. HMM은 시계열 신호에 대응하는 모형 내부 경로와 심볼열의 확률 분포를 표현하는 함수이다. 따라서 최적 경로에서 볼 수 있는 최적 출력 심볼열은 훈련 필기 데이타의 평균적 필기 특징에 해당한다. HMM이 주어졌을 때 HMM에서 최적의 패턴을 해석적으로 구하는 방법은 알려져 있지 않다. 본 논문에서는 동적 프로그래밍 기법을 적용하여 HMM이나 HMM 네트워크 모형에서 필기를 생성하는 방법을 제시하고, 아울러 HMM의 문제점을 지적한다.

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Heart Sound-Based Cardiac Disorder Classifiers Using an SVM to Combine HMM and Murmur Scores (SVM을 이용하여 HMM과 심잡음 점수를 결합한 심음 기반 심장질환 분류기)

  • Kwak, Chul;Kwon, Oh-Wook
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.149-157
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    • 2011
  • In this paper, we propose a new cardiac disorder classification method using an support vector machine (SVM) to combine hidden Markov model (HMM) and murmur existence information. Using cepstral features and the HMM Viterbi algorithm, we segment input heart sound signals into HMM states for each cardiac disorder model and compute log-likelihood (score) for every state in the model. To exploit the temporal position characteristics of murmur signals, we divide the input signals into two subbands and compute murmur probability of every subband of each frame, and obtain the murmur score for each state by using the state segmentation information obtained from the Viterbi algorithm. With an input vector containing the HMM state scores and the murmur scores for all cardiac disorder models, SVM finally decides the cardiac disorder category. In cardiac disorder classification experimental results, the proposed method shows the relatively improvement rate of 20.4 % compared to the HMM-based classifier with the conventional cepstral features.

Isolated-Word Recognition Using Neural Network and Hidden Markov Model (Neural-HMM을 이용한 고립단어 인식)

  • 김연수;김창석
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.1199-1205
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    • 1992
  • In this paper, a Korean word recognition method which usese Neural Network and Hidden Markov Models(HMM) is proposed to improve a recognition rate with a small amount of learning data. The method reduces the fluctuation due to personal differences which is a problem to a HMM recognition system. In this method, effective recognizer is designed by the complement of each recognition result of the Hidden Markov Models(HMM) and Neural Network. In order to evaluate this model, word recognition experiment is carried out for 28 cities which is DDD area names uttered by two male and a female in twenties. As a result of testing HMM with 8 state, codeword is 64, the recognition rate 91[%], as a result of testing Neural network(NN) with 64 codeword the recognition rate is 89[%]. Finally, as a result of testing NN-HMM with 64 codeword which the best condition in former tests, the recognition rate is 95[%].

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Text Independent Speaker Verficiation Using Dominant State Information of HMM-UBM (HMM-UBM의 주 상태 정보를 이용한 음성 기반 문맥 독립 화자 검증)

  • Shon, Suwon;Rho, Jinsang;Kim, Sung Soo;Lee, Jae-Won;Ko, Hanseok
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.171-176
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    • 2015
  • We present a speaker verification method by extracting i-vectors based on dominant state information of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) - Universal Background Model (UBM). Ergodic HMM is used for estimating UBM so that various characteristic of individual speaker can be effectively classified. Unlike Gaussian Mixture Model(GMM)-UBM based speaker verification system, the proposed system obtains i-vectors corresponding to each HMM state. Among them, the i-vector for feature is selected by extracting it from the specific state containing dominant state information. Relevant experiments are conducted for validating the proposed system performance using the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 2008 Speaker Recognition Evaluation (SRE) database. As a result, 12 % improvement is attained in terms of equal error rate.

A Study on VQ/HMM using Nonlinear Clustering and Smoothing Method (비선형 집단화와 완화기법을 이용한 VQ/HMM에 관한 연구)

  • 정희석;강철호
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.35-42
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    • 1999
  • In this paper, a modified clustering algorithm is proposed to improve the discrimination of discrete HMM(Hidden Markov Model), so that it has increased recognition rate of 2.16% in comparison with the original HMM using the K-means or LBG algorithm. And, for preventing the decrease of recognition rate because of insufficient training data at the training scheme of HMM, a modified probabilistic smoothing method is proposed, which has increased recognition rate of 3.07% for the speaker-independent case. In the experiment applied the two proposed algorithms, the average rate of recognition has increased 4.66% for the speaker-independent case in comparison with that of original VQ/HMM.

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HMM-Based Human Gait Recognition (HMM을 이용한 보행자 인식)

  • Sin Bong-Kee;Suk Heung-Il
    • Journal of KIISE:Software and Applications
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.499-507
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    • 2006
  • Recently human gait has been considered as a useful biometric supporting high performance human identification systems. This paper proposes a view-based pedestrian identification method using the dynamic silhouettes of a human body modeled with the Hidden Markov Model(HMM). Two types of gait models have been developed both with an endless cycle architecture: one is a discrete HMM method using a self-organizing map-based VQ codebook and the other is a continuous HMM method using feature vectors transformed into a PCA space. Experimental results showed a consistent performance trend over a range of model parameters and the recognition rate up to 88.1%. Compared with other methods, the proposed models and techniques are believed to have a sufficient potential for a successful application to gait recognition.