• Title/Summary/Keyword: Grow-finish phase

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Effect of Inorganic and Organic Trace Mineral Supplementation on the Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Fecal Mineral Excretion of Phase-fed, Grow-finish Swine

  • Burkett, J.L.;Stalder, K.J.;Powers, W.J.;Bregendahl, K.;Pierce, J.L.;Baas, T.J.;Bailey, T.;Shafer, B.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.9
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    • pp.1279-1287
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    • 2009
  • Concentrated livestock production has led to soil nutrient accumulation concerns. To reduce the environmental impact, it is necessary to understand current recommended livestock feeding practices. Two experiments were conducted to compare the effects of trace mineral supplementation on performance, carcass composition, and fecal mineral excretion of phase-fed, grow-finish pigs. Crossbred pigs (Experiment 1 (Exp. 1), (n = 528); Experiment 2 (Exp. 2), (n = 560)) were housed in totally-slatted, confinement barns, blocked by weight, penned by sex, and randomly assigned to pens at approximately 18 kg BW. Treatments were allocated in a randomized complete block design (12 replicate pens per treatment) with 9 to 12 pigs per pen throughout the grow-finish period. In Exp. 1, the control diet (Io100) contained Cu as $CuSO_{4}$, Fe as $FeSO_{4}$, and Zn (of which 25% was ZnO and 75% was $ZnO_{4}$) at concentrations of 63 and 378 mg/kg, respectively. Treatment 2 (O100) contained supplemental Cu, Fe, and Zn from organic sources (Bioplex, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) at concentrations of 19, 131, and 91 mg/kg, respectively, which are the commercially recommended dietary inclusion levels for these organic trace minerals. Organic Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations from O100 were reduced by 25% and 50% to form treatments 3 (O75) and 4 (O50-1), respectively. In Exp. 2, treatment 5 (Io25) contained 25% of the Cu, Fe, and Zn (inorganic sources) concentrations found in Io100. Treatment 6 (O50-2) was identical to the O50-1 diet from Exp. 1. Treatment 7 (O25) contained the experimental microminerals reduced by 75% from concentrations found in O100. Treatment 8 (O0) contained no trace mineral supplementation and served as a negative control for Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, tenth-rib backfat, loin muscle area and ADG did not differ (p>0.05) between treatments. Pigs fed the control diet (Io100) consumed less feed (p<0.01) compared to pigs fed diets containing organic trace minerals, thus, G:F was greater (p = 0.03). In Exp. 2, there were no differences among treatment means for loin muscle area, but pigs fed the reduced organic trace mineral diets consumed less (p<0.05) feed and tended (p = 0.10) to have less tenth-rib backfat compared to pigs fed the reduced inorganic trace mineral diet. Considering that performance and feed intake of pigs was not affected by lower dietary trace mineral inclusion, mineral excretion could be reduced during the grow-finish phase by reducing dietary trace mineral concentration.

Effects of varying nursery phase-feeding programs on growth performance of pigs during the nursery and subsequent grow-finish phases

  • Lee, Chai Hyun;Jung, Dae-Yun;Park, Man Jong;Lee, C. Young
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.56 no.7
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    • pp.24.1-24.6
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    • 2014
  • The present study investigated the effects of varying durations of nursery diets differing in percentages of milk products on growth performance of pigs during the nursery phase (NP) and subsequent grow-finish phase (GFP) to find the feasibility of reducing the use of nursery diets containing costly milk products. A total of 204 21-d-old weanling female and castrated male pigs were subjected to one of three nursery phase feeding programs differing in durations on the NP 1 and 2 and GFP diets containing 20%, 7%, and 0% lacrosse and 35%, 8%, and 0% dried whey, respectively, in 6 pens (experimental units) for 33 d: HIGH (NP 1, 2 and 3 diets for 7, 14, and 12 d), MEDIUM (NP 2 and 3 for 14 and 19 d), and LOW (NP 2 and 3 and GFP 1 for 7, 14, and 12 d). Subsequently, 84 randomly selected pigs [14 pigs (replicates)/pen] were fed the GFP 1, 2 and 3 diets during d 54-96, 96-135, and 135-182 of age, respectively. The final body weight (BW) and average daily gain (ADG) of nursery pigs did not differ among the HIGH, MEDIUM, and LOW groups (14.8, 13.3, and 13.7 kg in BW and 273, 225, and 237 g in ADG, respectively). The average daily feed intake during the nursery phase was greater (p < 0.01) in the HIGH group than in the MEDIUM and LOW groups, whereas the gain:feed ratio did not differ across the treatments. The BW on d 182 and ADG during d 54-182 were greater in the HIGH and MEDIUM groups vs. the LOW group (110.0, 107.6, and 99.6 kg in BW, respectively; p < 0.01). The backfat thickness and carcass grade at slaughter on d 183 did not differ across the treatments. In conclusion, the MEDIUM program may be inferior to the commonly used HIGH program in supporting nursery pig growth. Nevertheless, the former appears to be more efficient than the latter in production cost per market pig whereas the LOW program is thought to be inefficient because of its negative effect on post-nursery pig growth.

Effect of Copper Source (Cupric Citrate vs Cupric Sulfate) and Level on Growth Performance and Copper Metabolism in Pigs

  • Armstrong, T.A.;Spears, J.W.;van Heugten, E.;Engle, T.E.;Wright, C.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.1154-1161
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    • 2000
  • Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of cupric citrate (Cu-citrate) relative to cupric sulfate $(CuSO_4)$ as a Cu source for weanling and grow-finish pigs. In addition, the use of liver and bile Cu concentrations as indices of the bioavailability of Cu sources was investigated. Experiment one consisted of a nursery phase (35 d; initial BW=6.4 kg, final BW=21.4 kg) followed by a grow-finish phase (103 d; initial BW=21.5 kg, final BW=111.7 kg). Experiment two only consisted of a nursery phase (35 d; initial BW=6.3 kg, final BW=18.6 kg). Dietary treatments were identical for both experiments and consisted of: control (10 ppm $CuSO_4$); control+66 or 225 ppm $CuSO_4$; control+33, 66, or 100 ppm Cu-citrate. An antibiotic was included in diets for Exp. 1 but not Exp. 2. In both experiments, growth performance variables were similar for pigs receiving Cu-citrate and $CuSO_4$; however, growth performance was not improved by high concentrations of $CuSO_4$. Liver and bile Cu were increased (p<0.05) by 225 ppm $CuSO_4$; however, lower dietary concentrations of Cu from either $CuSO_4$ or Cu-citrate did not affect the Cu concentration of liver or bile relative to that observed in the control pigs. Irrespective of Cu source, there was no linear (p>0.10) increase in plasma Cu with increasing Cu concentrations in the diet for both experiments. However, the plasma Cu concentrations were highest (p<0.10) in pigs receiving diets supplemented with 225 ppm $CuSO_4$. Sixteen randomly chosen pigs per treatment in Exp. 1 were continued through the grow-finish phase. Body weight gain and feed intake were improved (p<0.10) by 66 ppm $CuSO_4$, but other dietary Cu treatments did not alter pig performance compared to the control diet. Plasma Cu concentrations were increased (p<0.10) by 225 ppm $CuSO_4$ in the growing phase and by 225 ppm $CuSO_4$ and 100 ppm Cu-citrate in the finishing phase. These data reveal no consistent effect of $CuSO_4$ on performance; therefore, it is difficult to assess the efficacy of these two Cu sources. In addition, these studies demonstrate that liver and bile Cu are not good indicators of Cu bioavailability in pigs fed adequate to pharmacological concentrations of Cu.

Effects of different space allowances on growth performance, blood profile and pork quality in a grow-to-finish production system

  • Jang, J.C.;Jin, X.H.;Hong, J.S.;Kim, Y.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.1796-1802
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    • 2017
  • Objective: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the optimal space allowance on growth performance, blood profile and pork quality of growing-finishing pigs. Methods: A total of ninety crossbred pigs [$(Yorkshire{\times}Landrace){\times}Duroc$, $30.25{\pm}1.13kg$] were allocated into three treatments (0.96: four pigs/pen, $0.96m^2/pig$; 0.80: five pigs/pen, $0.80m^2/pig$; 0.69: six pigs/pen, $0.69m^2/pig$) in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were housed in balanced sex and had free access to feed in all phases for 14 weeks (growing phase I, growing phase II, finishing phase I, and finishing phase II). Results: There was no statistical difference in growing phase, but a linear decrease was observed on average daily gain (ADG, p<0.01), average daily feed intake (ADFI, p<0.01), and body weight (BW, p<0.01) with decreasing space allowance in late finishing phase. On the other hand, a quadratic effect was observed on gain to feed ratio in early finishing phase (p<0.03). Consequently, overall ADG, ADFI, and final BW linearly declined in response to decreased space allowance (p<0.01). The pH of pork had no significant difference in 1 hour after slaughter, whereas there was a linear decrease in 24 h after slaughter with decreasing space allowance. Floor area allowance did not affect pork colors, but shear force linearly increased as floor space decreased (p<0.01). There was a linear increase in serum cortisol concentration on 14 week (p<0.05) with decreased space allocation. Serum IgG was linearly ameliorated as space allowance increased on 10 week (p<0.05) and 14 week (p<0.01). Conclusion: Data from current study indicated that stress derived from reduced space allowance deteriorates the immune system as well as growth performance of pigs, resulting in poor pork quality. Recommended adequate space allowance in a grow-to-finish production system is more than $0.80m^2/pig$ for maximizing growth performance and production efficiency.

Effects of the plane of nutrition for grower pigs on their grow-finish performance and meat quality in winter

  • Yang, Bo-Seok;Kim, Myeong Hyeon;Choi, Jung-Seok;Jin, Sang Keun;Park, Man-Jong;Song, Young-Min;Lee, Chul Young
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.61 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2019
  • Little is known about the effects of the plane of nutrition on growth performance and meat quality of grow-finish pigs under commercial production conditions. The present study was thus addressed to this virtually unanswered question. One hundred and two barrows and 102 gilts weighing approximately 24 kg were fed phase I and II grower diets with a high, medium, or low plane of nutrition (HP, MP, or LP) to approximately 43 and 70 kg, respectively, in 6 replicates (pens). Subsequently, the HP and MP groups were fed the HP and MP1 finisher diets, respectively, the LP group being fed a second MP (MP2) finisher diet (LP1 group). Moreover, 68 LP-grower-fed barrows and gilts were added to the feeding trial and fed the MP1 and LP finisher diets to approximately 95 kg and thereafter, respectively (LP2 group). All MP diets had the lysine:calorie ratios comparable to the RNC recommendations, with < 18% differences between those of the HP and LP diets. The finisher pigs were reared in 16 pens and slaughtered at approximately 115 kg. The gain:feed ratio, but not average daily gain (ADG), was greater for the HP group than for the MP and LP during the grower phase I whereas during the grower phase II, ADG was greater (p < 0.05) for the HP and LP groups vs. MP. During the finisher phase I, ADG was less for the LP (LP1 + LP2) group vs. HP and MP, with no difference between the HP and MP groups; the gain:feed ratio was less for the LP vs. MP group. Backfat thickness was greater for the LP vs. HP group. The water holding capacity of fresh longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) and the sensory juiciness score for cooked LM were greatest for the LP group, the sensory flavor and tenderness scores being greater for the LP group vs. MP. In conclusion, results suggest that compensatory growth occurred for the LP and MP groups during the grower phase II and finisher phase I, respectively, with fat deposition increased for the LP group and that meat quality could be improved by the use of LP.

Effects of the plane of nutrition during the latter grower and entire finisher phases on grow-finish pig performance in summer

  • Yang, Seung Won;Kim, Myeong Hyeon;Choi, Jung-Seok;Jin, Sang-Keun;Park, Man-Jong;Song, Young-Min;Lee, Chul Young
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.61 no.1
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    • pp.10-17
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    • 2019
  • The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the plane of nutrition (PN) for growing-finishing pigs on growth performance and meat quality in summer. One hundred and two barrows and 102 gilts weighing approximately 44 kg were placed on a high-, medium-, or low-plane grower diet (HPG, MPG, or LPG) with ME and lysine concentrations ranging from 3.33 to 3.40 Mcal/kg and 0.93% to 1.15%, respectively, for 29 days in 6 replicates (pens) in total. Pigs from each grower pen were divided into two finisher pens and provided with a high-plane finisher diet (HPF) containing 3.40 Mcal ME and 9.5 g lysine/kg and a low-plane finisher diet (LPF; 3.25 Mcal ME and 8 g lysine/kg), respectively, up to approximately 110 kg, and slaughtered. Growth performance of the pigs, including average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain:feed ratio, was not influenced by the grower-phase PN during any of the grower phase, a 31-d finisher phase I, and ensuing phase II. However, both the ADG and gain:feed ratio were greater (p < 0.05) for the HPF group than for the LPF group during the finisher phase I (748 vs. 653 g with SEM = 13 g and 0.333 vs. 0.299 with SEM = 0.008, respectively). The ADG, but not gain:feed ratio, was greater for the HPF group vs. LPF during the finisher phase II (673 vs. 623 g with SEM = 15 g for ADG and 0.322 vs. 0.323 with SEM = 0.005 for the gain:feed ratio). The carcass backfat thickness (BFT) was greater for the LPF group vs. HPF within the pigs which had been placed on LPG during the grower phase, but not within the pigs from the HPG or MPG group. Physicochemical characteristics of the longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) and sensory quality attributes of fresh and cooked LM were not influenced by either the grower-phase or finisher-phase PN. In conclusion, high PN is necessary for finishing pigs during the hot season to minimize the reduced rate of weight gain and also to prevent the increase of BFT that could result from low PN.